I’ve been on this stuff for lots of years. I really needed it when I was depressed like hell, and I had an emotional pain that simply didn’t go away for 2 decades prior to starting that stack. Did it help? yes. Was it the best intervention possible? probably not. I was able to get off all this stuff with the uridine stack, and I believe it partly fixed a part of my brain that was damaged from this decade long suffering. So this is, why I am now more into brain regeneration and psychotherapeutic interventions (even though I do them myself), and I would only go back to this stack if I was completely fucked up again. There are a lot of side effects, and its a fine line to balance the supplements, to get rid of the side effects…

The main functionality of TB500 hinges on the ability to upregulate cell building proteins such as actin, which is a protein that forms (together with myosin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells, and is also involved in motion and metabolism in many other types of cells.. Upregulation of actin allows TB500 to promote healing, cell growth, cell migration and cell proliferation. This not only helps build new blood vessel pathways but also upregulates the type of “good” inflammation that is directly correlated with faster wound healing.
The full-length Tβ4 polypeptide has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation [44]. It is also reported that only the 4-AA, amino-terminal peptide of Tβ4, known as Ac-SDKP, can block inflammation [45]. In this study, we used a synthetically human peptide produced copy of a naturally occurring, highly conserved 43-amino acid (MW = 4964 Da) water soluble acidic peptide, originally isolated from bovine thymus tissue [46]. This peptide is produced by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis in accordance with the current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations (21 CFR 210 and 211) of the FDA [47]. An effective healer, Tβ4 can be administered topically on the surface of cells and systemically, through injection [9–11]. In this study, Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2, expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and mRNA expression of TNF- α, IL-1β, -6, -8, and -17 in cultured PDLCs. These findings suggested that Tβ4 activation possessed anti-inflammatory activity in PDLCs. These results were consistent with previous in vivo and in vitro studies [9–15]. MAPK is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase consisting of three-enzyme modules; its targets, inducing ERK, JNK and p38 kinases, are important in cellular signal transduction pathways and exert an anti-inflammatory response [48, 49]. NF-κB is a major transcription factor involved in the release of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response, and the degradation and phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα are necessary to release NF-κB from the cytoplasmic NF-κB/Iκ-Bα complex and allow its subsequent translocation to the nucleus of the cell [50]. In this study, Tβ4 peptide down-regulated the H2O2-triggered activation of the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB in PDLCs. These results suggested that the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB pathway may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation in PDLCs. Consistent with our findings, Tβ4 treatment decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human corneal epithelial cells [51].
Oxytocin is relatively safe when used at recommended doses. Potential side effects include: Central nervous system: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, seizures; Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, systemic venous return, cardiac output, and arrhythmias;Genitourinary: Impaired uterine blood flow, pelvic hematoma, tetanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage.
Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).
Good quality Griffonia Simplicifonia, however the pouch is a very inconvenient packaging choice! Why not use the small 25-50gm pill bottle type? I used to be a quality controller in food additives and it would be so perfect to take doses from and fairly cheap and easy to source. I can understand if this is a new product for your line however but you should invest in this for 5htp alone perhaps. Thank you though will be ordering more down the track!
Uterine contractions. These are important for cervical dilation before birth and causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful uterine contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.16
Jump up ^ Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (February 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1162–6. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1162L. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1162. PMC 319967. PMID 6940133.
In years past, oxytocin had the reputation of being an "uncomplicated" hormone, with only a few well-defined activities related to birth and lactation. As has been the case with so many hormones, further research has demonstrated many subtle but profound influences of this little peptide, particularly in regards to its effects in the brain. Oxytocin has been implicated in setting a number of social behaviors in species ranging from mice to humans. For example, secretion or administration of oxytocin in humans appears to enhance trust and cooperation within socially-close groups, while promoting defensive aggression toward unrelated, competing groups.

