Oxytocin's story starts back in the early 1900s, when biochemists discovered that a substance from the posterior pituitary gland could promote labour contractions and lactation. When scientists later discovered the hormone responsible, they named it oxytocin after the Greek phrase meaning 'rapid birth'. Oxytocin is produced mainly by the brain's hypothalamus; in the 1970s, studies revealed that oxytocin-producing neurons send signals throughout the brain, suggesting that the hormone had a role in regulating behaviour.

Because of its role in creating serotonin, 5-HTP is indirectly involved in producing melatonin, a hormone that is critical for sleep. Melatonin helps the body’s bio clock stay in sync, and regulates daily sleep-wake cycles. A strong bio clock and regular sleep-wake routines are the cornerstone of healthy, restful, rejuvenating sleep. Research suggests that 5-HTP may help shorten the time it takes to fall asleep and increase sleep amounts.

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Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.
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Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.
For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.
5-HTP is very reliable in increasing serotonin levels. 5-HTP is actually used as a clinical test to judge the potency of drugs that affect serotonin levels (by pairing an experimental drug with 5-HTP to induce 'serotonin syndrome', or serotonin toxicity, one can see how much that drug exacerbates serotonin biosynthesis or bioavailability by seeing how much of a 5-HTP dose is required to induce the syndrome; the lower dose indicative of higher drug potency). This test is known as the 5-HTP induced syndrome test.[8]

Because of its role in creating serotonin, 5-HTP is indirectly involved in producing melatonin, a hormone that is critical for sleep. Melatonin helps the body’s bio clock stay in sync, and regulates daily sleep-wake cycles. A strong bio clock and regular sleep-wake routines are the cornerstone of healthy, restful, rejuvenating sleep. Research suggests that 5-HTP may help shorten the time it takes to fall asleep and increase sleep amounts.
How not surprising on one level that a hormone involved in the formation of primary bonds, those that can have serious impacts on your survival, would be discerning. After all, if you had a mother who was dangerous, abusive, etc., how counter productive would it be for you to bond so tightly to her that you were all over her all the time, increasing your chances of pissing her off and killing you. And, how beneficial for you to be more bonded to a mother figure who was good to you, and provided you with nurture.
Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.
Nature has been very clever in a way. Without oxytocin, you know, babies are what they really are - I probably shouldn't say this on TV - but noisy, smelly animals that don't actually do anything useful. And, um, that's what oxytocin does. It gives them a special salience, a special beauty and allows us to bond with these defenceless little animals.
Jump up ^ Ballweber E, Hannappel E, Huff T, Stephan H, Haener M, Taschner N, Stoffler D, Aebi U, Mannherz HG (Jan 2002). "Polymerisation of chemically cross-linked actin:thymosin beta(4) complex to filamentous actin: alteration in helical parameters and visualisation of thymosin beta(4) binding on F-actin". Journal of Molecular Biology. 315 (4): 613–25. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5281. PMID 11812134.

Conclusions:  Melanotan not a treatment or cure for anything.  Nor should it be considered a preventative treatment for skin cancer.  Despite this tanning peptide being known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and itself a guaranteed full proof UV shield.  However, it is a great way for those who don't tan easily to get sun-kissed all year long with minimal exposure to the sun.
Serotonin syndrome (Serotonin toxicity) is caused by an excess of serotonin in the brain. It is most often caused by taking more than one Serotonin-enhancing substance at the same time, such as 5-HTP and an antidepressant medication. Symptoms range in severity according to the level of intoxication and may include increased heart rate, tremor, sweating, mental agitation, seizures, shock, organ failure and death (9).

Though it may be unlikely to form part of any official psychiatric programme in the UK, Phil Cowen, Professor of Psychopharmacology at Oxford University, admitted that there are various groups for whom it could be helpful. "About half of people with severe depression never see a doctor anyway, so it's reasonable to think it's fine for them to treat themselves with something like a supplement. Perhaps if you had mild symptoms, a smaller dose would be helpful. I'd also prefer to prescribe things like exercise or computer-based CBT if it's that stage, though. But depression and anxiety is very different between people, that's important to keep in mind. No treatment is the same for anyone."

Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
Our research mainly focusses on this early social experiences that people have that can be positive or negative, and that can really shape our developing brain. There have been some very interesting studies, for example, with children that grew up in Romanian orphanages. And we know that that early start, where it's really deprived from social contact and physical contact, had a massive impact. So we see that oxytocin levels, for example, are much lower than we would expect in other kids.
Do I have to diet? Studies show that 5-HTP enhances weight loss even if you continue eating your normal foods. Without a diet, you stand to lose about a pound a week; many folks eventually drop 15 pounds or more without dieting. Of course, taking 5-HTP to lose weight works by lowering caloric intake — and the more calories you cut, the more you’ll lose. So if you want to maximize results, try tweaking your diet at the two-week mark, when 5-HTP will have fully kicked in, diminishing hunger and carb cravings. Below, we’ve got a version of the diet used in one university study that helped 5-HTP takers lose several times more weight than folks getting a placebo.
Much of human behavior is influenced by hormones. There’s cortisol, involved in our stress response and energy balance. Testosterone, a male sex hormone, tends to make men more competitive. Oxytocin has various social and physiological functions in the brain and the body, but is sometimes referred to as the “love hormone” due to its role in social bonding. These are all simplifications, but hormones do underlie many aspects of what we do and what we feel.
The first time Ditzen and her colleagues did this experiment they found that for both men and women oxytocin improved communication and lowered cortisol, a stress hormone. But in a recent study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Ditzen and her colleagues measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)—an enzyme tied specifically to social stress—and found that men and women responded differently. Women who got oxytocin showed a decrease in sAA whereas men showed an increase and reported feeling more intense emotions. Counterintuitively, these men were also better at communication during conflict: they smiled more, had more eye-contact and were more open about their feelings. These behaviors are essential for peaceful conflict resolution.

For this study, one of us, Ben Trumble, followed Tsimane men as they went hunting for food. Typically, Tsimane men set out alone or with a partner in the early morning and search in the forest for prey such as wild pigs, deer, monkeys, or the rare tapir. Following long looping trails they might be gone for eight or nine hours, traveling about six miles (ten kilometers). Ben collected saliva samples throughout the hunt in order to measure changes in men’s hormone levels.


Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.
Work with cell cultures and experiments with animals have shown that administration of thymosin β4 can promote migration of cells, formation of blood vessels, maturation of stem cells, survival of various cell types and lowering of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These multiple properties have provided the impetus for a worldwide series of on-going clinical trials of potential effectiveness of thymosin β4 in promoting repair of wounds in skin, cornea and heart.[17]
Autism: Oxytocin has been implicated in the etiology of autism, with one report suggesting autism is correlated with genomic deletion of the gene containing the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Studies involving Caucasian and Finnish samples and Chinese Han families provide support for the relationship of OXTR with autism.[55][56] Autism may also be associated with an aberrant methylation of OXTR.[55]
Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43 amino acid protein (a peptide) that was originally identified in calf thymus, an organ that is central in the development of immunity. Tb4 was later found in all cells except red blood cells. It is highest in blood platelets that are the first to enter injured areas, in wound healing. Tb4 is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids.
Jump up ^ Hicks C, Ramos L, Reekie T, Misagh GH, Narlawar R, Kassiou M, McGregor IS (June 2014). "Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 171 (11): 2868–87. doi:10.1111/bph.12613. PMC 4243861. PMID 24641248.
Despite these many roles, oxytocin is often reduced to a misleading label. While “hormone of love” may be great for catchy headlines and compelling marketing slogans, they are ultimately misleading. Jennifer Bartz from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine has found that oxytocin can have completely opposite effects on the way people behave, depending on how they view their relationships to other people.
Jump up ^ Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Faliva M, Bucci M, Perna S (March 2012). "Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration". Eating and Weight Disorders. 17 (1): e22–8. doi:10.3275/8165. PMID 22142813.
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