Jump up ^ Venkatesh B, Si-Hoe SL, Murphy D, Brenner S (November 1997). "Transgenic rats reveal functional conservation of regulatory controls between the Fugu isotocin and rat oxytocin genes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (23): 12462–6. Bibcode:1997PNAS...9412462V. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.23.12462. PMC 25001. PMID 9356472.
Trust is increased by oxytocin.[95][96][97] Disclosure of emotional events is a sign of trust in humans. When recounting a negative event, humans who receive intranasal oxytocin share more emotional details and stories with more emotional significance.[96] Humans also find faces more trustworthy after receiving intranasal oxytocin. In a study, participants who received intranasal oxytocin viewed photographs of human faces with neutral expressions and found them to be more trustworthy than those who did not receive oxytocin.[95] This may be because oxytocin reduces the fear of social betrayal in humans.[98] Even after experiencing social alienation by being excluded from a conversation, humans who received oxytocin scored higher in trust on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.[97] Moreover, in a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk aversion.[99] When there is a reason to be distrustful, such as experiencing betrayal, differing reactions are associated with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) differences. Those with the CT haplotype experience a stronger reaction, in the form of anger, to betrayal.[100]
Last month, in the article “How To Use BPC-157: A Complete Dummies Guide To Healing The Body Like Wolverine“, I introduced the little-known concept of using BPC-157 peptide self-injections and oral BPC-157 peptide consumption (currently completely legal and not banned by sporting organizations) for everything from rapidly healing leaky gut to fixing tendon, ligament and muscle injuries.

The diverse activities related to tissue repair may depend on interactions with receptors quite distinct from actin and possessing extracellular ligand-binding domains. Such multi-tasking by, or "partner promiscuity" of, proteins has been referred to as protein moonlighting.[14] Proteins such as thymosins which lack stable folded structure in aqueous solution, are known as intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). Because IUPs acquire specific folded structures only on binding to their partner proteins, they offer special possibilities for interaction with multiple partners.[15] A candidate extracellular receptor of high affinity for thymosin β4 is the β subunit of cell surface-located ATP synthase, which would allow extracellular thymosin to signal via a purinergic receptor.[16]
Side effects:  Side effects for Melanotan 2 include nausea, appetite loss, facial flushing and increased libido. Side effects are generally mild and tend to diminish over time. Some research suggests nausea can be reduced by injecting MT-II after dinner or before bed. Athletes and bodybuilders have injected peptides like Melanotan 2 intermittently to prolong their tan since a tan aided by Melanotan can last 2-3 times as long as a normal tan. Like other peptides, Melanotan is a fragile molecule, therefore Melanotan nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptides, pills, oral and loose powder are not often legitimate for research effectiveness.
For now, Bartz isn’t sure why oxytocin can have such different effects. Her most educated guess is that the hormone triggers a biased trip down memory lane. Under its influence, people are more likely to remember information about their mother that fits with their current attitudes to relationships. If they are anxious, they’re more likely to remember the negative side of their early life. It’s a reasonable enough idea, and one that Bartz intends to test in the future. It will also be good to repeat the study in a larger group – 31 men make for a relatively small study.

In humans, 5-HTP is the nutrient precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin – widely known as the 'happy neurotransmitter' – meaning 5-HTP converts directly into serotonin in the brain. As well as being in our bodies, it's found naturally in the seeds of a woody shrub native to West Africa. By taking it as a supplement, in theory, you will end up with more serotonin in your brain. Serotonin deficiency is linked to depression, anxiety and a whole host of physical and mental ailments. Raising its levels seems to help brain cells send and receive chemical messages, which in turn boosts mood.


Differences among groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance combined with the Bonferroni test. The relative intensities of mRNA and protein bands were assayed using Quantity-One software (Bio-Rad Co., Hercules, CA, USA); results were normalized to the mRNA and protein levels of beta-actin. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05.
But long before that, say researchers, oxytocin could use a rebranding. “It doesn't induce love; it doesn't induce massive amounts of trust,” Guastella says. “The problem we've got ourselves into is that we're trying to look for a simple answer: either oxytocin does or does not work in a patient population, or it does or does not enhance a certain social process.”
This mother-child bonding is the most glorified myth that is not re-thought as often as it should. Its apparant purpose is just to make a dangerously selfish mother (such frustrated mothers do exist a lot more than we read in the news) to think twice before harming her defenseless child which is oftentimes in her sole custody in our society. Acts of such mothers are branded as mental illness rather than plain cruelty. While most people (men and women alike) tend to protect, and not harm a child, the real bonding can happen beetween two independent, mature adults.
Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(4):553-557. View abstract.

