In addition to angiogenesis and neurogenesis, cell- and pharmacologically based therapies substantially remodel white matter in the ischemic brain. Treatment of experimental stroke with MCSs, rhEPO, or sildenafil significantly increases axonal density encapsulating the ischemic lesion. Dynamic changes of white matter structure along the ischemic boundary have been imaged in living animals by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements. Data from these MRI indices demonstrate that administration of rhEPO or sildenafil augments axonal remodeling and angiogenesis and that both of them are spatially and temporally correlated. Administration of MSCs, rhEPO, and thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) dramatically increases the number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, the striatum, and the V/SVZ of the ischemic hemisphere and mature oligodendrocytes in the ischemic boundary adjacent to myelinated axons. These findings suggest that cell- and pharmacologically based therapies promote generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the ischemic brain that migrate to target axons, where they extend their processes myelinating the axons.
Jump up ^ Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Faliva M, Bucci M, Perna S (March 2012). "Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration". Eating and Weight Disorders. 17 (1): e22–8. doi:10.3275/8165. PMID 22142813.
Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
But returning hunters also need to share meat with their families and friends; this is where oxytocin comes into play. It can help overcome the potentially negative social effects of testosterone. Men who were absent for longer seem to need more oxytocin to reconnect with their families; it seems that absence does indeed make the heart grow fonder, via an oxytocin blast.
For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.
The product can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
Thymosin Beta 4 is a potent peptide that comes from a family of 16 related molecules that are localized in circulating cells and tissues within the body. These molecules also have a high conservation of sequence. TB 500 conjoins with actin and prevents actin polymerization. It is noted as being the actin-sequestering molecule within eukaryotic cells. It also boosts extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme production.
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. I would say yes though. Just because you dont “know” or “feel” any injury, you might be one functional movement away from a weakened tendon or muscle – snap, crackle and POP! These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever.

5-HTP is converted by the body to serotonin, a chemical in the brain that plays an important role in mood, sleep, and appetite. Many prescription medications used for the treatment of depression increase serotonin concentrations in the brain. Because of 5-HTP's pathway to serotonin, it has appealed to researchers as well as the public as a "natural" alternative to antidepressants and treatment of depression, insomnia, migraines, obesity, and fibromyalgia.
Disclaimer: The information contained on this site is intended for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for advice, diagnosis or treatment by a licensed physician. It is not meant to cover all possible precautions, drug interactions, circumstance or adverse effects. You should seek prompt medical care for any health issues and consult your doctor before using alternative medicine or making a change to your regimen.
Kim found that when Americans who carry a particular version of the OXTR gene are more likely to turn to their friends for support when they are distressed. But Koreans react to social stress in a different way – for them, it’s less socially acceptable to turn to friends for support during tough times. And distressed Koreans who carry the same version of OXTR are less likely to seek support from their friends.
Horvath, G. A., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. G., Salvarinova-Zivkovic, R., Lillquist, Y. P., Connolly, M., Hyland, K., Blau, N., Rupar, T., and Waters, P. J. Autosomal recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency without hyperphenylalaninemia: evidence of a phenotypic continuum between dominant and recessive forms. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94:127-131. View abstract.
Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
I had tennis elbow on both arms for over 3 years now. Had one surgery on the R, countless PRPs, and a stem cell treatment on both but still to no avail. Pain on the L never eased up and I just had my 3rd PRP booster injections yesterday after having my stem cells 2 months ago. So can you tell me if BPC 157 or TB 500 better suits my situation. Many thanks!

Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43 amino acid protein (a peptide) that was originally identified in calf thymus, an organ that is central in the development of immunity. Tb4 was later found in all cells except red blood cells. It is highest in blood platelets that are the first to enter injured areas, in wound healing. Tb4 is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids.
Such tissue-regenerating properties of thymosin β4 may ultimately contribute to repair of human heart muscle damaged by heart disease and heart attack. In mice, administration of thymosin β4 has been shown to stimulate formation of new heart muscle cells from otherwise inactive precursor cells present in the outer lining of adult hearts,[18] to induce migration of these cells into heart muscle[19] and recruit new blood vessels within the muscle.[20]
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein thymosin β4. They are found almost exclusively in multicellular animals. Thymosin β4 was originally obtained from the thymus in company with several other small proteins which although named collectively "thymosins" are now known to be structurally and genetically unrelated and present in many different animal tissues.
