Increasing trust and reducing fear. In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed “the highest level of trust” twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.11 Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).12 There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however.
The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
Wonderful column. My expertise is the psychology of risk perception, and I have done some reading on oxytocin and trust (not the kind you want to boost in a bar with Liquid Trust – you can the stuff with pheromones – to boost THAT kind of trust). It turns out there is a high concentration of oxytocin receptors on the amygdala, the area of the brain where fear starts. As oxytocin levels go up, the ability of the amygdala to be warry and more mistrustful goes down. I describe this in Ch. 3 of How Risky Is It, Really? Why Our Fears Don’t Always Match the Facts. A few graphs of which are below. I wonder whether the influence of oxytocin on the amygdala might be connected with the finding of the study you write about.
Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.
A study using an oral cavity spray of 5-HTP (via the plant source of Griffonia Simplicifolia) has noted that 7.68mg of 5-HTP via 30.72mg of Griffonia Simplicifolia extract taken five times daily (total daily dose of around 40mg) has confirmed an increase in urinary 5-HIAA (from 3.71+/-1.27mg/24 hours to 8.80+/-4.02mg/24 hours; a 137% increase) relative to baseline, confirming that 5-HTP can be absorbed sublingually. Similar results have been noted elsewhere with this spray, although it should be noted that it is confounded with other herbs (detailed in the appetite subsection).
Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32:553-557. View abstract.
Actual injection can be done Subq or IM that is - subcutaneous or intramuscular. Injection site does not matter, there is no one site better than others so use one which is more comfortabe to reach, after injection product is absorbed into bloodstream and spread through the body evenly. Subq injection takes place by pinching the skin loose from the muscle and raising it so the needle can be inserted in the fat layer of skin.
I’m curious to know where you got your reconstitution calculation from; you recommend putting approx 3 cc’s in a 5 mg TB-500 which ‘almost fills’ the vial. I have been doing a ton of research on TB-500 and finding contradictory recommendations on how to reconstitute. Because the dosing for TB-500 is higher than what I’m used to with GHRH & GHRP – I felt a lower reconstitution mixture would reduce the amount I needed to take (but now I’m wondering if I’ve been over dosing based on your formula). Would really appreciate knowing how you arrived at filling an insulin syringe ‘three times’ equal to 3 cc’s – just want to make sure i’m dosing correctly
High and low oxytocin levels are possible, but research has not yet found any implications of these conditions. Men with high levels of oxytocin sometimes develop benign prostatic hyperplasia, or the enlarging of the prostate gland. This condition can cause urinary complaints. A lack of oxytocin can prevent the milk letdown reflex and make breastfeeding difficult. Low oxytocin levels have also been linked to depression, but using oxytocin to treat mental health conditions has not yet been studied sufficiently.
Thymosin Beta 4 is a potent peptide that comes from a family of 16 related molecules that are localized in circulating cells and tissues within the body. These molecules also have a high conservation of sequence. TB 500 conjoins with actin and prevents actin polymerization. It is noted as being the actin-sequestering molecule within eukaryotic cells. It also boosts extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme production.
A 2002 review concluded that although the data evaluated suggests that 5-HTP is more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression, the evidence was insufficient to be conclusive due to a lack of clinical data meeting the rigorous standards of today. More and larger studies using current methodologies are needed to determine if 5-HTP is truly effective in treating depression. In small controlled trials 5-HTP has also been reported to augment the antidepressant efficacy of the antidepressant clomipramine.