The expression of Tβ4 mRNA is cell cycle dependent and is highest at the G0/G1 transition and during S-phase (), and changes in the expression of Tβ4 appear to be related to cell differentiation. It has been reported that hepatocyte growth factor, nerve growth factor or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) can increase the level of Tβ4 mRNA () and, in addition, interferon treatment augments the transcription of the Tβ4 gene (). It has also been shown that increased Tβ4 expression in cancer cells promotes metastasis, possibly by increasing cell mobility.
In the ER, the patient's heart rate was elevated, she was sweaty, and had some muscle spasms. The physician in the ER called Poison Control for guidance. Poison Control indicated that a drug interaction between 5-HTP and Zoloft was a likely cause of the patient's symptoms because they were consistent with a rare but serious condition (serotonin syndrome) that occurs when serotonin concentrations in the brain are too high. Poison Control recommended a sedative to decrease the patient's heart rate and improve the other symptoms. 

This article is authored by a PhD Candidate and her supervisory team at University of Queensland, and reflects the interests of the student’s doctoral project in undertaking the nation’s first qualitative study into experiences of Melanotan use among the general population. Dubbed ‘Project Melanotan’, the investigation aims to directly engage with ‘melanotanners’ in a non-judgemental environment, in an effort to both critically evaluate as well as understand lived experiences of melanotaning as they relate to conceptually relevant notions of risk, technology and the body.

To investigate whether the newborn neurons generated in the DG are capable of projecting their axons into the CA3 region of the hippocampus after TBI, we stereotactically injected a fluorescent tracer, 1,1″-dioleyl-3,3,3″,3″-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate (Dil, Delta 9-DiI; AnaSpec, San Jose, CA) into the ipsilateral CA3 region (stereotaxic coordinates AP, -3.6 mm bregma, ML, 3.6 mm, DV, 3.0 mm, Paxinos and Watson, 1994) at day 28 after TBI. BrdU (100mg/kg, ip) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 1 after TBI for 10 days to label newly generated cells. One week after DiI injection (i.e., 35 days after TBI), the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Their brains were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The brain was cut into seven equally spaced 2-mm coronal blocks using a rat brain matrix. The brain blocks containing the hippocampus were processed for vibratome sections (100 μm) followed by BrdU staining. BrdU and DiI labeling in the hippocampus on brain sections was analyzed with a Bio-Rad MRC 1024 (argon and krypton) laser-scanning confocal imaging system mounted onto a Zeiss microscope (Bio-Rad, Cambridge, MA). Co-localization of BrdU-positive nuclei within retrogradely DiI-labeled granule cells was found, indicating that newborn granule neurons extend axons into the CA3 region that are capable of retrogradely transporting DiI from the CA3 to their cell bodies within the DG after TBI (Fig.2). This finding suggests that newborn granule neurons may be incorporated into functional hippocampal circuitry after TBI.
Injected oxytocin analogues are used to induce labour and support labour in case of non-progression of parturition. It has largely replaced ergotamine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to increase milk production. The tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile®) acts as an antagonist of oxytocin receptors; this drug is registered in many countries to suppress premature labour between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline).
We are proud to offer 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical  Grade Melanotan 2, produced in the USA!  Our state of the art labs individually vacuum seal sterile vials of 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical Grade Peptides as a lyophilized solid, with no added fillers like mannitol.  We strongly believe in bringing you quality MT2 that is free from fillers and additives like mannitol, unlike many cheap Chinese imports that are flooding the market.   In addition, we want you to know that many overseas imports are subject to potentially hazardous chemical degradation.  This is due to long transportation time and fluctuating temperatures that can reduce the effectiveness and even potentially increase the side effects of MT2.   Our supplies are always fresh and kept in climate controlled storage until it is sent to your door. 
A study using an oral cavity spray of 5-HTP (via the plant source of Griffonia Simplicifolia) has noted that 7.68mg of 5-HTP via 30.72mg of Griffonia Simplicifolia extract taken five times daily (total daily dose of around 40mg) has confirmed an increase in urinary 5-HIAA (from 3.71+/-1.27mg/24 hours to 8.80+/-4.02mg/24 hours; a 137% increase) relative to baseline, confirming that 5-HTP can be absorbed sublingually.[3] Similar results have been noted elsewhere with this spray, although it should be noted that it is confounded with other herbs (detailed in the appetite subsection).[2]
“L-5-Hydroxytryptophan significantly reduced the reaction to the panic challenge in panic disorder patients, regarding subjective anxiety, panic symptom score and number of panic attacks, as opposed to placebo. No such effect was observed in the healthy volunteers. L-5-Hydroxytryptophan acts to inhibit panic, which supports a modulatory role of serotonin in panic disorder.”
There have been some side effects reported while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: nausea, appetite loss, drowsiness and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine can be taken when injecting until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to inject Melanotan before bed, this is also beneficial to combat any drowsiness.
Because of its role in creating serotonin, 5-HTP is indirectly involved in producing melatonin, a hormone that is critical for sleep. Melatonin helps the body’s bio clock stay in sync, and regulates daily sleep-wake cycles. A strong bio clock and regular sleep-wake routines are the cornerstone of healthy, restful, rejuvenating sleep. Research suggests that 5-HTP may help shorten the time it takes to fall asleep and increase sleep amounts.
Jump up ^ Venkatesh B, Si-Hoe SL, Murphy D, Brenner S (November 1997). "Transgenic rats reveal functional conservation of regulatory controls between the Fugu isotocin and rat oxytocin genes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (23): 12462–6. Bibcode:1997PNAS...9412462V. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.23.12462. PMC 25001. PMID 9356472.
The potential of Tb4 to repair sun damaged and aging skin is yet to be established by extensive studies. Many of the biological events that occur in wounding are involved in skin impaired by sun and aging. Ultraviolet radiation damage or other injuries to skin that are associated with aging may be in the future repairable with Tb4, similar to the success with wound repair. It is a hopeful prediction that this small anti-inflammatory molecule, which plays a vital role in regeneration, remodeling and healing of damaged tissues, would help rejuvenate aging skin. The effects of Tb4 in accelerating wound repair are important following surgery; Tb4 would then have practical applications following cosmetic surgery, a procedure growing in popularity in our society, in dealing with aging skin.

