Evidence accumulated over the past decades has overturned the traditional dogma that the adult mammalian brain cannot generate new neurons. Adult neurogenesis has been identified in all vertebrate species examined thus far including humans.44-49 Newly generated neuronal cells originate from neural stem cells in the adult brain. Neural stem cells are the self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neuronal and glial cells of the nervous system.50 The major function of neurogenesis in adult brain seems to replace the neurons that die regularly in certain brain areas. Granule neurons in the DG continuously die and the progenitors in the subgranular zone of the DG may proliferate at the same rate as mature neuronal death to maintain a constant DG cell number.51 Similarly, the newly proliferated cells from the subventricular zone migrate and replenish the dead olfactory bulb neurons.52 Here, we focus on DG neurogenesis which is important for spatial learning and memory. In normal adult rats, newborn neural cells migrate from the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus into the granule cell layer and eventually become mature granule neurons.53 These new granule neurons extend axonal processes to their postsynaptic targets54-57 and receive synaptic input.58 TBI stimulates widespread cellular proliferation in rats and results in focal neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus.59,60 Some of the newly generated granule neurons integrate into the hippocampus. The integration of the injury-induced neurogenic population into the existing hippocampal circuitry coincides with the time point when cognitive recovery is observed in injured animals.44
Thymosin Beta 4 is a protein that is made up of 43 amino acids. The TMSB4X gene found in the test subject's body encodes the peptide. There have been a variety of clinical trials that have been performed using this peptide. In the research, it’s been found that the Thymosin Beta 4 may be used after a heart attack takes place in order to reactivate the cells in the cardiac progenitor, so that repair can be done to the damaged tissue in the heart.
Cells on the surface of the skin are constantly being replaced by regeneration from below. The repair of a wound is a scaling up of this normal process, with additional complex interactions among cells, formation of new blood vessels, collagen, more extensive cell division and cell migration, as well as strict control of inflammatory cells and the cytokines they release to resolve the inflammation.
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.
Hey mate, I’m getting a shoulder reconstrcution in about 2 weeks. Do you think that TB-500 and BPC-157 would help heal something as complex as this. Or do you think that stacking something like GHRP-6 and CJC-1295 would work better because this would assist in muscle growth and strength gains of surrounding muscles etc. Also if chose to use peptides when do you think I should start using them, I will be in a sling for 6weeks after surgery with only passive movements.
Recently, therapeutic biomolecules such as growth factors provide great potential as an alternative therapeutic approach to traditional periodontal wound healing . However, because of the short half-lives of growth factors and polynucleotides in the body and the necessity to deliver to specific target sites, those medicinal substances do not always exhibit the anticipated therapeutic potency and outcomes . Thus, optimized delivery regimes and well-defined release kinetics appear to be logical prerequisites for safe and efficacious clinical application of biomolecules. For considering the application of Tβ4 in clinical trials, target cells of exogenous Tβ4 should be restricted to cells in the periodontal tissue.
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I would take the recommended dosage and see how you feel. Only you can tell whether it's working or not.
Autism. A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children. A 2003 study found a decrease in autism spectrum repetitive behaviors when oxytocin was administered intravenously. A 2007 study reported that oxytocin helped autistic adults retain the ability to evaluate the emotional significance of speech intonation.
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C.
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
Stimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at birth: At the end of gestation, the uterus must contract vigorously and for a prolonged period of time in order to deliver the fetus. During the later stages of gestation, there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin receptors on uterine smooth muscle cells, which is associated with increased "irritability" of the uterus (and sometimes the mother as well). Oxytocin is released during labor when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina, and it enhances contraction of uterine smooth muscle to facilitate parturition or birth.
Hi Ben..my question is this, I have a 9 year old german shepard..his back end is all of a sudden weak, where he will fall over,like he can’t hold himself up, I can see extreme weaknes inhis hide quarter.The vet has taken many x-rays and blood work, but all comes back perfect.Do you think this pepetide would help my dog?..he is 101 pounds, extremely strong, Walking is his issue, he can run like the wind, then he can fall over.Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Tβ4 is the major monomeric actin-sequestering peptide in human tissues, and can bind globular actin (G-actin) in a 1:1 ratio and consequently involved in cytoskeletal regulation by inhibiting the polymerization of G-actin into fibrous actin (F-actin) . In addition, Tβ4 is an ubiquitous naturally occurring molecule and is found at concentrations of 1 × 10−5 to 5.6 × 10−1 M in a variety of tissues and cell types, yet, no receptors for the protein have been identified . A recent study suggests that internalization of exogenous Tβ4 is essential for its subsequent cellular functions . Moreover, Tβ4 has been shown to be associated with, wound healing, hair growth, immunomodulation, and angiogenesis [7–9].
