Cells were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for indicated times (A). Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide (0.1–5 μg/mL) for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 60 minutes (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
Thymosin β4 has been tested in multicenter trials sponsored jointly by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc (Rockville, MD, USA) and Sigma Tau (Pomezia, Italy) in the United States and Europe in patients with bed sores, ulcers caused by venostasis, and Epidermolysis bullosa simplex and was found to accelerate bed sore and stasis ulcer repair by one month. It has also been tested in patients with chronic neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects and found to promote repair.
We think that the most important region is the nucleus accumbens, which is kind of up here. The nucleus accumbens is where we can measure a release of the neurotransmitter dopamine when humans or animals take drugs or are exposed to other rewarding stimuli, such as sex. Or gambling, for example, or monetary reward activates the nucleus accumbens as well.
Melanotan II non-selectively mimics the action of melanocortin peptides. These are natural hormones involved with pigmentation, energy homeostasis, sexual functioning, the immune system, inflammation, and the cardiovascular system. Much like melanotan I (afamelanotide), melanotan II stimulates the production of eumelanin, causing the skin to go darker (tanning).
This current literature is notable for its apparent irrelevancy to an AFL footballer. It begs the question; did Tβ4 make a difference to the Essendon players? The only honest answer is that we don’t know. Most of our understanding exists on a molecular and cellular level, without any significant appreciation of how Tβ4 influences applicable outcomes such as exercise performance, endurance, muscle strength, and time to recovery. Furthermore, as the majority of research has been performed on mice, rat and pig models, any results are not directly translatable to a human, let alone an elite athlete. This is a stark contrast to a supplement such as EPO, which has been investigated thoroughly.
Researchers often investigate the effects of hormones on behavior in laboratory experiments with student subjects. Some studies show that when you give people oxytocin they become more generous and trusting. In others that administer testosterone to men, the opposite happens. The strength of such studies is that they can demonstrate cause and effect – the behavior change only occurs in subjects receiving hormones, not in those who get a placebo. But this research has weaknesses as well: it often focuses on single hormones, ignoring their potential interactions, and behavior is measured with highly artificial tasks.
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light prompts an increased release of Alpha-MSH, which in turn stimulates the production of melanin in the skin. The more melanin produced the greater pigmentation level becomes, making the skin progressively darker and tan lasts significantly longer. This makes Melanotan peptide unique, people do not require as much exposure to UV light to produce more melanin, very attractive for people wishing to develop greater tanning of the skin in fastest way possible.
First developed in the 1980s by researchers at the University of Arizona, Melanotan is principally used for the treatment of skin disorders including vitiligo and erythropoietic protoporphyria that affect skin appearance and sensitivity (especially to sunlight). By promoting melanin in the skin, Melanotan can help ease the symptoms of these conditions and enable those diagnosed to live a more normal life.
Although maternal bonding may not always be hardwired — after all, human females can adopt babies and take care of them — oxytocin released during pregnancy "does seem to have a role in motivation and feelings of connectedness to a baby," Young said. Studies also show that interacting with a baby causes the infant's own oxytocin levels to increase, he added. 
I found this to be an excellent supplement for myself, which overcomes the rate limiting step when the body converts tryptophan to 5-HTP. I am sleeping much better and handling life's normal stresses better. If you haven't already, become familiar with how/why the body converts L-Tryptophan > 5-HTP > Serotonin > Melatonin. Very interesting! Thank you Bulk Nutrients for making this available.
Second, 5-HTP can cause serious drug interactions with many medications, especially those used to treat depression. Because antidepressants generally work by increasing serotonin in the brain, 5-HTP could combine with these medications to cause high concentrations of serotonin. Having too much serotonin can lead to serotonin syndrome, a serious condition characterized by dangerously high heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. 5-HTP can interact with other classes of drugs, like migraine and pain medications, that also affect serotonin concentrations.
We are proud to offer 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical  Grade Melanotan 2, produced in the USA!  Our state of the art labs individually vacuum seal sterile vials of 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical Grade Peptides as a lyophilized solid, with no added fillers like mannitol.  We strongly believe in bringing you quality MT2 that is free from fillers and additives like mannitol, unlike many cheap Chinese imports that are flooding the market.   In addition, we want you to know that many overseas imports are subject to potentially hazardous chemical degradation.  This is due to long transportation time and fluctuating temperatures that can reduce the effectiveness and even potentially increase the side effects of MT2.   Our supplies are always fresh and kept in climate controlled storage until it is sent to your door. 
Tβ4 is a multifunctional regenerative small peptide containing 43-amino acids, and it is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.21 Tβ4 has pro-survival and pro-angiogenic properties, protects tissue against damage, and promotes tissue regeneration.22,23 It also plays a key role in corneal, epidermal and cardiac wound healing.21 Tβ4 participates in axonal path-finding, neurite formation, cell proliferation, and neuronal survival.24-26 Our previous studies show that Tβ4 reduces inflammation and stimulates remyelination and improves functional recovery in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and stroke.25,27 In summary, these pleiotropic properties make Tβ4 an ideal candidate for treatment of TBI.
Thank you for this important segment. i have read books that mention oxytocin along with other brain chemicals, if levels are low in the brain it will cause problems, of course, makes sense. low brain neurotransmitters can be restored by using amino acids (supplements) eg: tryptophan will increase serotonin and cure depression without the use toxic pharmaceutical drugs that don.t work.
