Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
A number of factors can inhibit oxytocin release, among them acute stress. For example, oxytocin neurons are repressed by catecholamines, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to many types of stress, including fright. As a practical endocrine tip - don't wear a gorilla costume into a milking parlor full of cows or set off firecrackers around a mother nursing her baby.
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Addiction vulnerability: Concentrations of endogenous oxytocin can impact the effects of various drugs and one's susceptibility to substance use disorders. Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, can impact development of dependence. The status of the endogenous oxytocin system might enhance or reduce susceptibility to addiction through its interaction with these systems. Individual differences in the endogenous oxytocin system based on genetic predisposition, gender and environmental influences, may therefore affect addiction vulnerability.[72] Oxytocin may be related to the place conditioning behaviors observed in habitual drug abusers.

The sequence LKKTET, which starts at residue 17 of the 43-aminoacid sequence of thymosin beta-4, and is strongly conserved between all β-thymosins, together with a similar sequence in WH2 domains, is frequently referred to as "the actin-binding motif" of these proteins, although modelling based on X-ray crystallography has shown that essentially the entire length of the β-thymosin sequence interacts with actin in the actin-thymosin complex.[13]


In addition to its intracellular role as the major actin-sequestering molecule in cells of many multicellular animals, thymosin β4 shows a remarkably diverse range of effects when present in the fluid surrounding animal tissue cells. Taken together, these effects suggest that thymosin has a general role in tissue regeneration. This has suggested a variety of possible therapeutic applications, and several have now been extended to animal models and human clinical trials.
This mother-child bonding is the most glorified myth that is not re-thought as often as it should. Its apparant purpose is just to make a dangerously selfish mother (such frustrated mothers do exist a lot more than we read in the news) to think twice before harming her defenseless child which is oftentimes in her sole custody in our society. Acts of such mothers are branded as mental illness rather than plain cruelty. While most people (men and women alike) tend to protect, and not harm a child, the real bonding can happen beetween two independent, mature adults.
Virtually all vertebrates have an oxytocin-like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions and a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation. The two genes are usually located close to each other (less than 15,000 bases apart) on the same chromosome, and are transcribed in opposite directions (however, in fugu,[44] the homologs are further apart and transcribed in the same direction).
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A and B; Mouse BMMs were cultured with 200 μM H2O2 and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL). C and D; PDLCs were co-cultured with mouse BMMs in the presence of M-CSF, RANKL, 200 μM H2O2, and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide. To monitor osteoclast differentiation, both TRAP activity and the number of TRAP multinucleated cells were examined. * Statistically significant difference compared with control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
The pamphlet, titled "Melanotan-2: Safe enhanced tanning" says although the drug is not approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia's drug watchdog) and that studies into its effects are under way, it "is safe" and and its use "well documented". It says people can be referred to a "suitable doctor who is trained to prescribe MT2" so the pharmacy can dispense it to them.
To determine whether MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the anti-osteoclastogenic function of Tβ4, the effect of Tβ4 peptide on the phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK(s) as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in RANKL-stimulated BMMs were examined. As shown in Fig 8B, Tβ4 peptide inhibited the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65.
This is a great product, I have been having digestive problems after 13 major surgeries and suffering from Crohn's Disease my whole life. Currently I can only tolerate a liquid diet. Was very depressed, found this and started taking it and it has made a HUGE difference to my life. Only have very mild depression symptoms now, and sleep better at night. Bought the powder to get the dose right, looks like 100mg suits my 50 kg frame. Only bad thing is the packaging. The 10 grams of powder is lost in the large packet, very hard to get it out and measure the same dose every night. I purchased miniature measuring spoons from ebay and they make life much easier. Sort out the correct spoon for your dosage with the scales then off you go. Can be tricky getting it in and out of the bag, often get powder everywhere, but usually just lick it off. A pill container would work much better for this power.

Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.


Thymosin beta 4 accelerated skin wound healing in a rat model of a full thickness wound where the epithelial layer was destroyed. When Tb4 was applied topically to the wound or injected into the animal, epithelial layer restoration in the wound was increased 42% by day four and 61% by day seven, after treatment, compared to untreated. Furthermore, Tb4 stimulated collagen deposition in the wound and angiogenesis. Tb4 accelerated keratinocyte migration, resulting in the wound contracting by more than 11%, compared to untreated wounds, to close the skin gap in the wound. An analysis of skin sections (histological observations) showed that the Tb4 treated wounds healed faster than the untreated. Proof of accelerated cell migration was also seen in vitro, where Tb4 increased keratinocyte migration two to three fold, within four to five hours after treatment, compared to untreated keratinocytes.
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.

Thymosin beta 4 accelerated skin wound healing in a rat model of a full thickness wound where the epithelial layer was destroyed. When Tb4 was applied topically to the wound or injected into the animal, epithelial layer restoration in the wound was increased 42% by day four and 61% by day seven, after treatment, compared to untreated. Furthermore, Tb4 stimulated collagen deposition in the wound and angiogenesis. Tb4 accelerated keratinocyte migration, resulting in the wound contracting by more than 11%, compared to untreated wounds, to close the skin gap in the wound. An analysis of skin sections (histological observations) showed that the Tb4 treated wounds healed faster than the untreated. Proof of accelerated cell migration was also seen in vitro, where Tb4 increased keratinocyte migration two to three fold, within four to five hours after treatment, compared to untreated keratinocytes.