I have taken BPC-157 in conjunction with TB-500 after reading about someone’s experience. I used the BPC-157 at an injury/inflammation site in my shoulder. I have a pain that came out of nowhere and has prevented me from doing bench presses mainly, and shoulder presses. I also got pain when I did external rotation of my shoulder. The BPC-157 gave me good results at 250 mcg twice daily intramuscularly. The pain is not completely gone but it has definitely lessened in severity. I don’t get any pain with a reverse grip press so I have been doing those with light weight and I can now do shoulder presses. BPC-157 really blew me away on how quickly it improved my gut status. For me it only took 4 days of orally dosing with 250 mcg. So I did both the oral and intramuscular daily for a month. Two weeks into the BPC-157 I ordered TB-500 and did 1mg per week subq in my thigh because I didn’t know about injecting intramuscularly at the injury site.
While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine). Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in this primate taxon. Vargas-Pinilla et al. sequenced the coding regions of the OXT gene in other genera in new world primates and identified the following variants in addition to Leu8- and Pro8-OT: Ala8-OT, Thr8-OT, and Val3/Pro8-OT. Ren et al. identified a variant further, Phe2-OT in howler monkeys.
Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene. This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I. The inactive precursor protein is progressively hydrolyzed into smaller fragments (one of which is neurophysin I) via a series of enzymes. The last hydrolysis that releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM).
The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (cysteine - tyrosine - phenylalanine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - arginine - glycine), also a nonapeptide with a sulfur bridge, whose sequence differs from oxytocin by 2 amino acids. A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article. Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955.
In 2015 I found my self bed ridden for 8 weeks with an issue all the doctors I had been to we’re unable to diagnose. I discovered, after much research, that what I was suffering from was damaged facia in my left and right gluteus muscles, which left me unable to do anything. I was in excruciating pain and couldn’t do anything except lay in bed on my back. Then my husband found TB 500. Initially I was against using it but after deteriorating to the point of being bed ridden I broke down and ordered some. As soon as I received it my husband injected me in the gluteus muscle. Within 30 minutes I started getting relief from the TB-500, within 8 weeks I was out of bed and the pain was gone! It healed the damaged fascia covering the gluteus. If I had not done this I don’t know where I would be today. For me, TB-500 was a life saver and if I had to I would use it again. I have suffered no side affects then or now.
On the most basic level, a peptide is essentially a small protein. Billions of unique peptides exist, all with different effects and functions in the body. Physiological examples include insulin, oxytocin, and casein, the main protein in milk. Thus, to taunt Essendon supporters for the use of “peptides” is rather non-specific. A much more intelligent insult would be to focus on the administration of thymosin beta-4.
When you get your TB-500, it will come in a powder form. Just like BPC-157, you will need to “reconstitute” it by adding bacteriostatic water. Go back and read my article on BPC-157 to get access to a peptide calculator that will help you with the mixing/dosage math. Once your TB-500 is properly mixed, you then draw the dose into an insulin syringe, and inject it intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously (according to your preference).
Jump up ^ Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (February 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1162–6. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1162L. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1162. PMC 319967. PMID 6940133.
In 1989, a nationwide outbreak sickened over 1500 people and caused at least 30 deaths in the US. The outbreak was characterized by severe muscle pain and high white blood cell count. The culprit was later determined to be tryptophan supplements made by a specific manufacturer that were thought to be contaminated. Shortly thereafter, the FDA recalled and banned all forms of tryptophan supplements. In the meantime, an alternative supplement called 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is a chemical byproduct of tryptophan, was introduced as an alternative and has since become popular.
Oral 5-HTP results in an increase in urinary 5-HIAA, a serotonin metabolite, indicating that 5-HTP is peripherally metabolized to serotonin, which is then metabolized. This might cause a false positive test in tests looking for carcinoid syndrome. Due to the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin by the liver, there could be a risk of heart valve disease from serotonin's effect on the heart, as based on preclinical findings. However, 5-HTP has not been associated with cardiac toxicity in humans.