5-HTP has been linked in very rare instances to a condition known as EMS, or eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, which combines extreme muscle tenderness with abnormalities in the blood. A contaminant that was found in some tryptophan supplements in the late 1980s, and was linked to a small number of EMS cases, was also found in some 5-HTP supplements.  It’s important to talk with your doctor before you begin taking 5-HTP or any other supplement, and to make sure you’re getting your supplements from a reliable provider.  
Nasally administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[76] Indeed, studies in rodents have shown oxytocin can efficiently inhibit fear responses by activating an inhibitory circuit within the amygdala.[77][78] Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude.[79] Individuals who receive an intranasal dose of oxytocin identify facial expressions of disgust more quickly than individuals who do not receive oxytocin.[75][qualify evidence] Facial expressions of disgust are evolutionarily linked to the idea of contagion. Thus, oxytocin increases the salience of cues that imply contamination, which leads to a faster response because these cues are especially relevant for survival. In another study, after administration of oxytocin, individuals displayed an enhanced ability to recognize expressions of fear compared to the individuals who received the placebo.[80] Oxytocin modulates fear responses by enhancing the maintenance of social memories. Rats that are genetically modified to have a surplus of oxytocin receptors display a greater fear response to a previously conditioned stressor. Oxytocin enhances the aversive social memory, leading the rat to display a greater fear response when the aversive stimulus is encountered again.[74]
When stressed, individuals become mentally and emotionally overwhelmed quite easily. Although individuals can quickly experience the effects of stress on their mental well-being, physical health is also at risk. Some stress is normal. However, chronic stress levels can increase the risk of heart disease and other serious health complications. Regardless of your personal stressor, it is critical to try managing rising stress levels to protect your current and future health. The following highly effective methods will help everyone unwind and promote a more positive state of mind.

The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.1718 The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin’s effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.19 Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm.20 A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted that these changes “may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue.”21


Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking: In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80%, but had no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants into which role they would be placed.[89] Serious methodological questions have arisen, however, with regard to the role of oxytocin in trust and generosity.[90] Empathy in healthy males has been shown to be increased after intranasal oxytocin[88][91] This is most likely due to the effect of oxytocin in enhancing eye gaze.[92] There is some discussion about which aspect of empathy oxytocin might alter – for example, cognitive vs. emotional empathy.[93] While studying wild chimpanzees, it was noted that after a chimpanzee shared food with a non-kin related chimpanzee, the subjects' levels of oxytocin increased, as measured through their urine. In comparison to other cooperative activities between chimpanzees that were monitored including grooming, food sharing generated higher levels of oxytocin. This comparatively higher level of oxytocin after food sharing parallels the increased level of oxytocin in nursing mothers, sharing nutrients with their kin.[94]
During the 2000s, the Melanotan II peptide and the metabolite derived from it, the erectile dysfunction-focused Bremelanotide (also known as PT-141), were patented and then licensed to biotechnology companies hoping to develop them into profitable prescription drugs. However, these companies also offer the peptides for direct sale to researchers. These transactions occupy a legal gray area, since the peptides are banned for human use outside clinical trials. While they can be purchased from various websites specializing in research chemicals, the purchaser usually has to affirm prior to final sale that the peptide "will not be used for human consumption" and is being acquired for "research purposes only."