A: 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement. Because dietary supplements have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well-known. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. For more specific information, consult with your pharmacist about the potential for drug interactions based on your specific condition and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals, and herbals, as well as the foods you eat. Always keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care providers and your pharmacist. If possible, use one pharmacy for all your prescription medications and over-the-counter products. This allows your pharmacist to keep a complete record of all your prescription drugs and to advise you about drug interactions and side effects. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Jen Marsico, RPh
Melanotan 2 works by stimulating the release of the pigment melanin from the skin. Less UV exposure is necessary with Melanotan 2 compared to “normal tanning”, and the tan that occurs with tanning injections is deeper and longer lasting than an individual’s “normal tan”. Melanotan works best (has the most noticeable effects) on people with fair skin tones.

Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(4):553-557. View abstract.


Humans are social animals. Our individual prospects depend to a significant degree on the prospects of the group(s) to which we belong, and how well we get along with the group(s). Survival means being acutely sensitive to who is on our side and who is not. So it isn’t surprising that trust matters so much to how we go about protecting ourselves. And it isn’t surprising to find the instinct for trust rooted deep in the brain.
Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
To explore whether Tβ4 peptide-induced anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenesis were dependent on the up-regulation of Wnt5a, the effects of recombinant human (rh) Wnt5a (500 ng/mL) and Wnt5a-specific siRNA were assessed. Pretreatment of Wnt5a siRNA reversed the inhibitory effects of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions, NO and PGE2 productions, osteoclastogenic cytokines, and RANKL expression (Fig 10A–10E). In contrast, pretreatment with rhWnt5a enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 peptide whereas control siRNA showed no effect on PDLCs. In accordance with anti-inflammatory results, Tβ4 peptide-suppressed osteoclast number and TRAP activity in BMM cells were reversed by exogenous treatment with Wnt5a siRNA but enhanced by rh-Wnt5a (Fig 11A–11C).

Drug interaction: Impact on effects of alcohol and other drugs: According to several studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[68] MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity primarily via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[69] The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) may produce some of its effects via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation as well.[70][71]


The molecule of this peptide is very big, so it isn’t able to completely fit within a receptor. Each area of the molecule has different functions. For instance, TB 500 is responsible for promoting majority of the useful effects, such as the healing, muscle cells, new blood and repair. In some scenarios, TB 500 could be used rather than the whole Thymosin Beta 4 protein. TB 500’s main ability is to regulate Actin, which is a cell-building protein. There are thousands of proteins found inside of cells, but actin makes up to 10 percent of the total amount of proteins, giving it a major role in the cell’s genetic makeup.

Supplementation of 5-HTP has been shown to be more effective than tryptophan supplementation alone. This additional benefit of 5-HTP supplementation arises because 5-HTP bypasses the cell's L-tryptophan's own self-regulation on the IDO enzyme, in which it upregulates the activity of IDO (discussed in next section) to maintain body homeostasis of tryptophan[6] and it bypasses the tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme, which is the rate limiting step in serotonin biosynthesis.[7]
Froemke's study1, published in April, showed that oxytocin temporarily suppresses inhibitory neurons — those that dampen neural activity — which allows excitatory cells to respond more strongly and reliably. “Our hypothesis is that the virgin brain is a blanket of inhibition, and that pairing the pup calls with oxytocin allows the network to be reconfigured,” says Froemke. The hormone may serve to amplify incoming signals and allow them to be recognized as behaviourally important. (It is at least possible, he says, that this same mechanism could explain why some human mothers feel they are uniquely tuned to a baby's cries.)

It turns out the love hormone oxytocin is two-faced. Oxytocin has long been known as the warm, fuzzy hormone that promotes feelings of love, social bonding and well-being. It's even being tested as an anti-anxiety drug. But new Northwestern Medicine® research shows oxytocin also can cause emotional pain, an entirely new, darker identity for the hormone.
To untangle the ways different hormones together influence behavior in more naturalistic contexts, we worked with the Tsimane people in Bolivia. Traditional societies like the Tsimane are not living relics of the past, but their lifeways – small, tight-knit communities that produce their own food – can reveal the kinds of situations our hormone systems are well adapted to.
Thymosin beta 4, developed by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals as a pharmaceutical for the healing of wounds, is a synthetic version of the natural peptide. As Dr. Allan Goldstein emphasizes, “Tb4 represents a new class of wound healing compounds. It is not a growth factor or cytokine, but rather exhibits a number of physiological properties which include the ability to sequester and regulate actin, its potent chemotactic properties. . . and its capability to downregulate a number of inflammatory cytokines that are present in chronic wounds.” When a wound heals there are many growth factors produced in the area so that additional factors, such as those currently on the market for wound healing, may help but are not necessarily lacking. Tb4 treatment, however, adds a new dimension to wound repair by providing cells with actin as needed, for cell migration, replication and differentiation.
Horvath, G. A., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. G., Salvarinova-Zivkovic, R., Lillquist, Y. P., Connolly, M., Hyland, K., Blau, N., Rupar, T., and Waters, P. J. Autosomal recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency without hyperphenylalaninemia: evidence of a phenotypic continuum between dominant and recessive forms. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(1):127-131. View abstract.
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