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These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
Jump up ^ Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (February 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1162–6. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1162L. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1162. PMC 319967. PMID 6940133.
Here at MrSupplement, we pride ourselves on being the best go-to resource on all things Supplements related. We’re also Australia’s biggest online bodybuilding and sports supplement superstore so whatever products you’re after, we’ve most likely got them. Finding the right supplements for your needs can be a daunting, difficult or lengthy process. This is why our site is optimised to help you pick the ideal stack for your needs. Delivering fast to Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, Hobart, Melbourne, Brisbane, Darwin or any regional area Australia wide. Know the name of the brand or the type of product you’re after? All our products are conveniently categorised into brands or categories to help you easily find you’re looking for. If that doesn’t work, you can easily search for each item in our handy search bar at the top right hand side of the page. We carry the world’s most popular brands including Optimum Nutrition, Muscletech, Dymatize Nutrition and BSN along with a wide range of products that will suit all your needs. These include pre workouts, protein powders and fat burners just to name a few. MrSupplement also provides thousands of different articles and videos on a wide range of topics including supplements, nutrition, workouts and everything in between. So if you want to learn more about the supplements you’re taking, the best exercises to boost lean muscle growth or nutrition tips for fat loss; make sure to check out our massive database of articles and videos. Our mission is to provide you with all the facts to help you make the best supplement choices and to help you easily achieve all your exercise and health goals. Whether you’re a pro athlete, a casual exerciser, an avid trainer or somewhere in between, MrSupplement is the only store and fitness website for you.

Toxicity includes renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of new moles, with one report of melanoma associated with use of melanotan II. Other case reports include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (consisting of seizures, visual disturbance, confusion, headache, vomiting); refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome; shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping & pain, dizziness and lethargy.
Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78(6):676-683. View abstract.
It’s a compound that the body needs in order to make serotonin, which is our main “happiness hormone.” Per Dr. Oz, 5-HTP floods the brain with serotonin and helps minimize stress, sadness, anger, and anxiety. “5-HTP targets specific emotions that drive us to overeat,” Dr. Bhatia explains. And as she already mentioned, 5-HTP also reduces physical hunger pangs and emotional cravings. Ideally, the body makes its own 5-HTP from the amino acid tryptophan, found in foods like turkey and bananas. (Why not just eat more turkey or take a tryptophan supplement? If you struggle with mood or weight, it can be a sign that your body has trouble converting tryptophan to 5-HTP.) Besides making it yourself, the only other way to get 5-HTP is from a supplement. One we like is the BRI 5-HTP Supplement ($16 for 120 capules, Amazon).

In humans, the Tβ4 gene TMSB4X is localized to the X chromosome at Xq21.3–q22 (). The Tβ4 cDNA open reading frame contains an initial methionine codon followed by a codon for the N-terminal serine and, although cells secrete a certain amount of Tβ4, there is no hydrophobic signal sequence. The initial methionine residue of the nascent Tβ4 polypeptide is removed and the N-terminal serine residue is often acetylated in the cells.
“The study is kind of a high-water mark for the field, putting different levels all together: a robust behaviour, a brain region, and a cellular basis for it,” says Richard Tsien, a neuroscientist also at Langone. Tsien has been studying the action of oxytocin on neuronal circuits in detail, by examining slices of the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. In a 2013 study6 of rats, Tsien's team found that oxytocin selectively acts on a type of cell called an inhibitory interneuron in a way that quiets background chatter within the neuronal circuit. “Oxytocin improved signal transmission, almost doubling the ability of information to flow through the system,” Tsien says. In effect, it is producing more signal and less noise.