A: 5-HTP stands for 5-hydroxytryptophan. 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement; it is made from the seeds of an African plant, Griffonia simplicfolia. 5-HTP is a metabolite (a metabolic by-product) of the amino acid tryptophan, and it is converted by the body into serotonin, which acts in the brain to sooth a person's mind and comfort one from stress and worry. People are using 5-HTP for a variety of conditions, including weight loss, depression, anxiety, PMS, fibromyalgia, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and headaches. 5-hydroxytryptophan has not been evaluated by the FDA for safety, effectiveness, or purity. One should follow the dosage recommendations on the particular packages of 5-HTP they purchase. According to one researcher, the suggested dosage range of 5-HTP is between 50 mg and 1,200 mg per day, with the usual range being 100 to 600mg. It is always a good idea to check with one
Double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU (red, A) and NeuN (green, B) to identify newborn neurons (yellow after merge, C) in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus from rats examined 35 days after TBI. Micrographs (D) show location of DiI injection in the CA3 region (indicated by white asterisk). In the CA3 region, axons projected from granule neurons in the dentate gyrus will take up injected DiI to their cell bodies. Co-localization (merge, H) of BrdU-positive nuclei (green, F) within retrogradely DiI labeled (red, E) granule cells were examined at 35 days after TBI. Scale bar = 25 μm (C, H). Scale bar = 50 μm (D).
The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
Thank you for this important segment. i have read books that mention oxytocin along with other brain chemicals, if levels are low in the brain it will cause problems, of course, makes sense. low brain neurotransmitters can be restored by using amino acids (supplements) eg: tryptophan will increase serotonin and cure depression without the use toxic pharmaceutical drugs that don.t work.
Reconstituting tanning peptide is a part of the process required for use of the product and will require full attention to get proper results. 1 or 2ml sterile water is usually used, diluting with more water will improve dosing accuracy. Lovemelanotan peptide calculator is ideal tool for anyone just starting out and not sure how to reconstitute or dose the product properly.
Work with cell cultures and experiments with animals have shown that administration of thymosin β4 can promote migration of cells, formation of blood vessels, maturation of stem cells, survival of various cell types and lowering of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These multiple properties have provided the impetus for a worldwide series of on-going clinical trials of potential effectiveness of thymosin β4 in promoting repair of wounds in skin, cornea and heart.[17]
Johansson, A., Westberg, L., Sandnabba, K., Jern, P., Salo, B., & Santtila, P. (2012). Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption [Abstract]. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(9), 1546-56. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22421562
Depression. Some clinical research shows that taking 5-HTP by mouth improve symptoms of depression in some people. Some clinical research shows that taking 5-HTP by mouth might be as beneficial as certain prescription antidepressant drugs for improving depression symptoms. In most studies, 150-800 mg daily of 5-HTP was taken. In some cases, higher doses have been used.
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.[23] Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C.[24]
Interestingly, there are numerous differences in the biology of teleosts and mammals, as well as specific differences in cardiomyocyte cellular structure and anatomy, all of which might contribute to regenerative variability. Unlike mammals, zebrafish can grow throughout most of adulthood, a phenomenon called “indeterminate growth” (Jordan, 1905). In fact, their growth can be affected markedly by changes in nutrition and population density (Goldsmith et al., 2006). It is thus possible that the capacity to replace cardiac tissue rapidly in teleosts has been retained in evolution as a function of the need for robust animal and cardiac growth. Indeed, a recent study has found that experimentally-induced adult cardiac growth in zebrafish is hyperplastic, and appears to rely on the same signals present or required during cardiac regeneration (Wills et al., 2008).
A handful of large-scale clinical trials are now getting under way to test oxytocin and oxytocin-based therapies for autism spectrum disorder, and to work out who could benefit. Linmarie Sikich, a child psychiatrist at the University of North Carolina is heading the largest of these trials. Sikich plans to recruit 300 people with autism spectrum disorder, ranging in age from 3 to 17, and give them 6 months of either oxytocin or a placebo, followed by 6 months in which everyone will receive oxytocin.
But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.
Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
Tb4 has other effects that are needed in healing and repair of damaged tissue. It is a chemo-attractant for cells, stimulates new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis), downregulates cytokines and reduces inflammation, thus protecting newly formed tissue from damaging inflammatory events. Tb4 has been shown to reduce free radical levels (with similar efficiency as superoxide dismutase), decrease lipid peroxidation, inhibit interleukin 1 and other cytokines, and decrease inflammatory thromboxane (TxB2) and prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha).
Tβ4 is a multifunctional regenerative small peptide containing 43-amino acids, and it is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.21 Tβ4 has pro-survival and pro-angiogenic properties, protects tissue against damage, and promotes tissue regeneration.22,23 It also plays a key role in corneal, epidermal and cardiac wound healing.21 Tβ4 participates in axonal path-finding, neurite formation, cell proliferation, and neuronal survival.24-26 Our previous studies show that Tβ4 reduces inflammation and stimulates remyelination and improves functional recovery in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and stroke.25,27 In summary, these pleiotropic properties make Tβ4 an ideal candidate for treatment of TBI.