 Don't be surprised.  A lot of people haven't heard of Melanotan.  Melanotan is a tanning peptide that stimulates the production of melanin in the body to foster a deep, natural tan.  This is the body's way of protecting itself from too much sun exposure by increasing the level of melanin in the body.  Melanin is your body's natural response to UV damage.  The end result is a darkening of the skin.
Growth factors play an important role is enhancing structural repair of chronic wounds (Robson, 1997). KGF-2 (Robson et al., 2001), TGF-β (Robson et al., 1995), PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994; Kiritsy et al., 1995; Smiell et al., 1999), β-NGF (Muangman et al., 2004) have been shown to enhance re-epithelialization (Greenalgh, 1996 for review). The KGF-1 gene has been shown to improve cutaneous wound healing in a septic rat model when delivered in a plasmid (Lin et al., 2006). The PDGF-B gene carried in a plasmid mixed with a bovine collagen gel was reported to accelerate closure of patient diabetic ulcers (Mulder et al., 2009; Blume et al., 2011). KGF-2, PDGF-BB and FGF-L are commercially available as RepiferminTM, RegranexTM, and Trafermin to treat human chronic wounds. Data for the effects of PDGF-BB on back wounds of diabetic mice and for the effects of KGF-2 on chronic venous ulcers in patients is tabulated in Tables 10.3 and 10.4. Thymosin β4 accelerated keratinocyte migration in the wounds of old diabetic mice (Philp et al., 2003).
Why have zebrafish retained the ability to regenerate? It is thought that the capacity for organ regeneration is an ancestral condition that has occasionally been diminished in the course of vertebrate evolution (Scadding, 1977; Goss, 1992; Wagner and Misof, 1992). Thus, most biologists suspect that the molecular machinery to optimize regeneration is present but poorly-utilized in mammals. By this line of reasoning, zebrafish heart regeneration may represent an optimal utilization of universal cardiac machinery.
To investigate whether the newborn neurons generated in the DG are capable of projecting their axons into the CA3 region of the hippocampus after TBI, we stereotactically injected a fluorescent tracer, 1,1″-dioleyl-3,3,3″,3″-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate (Dil, Delta 9-DiI; AnaSpec, San Jose, CA) into the ipsilateral CA3 region (stereotaxic coordinates AP, -3.6 mm bregma, ML, 3.6 mm, DV, 3.0 mm, Paxinos and Watson, 1994) at day 28 after TBI. BrdU (100mg/kg, ip) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 1 after TBI for 10 days to label newly generated cells. One week after DiI injection (i.e., 35 days after TBI), the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Their brains were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The brain was cut into seven equally spaced 2-mm coronal blocks using a rat brain matrix. The brain blocks containing the hippocampus were processed for vibratome sections (100 μm) followed by BrdU staining. BrdU and DiI labeling in the hippocampus on brain sections was analyzed with a Bio-Rad MRC 1024 (argon and krypton) laser-scanning confocal imaging system mounted onto a Zeiss microscope (Bio-Rad, Cambridge, MA). Co-localization of BrdU-positive nuclei within retrogradely DiI-labeled granule cells was found, indicating that newborn granule neurons extend axons into the CA3 region that are capable of retrogradely transporting DiI from the CA3 to their cell bodies within the DG after TBI (Fig.2). This finding suggests that newborn granule neurons may be incorporated into functional hippocampal circuitry after TBI.

Jump up ^ Ballweber E, Hannappel E, Huff T, Stephan H, Haener M, Taschner N, Stoffler D, Aebi U, Mannherz HG (Jan 2002). "Polymerisation of chemically cross-linked actin:thymosin beta(4) complex to filamentous actin: alteration in helical parameters and visualisation of thymosin beta(4) binding on F-actin". Journal of Molecular Biology. 315 (4): 613–25. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5281. PMID 11812134.


Oral 5-HTP results in an increase in urinary 5-HIAA, a serotonin metabolite, indicating that 5-HTP is peripherally metabolized to serotonin, which is then metabolized. This might cause a false positive test in tests looking for carcinoid syndrome.[28][29] Due to the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin by the liver, there could be a risk of heart valve disease from serotonin's effect on the heart, as based on preclinical findings.[30][31] However, 5-HTP has not been associated with cardiac toxicity in humans.[22][32][33][34]
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