Melanotan II has reported toxicity effects from therapeutic and overdose exposures including: renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of pre-existing moles, rapid increase in the number of new moles associated with causing melanomas, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome, shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping and pain, dizziness and lethargy. XXXXXX alone has received 28 calls about melanotan II since 2006.
5-HTP increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin might lead to too much serotonin and cause side effects including heart problems, shivering and anxiety. Other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin levels include Hawaiian baby woodrose, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and St. John's wort.
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
This current literature is notable for its apparent irrelevancy to an AFL footballer. It begs the question; did Tβ4 make a difference to the Essendon players? The only honest answer is that we don’t know. Most of our understanding exists on a molecular and cellular level, without any significant appreciation of how Tβ4 influences applicable outcomes such as exercise performance, endurance, muscle strength, and time to recovery. Furthermore, as the majority of research has been performed on mice, rat and pig models, any results are not directly translatable to a human, let alone an elite athlete. This is a stark contrast to a supplement such as EPO, which has been investigated thoroughly.

Uterine contractions. These are important for cervical dilation before birth and causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful uterine contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.16
The uterine-contracting properties of the principle that would later be named oxytocin were discovered by British pharmacologist Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1906,[125][46] and its milk ejection property was described by Ott and Scott in 1910[126] and by Schafer and Mackenzie in 1911.[127] In the 1920s, oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated from pituitary tissue and given their current names. The word oxytocin was coined from the term oxytocic, Greek ὀξύς, oxys, and τοκετός , toketos, meaning "quick birth".
Thymosin beta-4 is a naturally occurring peptide, and is found ubiquitously in our cells. A range of studies on animal models have indicated several key biological activities for Tβ4, such as “promot[ing] wound repair, tissue protection, and regeneration in the skin, eye, heart and central nervous system”. Only a handful of clinical trials in humans have attempted to explore these roles practically.
Sexual activity has been found to stimulate the release of oxytocin, and it appears to have a role in erection and orgasm. The reason for this is not fully understood, but, in women, it may be that the increased uterine motility may help sperm to reach their destination. Some have proposed a correlation between the concentration of oxytocin and the intensity of orgasm.

A: 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement. Because dietary supplements have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well-known. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. For more specific information, consult with your pharmacist about the potential for drug interactions based on your specific condition and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals, and herbals, as well as the foods you eat. Always keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care providers and your pharmacist. If possible, use one pharmacy for all your prescription medications and over-the-counter products. This allows your pharmacist to keep a complete record of all your prescription drugs and to advise you about drug interactions and side effects. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Jen Marsico, RPh
Work with cell cultures and experiments with animals have shown that administration of thymosin β4 can promote migration of cells, formation of blood vessels, maturation of stem cells, survival of various cell types and lowering of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These multiple properties have provided the impetus for a worldwide series of on-going clinical trials of potential effectiveness of thymosin β4 in promoting repair of wounds in skin, cornea and heart.[17]

Letdown reflex. In lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be ‘let down’ into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by compressing the areola and sucking at the nipple. Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.


When stressed, individuals become mentally and emotionally overwhelmed quite easily. Although individuals can quickly experience the effects of stress on their mental well-being, physical health is also at risk. Some stress is normal. However, chronic stress levels can increase the risk of heart disease and other serious health complications. Regardless of your personal stressor, it is critical to try managing rising stress levels to protect your current and future health. The following highly effective methods will help everyone unwind and promote a more positive state of mind.
But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.
The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin. Both are nonapeptides with a single disulfide bridge, differing only by two substitutions in the amino acid sequence (differences from oxytocin bolded for clarity): Cys – Tyr – Phe – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Arg – Gly – NH2.[116] A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article. Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and their total synthesis reported in 1954,[122] work for which Vincent du Vigneaud was awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with the citation: "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone."[123]
In the end, despite three years of intense scrutiny, the drug at the centre of the investigation remains poorly understood. In this regard, it could serve as a reflection of the whole ordeal. Everyone has an opinion, often voiced with authority and conviction. The reality is that much of this complex narrative continues to be a mystery. Many would have been well served by the humble words of the Socratic paradox – “I know that I know nothing”.
I am not sure if my original question posted…I was wondering if I could use TB-500 to regenerate thyroid tissue? My endocrinologist said that my Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis has almost completely destroyed my thyroid. If yes, then where do I inject?? Additionally, I was wonder if the BPC-157 would have any benefits on thyroid as I plan to take orally for leaky gut/digestive issues.

Drug interaction: Impact on effects of alcohol and other drugs: According to several studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[68] MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity primarily via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[69] The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) may produce some of its effects via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation as well.[70][71]


This copyrighted, evidence-based medicine resource is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database disclaims any responsibility related to consequences of using any product. This monograph should not replace advice from a healthcare professional and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether Tβ4 was up-regulated in patients with periodontitis, and this study was also designed to investigate whether Tβ4 inhibition or activation suppressed the osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) as well as on their signaling pathways.
In humans, the Tβ4 gene TMSB4X is localized to the X chromosome at Xq21.3–q22 (). The Tβ4 cDNA open reading frame contains an initial methionine codon followed by a codon for the N-terminal serine and, although cells secrete a certain amount of Tβ4, there is no hydrophobic signal sequence. The initial methionine residue of the nascent Tβ4 polypeptide is removed and the N-terminal serine residue is often acetylated in the cells.
In the prairie vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[57] Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, so it likely also does in humans. In a 2003 study, both humans and dog oxytocin levels in the blood rose after five to 24 minutes of a petting session. This possibly plays a role in the emotional bonding between humans and dogs.[58]
5-HTP appears to reduce food intake secondary to increasing satiety, although most studies are currently conducted in women (in regards to 5-HTP being related to serotonin, this may be relevant; see our creatine page and the Depression section for more information). At least one study that was mixed gender supports the notion it benefits both genders, however
The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
The logic behind this trend is that creating tanned skin (by increasing melanin) with minimal to no sun exposure could protect individuals from skin damage, and even potentially lower melanoma risk. More melanin means more protection from UV radiation, and therefore a healthier (and conveniently, deeper) complexion. In this sense, there is perhaps a kernel of truth to the idea of the “healthy glow”.
I found this to be an excellent supplement for myself, which overcomes the rate limiting step when the body converts tryptophan to 5-HTP. I am sleeping much better and handling life's normal stresses better. If you haven't already, become familiar with how/why the body converts L-Tryptophan > 5-HTP > Serotonin > Melatonin. Very interesting! Thank you Bulk Nutrients for making this available.
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Down syndrome. Some research shows that giving 5-HTP to infants with Down syndrome might improve muscle and activity. Other research shows that it does not improve muscle or development when taken from infancy until 3-4 years of age. Research also shows that taking 5-HTP along with conventional prescription drugs does improve development, social skills, or language skills.
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