It was under development as drug candidate for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction but clinical development ceased by 2003, and as of 2018, no product containing melanotan II was marketed and all commercial development had ceased.[1] Unlicensed, untested, or fraudulent products sold as "melanotan II" are found on the Internet, and purported to be effective as "tanning drugs", though side effects such as uneven pigmentation, new nevi (moles), and darkening or enlargement of existing moles are common and have led to medical authorities discouraging use.[2][3]
“I didn’t think it would be that bad honestly, but since I weight lift multiple times a weak, this supplement is doing me more harm than good. On a typical weight lifting day my workout is split into 5 sections. After taking 5-htp the night before I barely have enough energy to get through 1 section, and that is a serious problem, because of this I am quitting 5-htp all together.”
The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[31] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.[citation needed]

First developed in the 1980s by researchers at the University of Arizona, Melanotan is principally used for the treatment of skin disorders including vitiligo and erythropoietic protoporphyria that affect skin appearance and sensitivity (especially to sunlight). By promoting melanin in the skin, Melanotan can help ease the symptoms of these conditions and enable those diagnosed to live a more normal life.


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To untangle the ways different hormones together influence behavior in more naturalistic contexts, we worked with the Tsimane people in Bolivia. Traditional societies like the Tsimane are not living relics of the past, but their lifeways – small, tight-knit communities that produce their own food – can reveal the kinds of situations our hormone systems are well adapted to.
In the male mammal, the small peptide hormone oxytocin is produced in similar quantities within the hypothalamo-pituitary magnocellular system as in the female, yet for the male little is known about the physiology associated with this hormone. The present review summarizes what is known about the function of oxytocin in the male mammal and tries to take account of both central and systemic effects, and those linked with a local production of oxytocin within the male reproductive organs. In several species a pulse of systemic oxytocin, presumably of hypothalamic origin, appears to be associated with ejaculation. The systemic hormone could act peripherally stimulating smooth muscle cells of the male reproductive tract, but could also reflect central effects in the brain modulating sexual behaviour. In addition to systemic oxytocin, the peptide is also made locally within the testis, and possibly also the epididymis and prostate. In the former tissue it appears to have an autocrine/paracrine role modulating steroid metabolism, but may in addition be involved in contractility of the seminiferous tubules. However, the latter function may involve the mediacy of Sertoli cells which under some circumstances can also exhibit the components of a local oxytocin system. In the prostate of the rat and the dog oxytocin is linked again to steroid metabolism and may also act as a growth regulator. Finally, oxytocin in seminal fluid is discussed and its possible role in respect to the fate of the semen following ejaculation.
There is one glaring problem, however: the supplements come with a disclaimer that recommends not taking them for more than three months. Most of the information out there on 5-HTP is anecdotal, and most of them are stories of it helping people, rather than hard facts about its scientific properties. I approached neurologists, psychologists and experimental doctors about 5-HTP, and many responses were strange. Not many people were willing to speak about it, saying they weren't qualified or hadn't read the relevant material, but there isn't much material to speak of. The main source of legitimate scientific evidence came from the University of Maryland Medical Center website, who stated that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. But all the studies that support that statement were done in the 1980s and 1990s. I wanted to know if 5-HTP was a realistic alternative to SSRIs. Could I stay on 5-HTP forever, basking in its natural glory?
This is exactly the type of question myself, my team of coaches and the community in my Inner Circle can help to answer for you. The Inner Circle is a collective of people who are pursuing the same goals you are – trying to live a healthy, happy, adventurous, fulfilling and limitless life in a modern world. In the Inner Circle, we all help each other with questions, ideas, motivation, suggestions and much more!