Thymosin beta 4 accelerated skin wound healing in a rat model of a full thickness wound where the epithelial layer was destroyed. When Tb4 was applied topically to the wound or injected into the animal, epithelial layer restoration in the wound was increased 42% by day four and 61% by day seven, after treatment, compared to untreated. Furthermore, Tb4 stimulated collagen deposition in the wound and angiogenesis. Tb4 accelerated keratinocyte migration, resulting in the wound contracting by more than 11%, compared to untreated wounds, to close the skin gap in the wound. An analysis of skin sections (histological observations) showed that the Tb4 treated wounds healed faster than the untreated. Proof of accelerated cell migration was also seen in vitro, where Tb4 increased keratinocyte migration two to three fold, within four to five hours after treatment, compared to untreated keratinocytes.
Oxytocin has been shown to help people with autism improve their ability to recognize emotion, and Wallum found that the same receptor variant that increases risk for marital crisis in women is linked to social problems in girls. These include trouble getting along with others and a preference for being alone. This and Feldman’s work on oxytocin’s importance for the mother–child bond suggests that the hormone is more involved in the communication component of love between couples than the romantic component of love.
Angiogenesis is an essential step in the repair process that occurs after injury. In this study, we investigated whether the angiogenic thymic peptide thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) enhanced wound healing in a rat full thickness wound model. Addition of Tbeta4 topically or intraperitoneally increased reepithelialization by 42% over saline controls at 4 d and by as much as 61% at 7 d post-wounding. Treated wounds also contracted at least 11% more than controls by day 7. Increased collagen deposition and angiogenesis were observed in the treated wounds. We also found that Tbeta4 stimulated keratinocyte migration in the Boyden chamber assay. After 4-5 h, migration was stimulated 2-3-fold over migration with medium alone when as little as 10 pg of Tbeta4 was added to the assay. These results suggest that Tbeta4 is a potent wound healing factor with multiple activities that may be useful in the clinic.
Advice & Tips: 5-HTP is a serotonin precursor. Serotonin is well-known as a hormone that affects one's mood in a positive way, but it is probably less-well known that it increases intestinal motility. It has worked magic for my symptoms. I am completely regular now, and the majority of my days are good days, whereas before I began taking it the majority of my days were bad days that began with symptoms of constipation and intestinal pain or discomfort. For me, at least, this is not a prescription. I began taking 5-HTP after my fiancee'--who had already been taking it to help her mood and, primarily, her difficulty sleeping through the night--learned it can be helpful when taken for gastrointestinal motility, and I began taking it myself shortly after that (and felt its effects almost immediately). Although not entirely unexpected, my slightly enhanced good moods are a nice side benefit of taking the supplement. I do get some very mild undesirable side effects, especially during mid-day when I take twice my morning and evening dose of 100 mg. Sometimes my face feels hot and flushes fairly noticeably--and this may be intensified with eating--but those symptoms subside within probably 30 minutes or less.
This is exactly the type of question myself, my team of coaches and the community in my Inner Circle can help to answer for you. The Inner Circle is a collective of people who are pursuing the same goals you are – trying to live a healthy, happy, adventurous, fulfilling and limitless life in a modern world. In the Inner Circle, we all help each other with questions, ideas, motivation, suggestions and much more!
In a 2-week long clinical trial involving 25 overweight diabetic subjects given no dietary restrictions, subjects who received 5-HTP had reduced caloric, carbohydrate, and fat intake compared to placebo. Subjects who received 5-HTP also have reduced body weight, blood sugar, insulin and HbA1C levels after 2 weeks, possibly due to changes in the diet (R).
There is one glaring problem, however: the supplements come with a disclaimer that recommends not taking them for more than three months. Most of the information out there on 5-HTP is anecdotal, and most of them are stories of it helping people, rather than hard facts about its scientific properties. I approached neurologists, psychologists and experimental doctors about 5-HTP, and many responses were strange. Not many people were willing to speak about it, saying they weren't qualified or hadn't read the relevant material, but there isn't much material to speak of. The main source of legitimate scientific evidence came from the University of Maryland Medical Center website, who stated that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. But all the studies that support that statement were done in the 1980s and 1990s. I wanted to know if 5-HTP was a realistic alternative to SSRIs. Could I stay on 5-HTP forever, basking in its natural glory?
The reality is that people are always going to self-medicate. Boots, Amazon and H&B all sell 5-HTP, and in theory you could keep buying it and taking it for as long as you like. But it's important to know the facts. It shouldn't be used in conjunction with an SSRI, for example. In that situation, if the body is preventing serotonin breakdown while also getting extra serotonin, which leads to seriously unhealthy levels of serotonin activity.
Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide.

Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
Oral 5-HTP results in an increase in urinary 5-HIAA, a serotonin metabolite, indicating that 5-HTP is peripherally metabolized to serotonin, which is then metabolized. This might cause a false positive test in tests looking for carcinoid syndrome.[28][29] Due to the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin by the liver, there could be a risk of heart valve disease from serotonin's effect on the heart, as based on preclinical findings.[30][31] However, 5-HTP has not been associated with cardiac toxicity in humans.[22][32][33][34]
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