These proteins became of interest in neurobiology with the finding that in the nudibranch (sea slug) Hermissenda crassicornis, the protein Csp24 (conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein-24), with 4 repeats, is involved in simple forms of learning: both one-trial enhancement of the excitability of sensory neurons in the conditioned stimulus pathway,[25] and in multi-trial Pavlovian conditioning.[26] The phosphorylation of Csp24, in common with post-translational modifications of a number of cytoskeleton-related proteins may contribute to actin-filament dynamics underlying structural remodeling of responsive cells.[26]
For example, when a mother is nursing her baby, that stimulation from the breast is going into the brain and causing those oxytocin neurons to fire and release oxytocin directly into the brain. That's much more powerful than what happens with a nasal spray. So I think that, you know, in the future, we may have these drugs that can, in a very potent way, tap into this oxytocin system to treat many different kinds of disorders.
Wow I wonder if it will help those of us with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome – a collagen disorder that causes ligament laxity and makes those with it prone to easy subluxations and early onset arthritis. I have so many injuries from my daily life due to this disorder. I know this won’t fix my faulty collagen since that is encoded in my genes but perhaps it would help with the symptoms – a bunch of torn ligaments and worn out joints. Thanks for sharing!
The idea that oxytocin is central to social cognition made it an attractive candidate for treating psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. People with this condition, who often have problems with social interaction and communication, may not process social stimuli appropriately — and scientists theorized that oxytocin might reverse some of the symptoms. Beginning in 2010, results emerged that seemed to support this theory: researchers found that single puffs of oxytocin could temporarily improve measures of empathy and social cooperation in people with autism spectrum disorder.
We had previously reported that successful hunters experienced a surge in testosterone that lasted from the moment they made a kill until their return home – a “winner effect,” rewarding them for their work. Testosterone reinforces the hunting activity and simultaneously helps with muscle regeneration afterwards - similar to the elated feeling we might have after doing sports or other exercise.
Virtually all vertebrates have an oxytocin-like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions and a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation. The two genes are always located close to each other (less than 15,000 bases apart) on the same chromosome and are transcribed in opposite directions. It is thought that the two genes resulted from a gene duplication event; the ancestral gene is estimated to be about 500 million years old and is found in cyclostomes (modern members of the Agnatha).[12]
The enzyme dopamine decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) mediates the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin, and this enzyme is expressed in stomach tissue.[53] Inhibition of this enzyme in the stomach during 5-HTP ingestion is thought to promote the concentration of 5-HTP that reaches neural tissue, which is supported by a study using 100-200mg Carbidopa (pharmaceutical inhibitor) alongside 5-HTP to increase radioactivity of 5-HTP (indicative of neural accumulation) in humans.[54]
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine (CYIQNCPLG). The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.
Thymosin β4 was initially perceived as a thymic hormone. However this changed when it was discovered that it forms a 1:1 complex with G (globular) actin, and is present at high concentration in a wide range of mammalian cell types.[11] When appropriate, G-actin monomers polymerize to form F (filamentous) actin, which, together with other proteins that bind to actin, comprise cellular microfilaments. Formation by G-actin of the complex with β-thymosin (= "sequestration") opposes this.
Increasing trust and reducing fear. In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed “the highest level of trust” twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.11 Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).12 There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however.

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Melanotan 2 works by stimulating the release of the pigment melanin from the skin. Less UV exposure is necessary with Melanotan 2 compared to “normal tanning”, and the tan that occurs with tanning injections is deeper and longer lasting than an individual’s “normal tan”. Melanotan works best (has the most noticeable effects) on people with fair skin tones.
If the two things you can't live without are a dark, even tan and a fast-acting, long-lasting erection, then add Melanotan II to your holiday shopping list. This synthetic peptide hormone, which was developed by a research team at the University of Arizona during the late 1990s, darkens skin pigment and may stimulate erectile activity. And despite continued concern and controversy within the medical community regarding its use, it remains available for sale over the internet in a powdered form that can then be reconstituted for subcutaneous injections.

Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.


The sequence LKKTET, which starts at residue 17 of the 43-aminoacid sequence of thymosin beta-4, and is strongly conserved between all β-thymosins, together with a similar sequence in WH2 domains, is frequently referred to as "the actin-binding motif" of these proteins, although modelling based on X-ray crystallography has shown that essentially the entire length of the β-thymosin sequence interacts with actin in the actin-thymosin complex.[13]
There is one glaring problem, however: the supplements come with a disclaimer that recommends not taking them for more than three months. Most of the information out there on 5-HTP is anecdotal, and most of them are stories of it helping people, rather than hard facts about its scientific properties. I approached neurologists, psychologists and experimental doctors about 5-HTP, and many responses were strange. Not many people were willing to speak about it, saying they weren't qualified or hadn't read the relevant material, but there isn't much material to speak of. The main source of legitimate scientific evidence came from the University of Maryland Medical Center website, who stated that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. But all the studies that support that statement were done in the 1980s and 1990s. I wanted to know if 5-HTP was a realistic alternative to SSRIs. Could I stay on 5-HTP forever, basking in its natural glory?