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of ROS and plays a key role in the progression of periodontal diseases [24]. Damage of tissues in inflammatory periodontal disease can be mediated by ROS resulting from the physiological activity of PMN during the phagocytosis of periodontopathic bacteria [27]. In addition, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as hypoxia induces a NOX4-dependent increase in H2O2 release in PDLCs [28]. Furthermore, ROS such as H2O2 are small, diffusible, and ubiquitous molecules, can affect human PDLCs and gingival fibroblasts cell injury indirectly by enhancing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, NO, PGE2, and ROS [29–31]. This ROS is known to stimulate osteoclast differentiation and participate in early signaling events associated with osteoclast activation for bone resorption [32]. Since LPS from P. gingivalis increases oxidative stress in PDLCs and contributes to periodontitis [28], human PDLCs treated with H2O2 may serve as an in vitro model relevant to periodontitis.
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide.
To evaluate the indirect effect of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were incubated with RANKL and CM, prepared from HPDLCs treated with H2O2 and different concentrations of Tβ4, and allowed to differentiate into osteoclasts. As shown in Fig 6, Tβ4 peptide dose-dependently decreased the number of osteoclasts and TRAP activity. To determine whether the reduction in osteoclast generation by Tβ4 could be due to effects of Tβ4 peptide on viability of the BMMs, a cytotoxicity assay was performed. The viability of BMMs was not significantly affected by Tβ4 peptide (data not shown).
For now, Bartz isn’t sure why oxytocin can have such different effects. Her most educated guess is that the hormone triggers a biased trip down memory lane. Under its influence, people are more likely to remember information about their mother that fits with their current attitudes to relationships. If they are anxious, they’re more likely to remember the negative side of their early life. It’s a reasonable enough idea, and one that Bartz intends to test in the future. It will also be good to repeat the study in a larger group – 31 men make for a relatively small study.
Virtually all vertebrates have an oxytocin-like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions and a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation. The two genes are always located close to each other (less than 15,000 bases apart) on the same chromosome and are transcribed in opposite directions. It is thought that the two genes resulted from a gene duplication event; the ancestral gene is estimated to be about 500 million years old and is found in cyclostomes (modern members of the Agnatha).[12]
I have Dupretren’s in my hand. The chords are tightening which is common to this disease pulling the fingers towards the palm. I cannot play guitar any longer. I can still hold a flat palm to the floor when I exercise, but it gets more difficult as the disease takes hold (no pun intended). I’ve read a lot from others inflicted with this. Didn’t like what I read. Hand surgery with modest effects, often adverse effects and too infrequent a fix to the problem. I tried deep tissue massage and scraping too.
Skin damage and aging are induced to a large extent by free radicals from the sun and environmental pollutants and from oxidants produced during infection and inflammation. Lipid peroxidation of membranes and increased inflammatory substances, such as thromboxanes and leukotriens, add insult to injury. While skin damage accumulates with age, repair processes slow down. Thus, any boost by a molecule that would reduce free radicals and accelerate molecular events in healing has the potential to hasten skin repair. Tb4 has such healing qualities.
Drug interaction: Impact on effects of alcohol and other drugs: According to several studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[68] MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity primarily via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[69] The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) may produce some of its effects via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation as well.[70][71]

Dietary supplements containing 5-HTP are claimed to help promote feelings of happiness and general well-being as well as a wide range of other positives such as appetite control, reduced anxiety, and improved mood, sleep and feelings of relaxation. However, there is no conclusive evidence showing that it is effective, and there is no clear "therapeutic" dose of 5-HTP.
Despite this, Tβ4’s place on the banned-substances list is warranted. It reflects the possibility that the effects of the supplement may manifest as a tangible improvement in athletes. However, any time a journalist flippantly declares it “heals damaged tissue and speeds recovery”, it should be noted that such claims are a harmful distortion of the facts.