Jump up ^ Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (February 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1162–6. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1162L. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1162. PMC 319967. PMID 6940133.
Its unique potential as a healing substance lies in that it interacts with cellular actin and regulates its activity. Tb4 prevents actin from assembling (polymerizing) to form filaments but supplies a pool of actin monomers (unpolymerized actin) when a cell needs filaments for its activity. A cell cannot divide if actin is polymerized. Tb4 therefore serves in vivo to maintain a reservoir of unpolymerized actin that will be put to use when cells divide, move and differentiate.
The RANKL and OPG have been identified as a key regulatory component of alveolar bone loss associated with inflammatory periodontal disease [52]. Moreover, PDLCs were shown to express several osteoclastogenic cytokines, including both OPG and RANKL [30, 31]. Our data demonstrated that Tβ4 peptide abolished H2O2-induced RANKL expression and restored OPG expression. Osteoclasts, bone-resorptive multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, are associated with osteolytic diseases. Furthermore, NFATc1, a master modulator of osteoclastogenesis, regulates target genes, such as cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor or Calcr [53]. In our in vitro study using BMMs, Tβ4 peptide directly and indirectly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and expression of osteoclast markers, such as cathepsin-K, calcitonin receptor or Calcr, NFATc1, and RANK in BMM cells. These results indicated that Tβ4 was a key therapeutic target in controlling inflammation-induced bone loss.
Both the production of oxytocin and response to oxytocin are modulated by circulating levels of sex steroids. The burst of oxytocin released at birth seems to be triggered in part by cervical and vaginal stimulation by the fetus, but also because of abruptly declining concentrations of progesterone. Another well-studied effect of steroid hormones is the marked increase in synthesis of uterine (myometrial) oxytocin receptors late in gestation, resulting from increasing concentrations of circulating estrogen.

But Carter and other scientists are concerned by reports from the physicians and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder who say that they are already using oxytocin off-label — before it has been thoroughly tested. “We do not understand how the hormone works yet, or have enough information about what happens when it's given repeatedly,” Carter says. “This is not a molecule that people should be self-administering or playing with.”


The biologically active form of oxytocin, commonly measured by RIA and/or HPLC techniques, is also known as the octapeptide "oxytocin disulfide" (oxidized form), but oxytocin also exists as a reduced straight-chain (non-cyclic) dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.[120] It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical scavenger, as donating an electron to a free radical allows oxytoceine to be re-oxidized to oxytocin via the dehydroascorbate / ascorbate redox couple.[121]
It has been shown that oxytocin differentially affects males and females. Females who are administered oxytocin are overall faster in responding to socially relevant stimuli than males who received oxytocin.[75][86] Additionally, after the administration of oxytocin, females show increased amygdala activity in response to threatening scenes; however, males do not show increased amygdala activation. This phenomenon can be explained by looking at the role of gonadal hormones, specifically estrogen, which modulate the enhanced threat processing seen in females. Estrogen has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus and promote receptor binding in the amygdala.[86]
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.

A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
The short half-life (<2h)[16] of 5-HTP may inherently limit the therapeutic potential of 5-HTP,[17] as the systemic 5-HTP exposure levels will fluctuate substantially, even with relatively frequent dosing. Such exposure fluctuations are usually associated with increased adverse event burden, resulting from Cmax drug spikes, and decreased clinical efficacy resulting from sub-therapeutic exposure for large parts of the day. It has been proposed that 5-HTP dosage forms achieving prolonged delivery would be more effective,[17] as is generally the situation with short-acting active pharmaceutical ingredients.[18]
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