Such tissue-regenerating properties of thymosin β4 may ultimately contribute to repair of human heart muscle damaged by heart disease and heart attack. In mice, administration of thymosin β4 has been shown to stimulate formation of new heart muscle cells from otherwise inactive precursor cells present in the outer lining of adult hearts,[18] to induce migration of these cells into heart muscle[19] and recruit new blood vessels within the muscle.[20]
Growth factors play an important role is enhancing structural repair of chronic wounds (Robson, 1997). KGF-2 (Robson et al., 2001), TGF-β (Robson et al., 1995), PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994; Kiritsy et al., 1995; Smiell et al., 1999), β-NGF (Muangman et al., 2004) have been shown to enhance re-epithelialization (Greenalgh, 1996 for review). The KGF-1 gene has been shown to improve cutaneous wound healing in a septic rat model when delivered in a plasmid (Lin et al., 2006). The PDGF-B gene carried in a plasmid mixed with a bovine collagen gel was reported to accelerate closure of patient diabetic ulcers (Mulder et al., 2009; Blume et al., 2011). KGF-2, PDGF-BB and FGF-L are commercially available as RepiferminTM, RegranexTM, and Trafermin to treat human chronic wounds. Data for the effects of PDGF-BB on back wounds of diabetic mice and for the effects of KGF-2 on chronic venous ulcers in patients is tabulated in Tables 10.3 and 10.4. Thymosin β4 accelerated keratinocyte migration in the wounds of old diabetic mice (Philp et al., 2003).
Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a water-soluble, 43-amino acid, and 4.9 kDa protein that was originally isolated from bovine thymus [6]. Since Tβ4 is the major actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells and is found in all cells [7], Tβ4 has multiple diverse cellular functions, including tissue development, migration, angiogenesis, and wound healing [7]. We previously reported that Tβ4-overexpressing transgenic mice, using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, have abnormal tooth development and enhanced stimulation of hair growth [8]. Moreover, exogenous Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects in the bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung fibrosis [9], tooth extraction sockets in rats [10], rat model of myocardial ischemia [11], corneal wound healing [12], wound healing of rat palatal mucosa [13], in vitro model of cultured human gingival fibroblasts [14], and cardiac fibroblasts [15]. However, the effects of Tβ4 over expression or inhibition on differentiation are controversial. Exogenous β4 peptide inhibited osteogenic differentiation but facilitated adipogenic differentiation in human bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [16]. In contrast, Tβ4 inhibition by Tβ4 siRNA attenuated odontoblastic differentiation in the odontoblast-like cells, MDPC-23 [17]. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that odontoblastic differentiation was enhanced by activation of Tβ4 by Tβ4 peptide but was decreased by Tβ4 siRNA in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) [18]. However, the effects of Tβ4 on osteoclastic differentiation have not been reported.

Jump up ^ Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P, Schulte-Körne G, Strauch K, Remschmidt H (March 2010). "Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 153B (2): 629–39. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31032. PMID 19777562.

Exogenous Tβ4 can function like a hormone on cells in terms of its ability to modulate their biological behavior. Since one of the primary roles of Tβ4 in cells is the sequestration of actin monomers, and the protein is not secreted, previously indicated that it was unlikely that Tβ4 could have a hormonal function [42]. However, other studies have shown that the intracellular level of Tβ4 or its mRNA can be significantly and rapidly altered by external stimuli and that change in the level of Tβ4 often are correlated with cell differentiation [18, 43]. In the present study, exogenous Tβ4 peptide activate intracellular Tβ4, which results suggested that exogenous Tβ4 spontaneously enter the cytoplasm through rapid internalization, and acts their functions same as endogenous one [8, 18].
Research substantiates Wiebe's anecdotal claims. Melanotan.org, a forum dedicated to the peptide that shut down in 2011, had thousands of regular posters, many of whom have since migrated to other discussion boards. In 2009, a BBC report tracking just six needle exchanges found that hundreds of individuals had visited these exchanges in order to receive syringes for Melanotan II use. A year later, the Norwegian Pharmacy Association disclosed that, in Norway alone, several thousand syringes had been distributed to individuals seeking to inject the peptide. Linn Connie Danielsen, a model and blogger, told the Norwegian newspaper Verdens Gangthat Melanotan II helps ease the stressful impact of extended winter sun deprivation. "A nice tan in the winter is good to see," she said.
However, as I’ve said elsewhere, depression is kind of like a check engine light on car, it’s a quiet ambiguous sign that something is not working somewhere in your neurobiology. There is literally dozens (perhaps hundreds) of different ways to attempt to treat depression. Amongst the vast number of options for treating depression, there is a couple of low hanging fruits; things you would want to start with before moving onto more radical options, like…
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