Uterine contractions. These are important for cervical dilation before birth and causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful uterine contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.16
For decades, 5-HTP has been recognized as important to appetite regulation. Higher levels of serotonin are linked to diminished appetite. Keeping serotonin levels from dipping can help keep appetite in check, and may help reduce cravings for carbohydrates. As a serotonin booster, 5-HTP may help to suppress appetite. Research indicates that 5-HTP may be effective in helping people who are overweight or obese lose weight.
5-HTP, along with other L-Tryptophan supplements, have been implicated in the flu-like, potentially fatal Eosinophilic Myalgia Syndrome. This syndrome was initially tied to  impurities - Amino Acids called "Peak E" and "Peak X" - which were present in these products because of poor manufacturing processes by a single major supplier. Some people reject this idea and believe that the syndrome is caused by an excess of tryptophan itself (10, 11).
Who is 5-HTP best for? Emotional eaters stand to benefit greatly, of course. So do carb addicts. Carbs help the body make 5-HTP — so when 5-HTP or serotonin are low, carb cravings kick in. Boosting 5-HTP with a supplement has been shown to slash carb cravings by more than 50 percent. And if a “fat gene” runs in your family, early evidence hints that this genetic tendency toward obesity is linked to “decreased activity of an enzyme that helps turn tryptophan into 5-HTP,” explains Michael T. Murray, ND, author of 5-HTP: The Natural Way to Overcome Depression, Obesity and Insomnia ($14.77, Amazon). Though more human research is needed, Dr. Murray believes 5-HTP supplements are a quick fix for the genetic glitch.
"By understanding the oxytocin system's dual role in triggering or reducing anxiety, depending on the social context, we can optimize oxytocin treatments that improve well-being instead of triggering negative reactions," said Jelena Radulovic, the senior author of the study and the Dunbar Professsor of Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The paper was published July 21 in Nature Neuroscience.
High and low oxytocin levels are possible, but research has not yet found any implications of these conditions. Men with high levels of oxytocin sometimes develop benign prostatic hyperplasia, or the enlarging of the prostate gland. This condition can cause urinary complaints. A lack of oxytocin can prevent the milk letdown reflex and make breastfeeding difficult. Low oxytocin levels have also been linked to depression, but using oxytocin to treat mental health conditions has not yet been studied sufficiently.
A: While it is possible there is an interaction, it most likely is not severe or life-threatening. Keep in mind that the "T" in HTP stands for tryptophane, which is an essential amino acid that your body processes routinely. The most common interaction involved with 5-HTP is with antidepressants or other medications that are intended to affect brain chemistry, as 5-HTP is converted into serotonin, an important brain chemical that helps regulate mood.
Obviously nobody is suggesting coming off your medication, and for many cases of depression and anxiety, a course of SSRIs and/or CBT can be life-saving. For me, during a period of bad anxiety, when I was torn between the idea of going back on antidepressants or not, I began searching for some sort of alternative aid online and soon came across a video of Jim Carrey. Carrey has struggled with depression for the majority of his adult life; he's a classic case of the sad clown. "I take... supplements," he tells Larry King in the clip I found. "Vitamins?" asks King. Not quite, but not far off either. A natural substance called 5-HTP. "It's a wonderful thing," Carrey smiles. "It's amazing." His description of how 5-HTP worked made it sound like a super-drug, a cure-all. All it would take for me would be an anonymous trip to Holland and Barrett and 15 quid. Like every other young person, I knew it as a quick fix for MDMA comedowns, but never considered buying it as a medication replacement. Obviously for severe depression and anxiety, a serious course of SSRIs or cognitive behavioural therapy would be more appropriate. But at this point, I was ready for something to ease the transition.
Disclaimer: Thymosin Beta 4 is a peptide that should only be purchased for use in experimentation and research. It should not be purchased for human use or any other purpose than for research. It is advised that once purchased, the peptide is used within experimental circumstances that are under strict lab regulations. It is recommended that researchers use protective gear in order to prevent contact with the substance. However, if exposure is made with the peptide, it is very important to cleanse the area immediately to prevent harm.

The full-length Tβ4 polypeptide has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation [44]. It is also reported that only the 4-AA, amino-terminal peptide of Tβ4, known as Ac-SDKP, can block inflammation [45]. In this study, we used a synthetically human peptide produced copy of a naturally occurring, highly conserved 43-amino acid (MW = 4964 Da) water soluble acidic peptide, originally isolated from bovine thymus tissue [46]. This peptide is produced by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis in accordance with the current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations (21 CFR 210 and 211) of the FDA [47]. An effective healer, Tβ4 can be administered topically on the surface of cells and systemically, through injection [9–11]. In this study, Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2, expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and mRNA expression of TNF- α, IL-1β, -6, -8, and -17 in cultured PDLCs. These findings suggested that Tβ4 activation possessed anti-inflammatory activity in PDLCs. These results were consistent with previous in vivo and in vitro studies [9–15]. MAPK is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase consisting of three-enzyme modules; its targets, inducing ERK, JNK and p38 kinases, are important in cellular signal transduction pathways and exert an anti-inflammatory response [48, 49]. NF-κB is a major transcription factor involved in the release of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response, and the degradation and phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα are necessary to release NF-κB from the cytoplasmic NF-κB/Iκ-Bα complex and allow its subsequent translocation to the nucleus of the cell [50]. In this study, Tβ4 peptide down-regulated the H2O2-triggered activation of the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB in PDLCs. These results suggested that the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB pathway may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation in PDLCs. Consistent with our findings, Tβ4 treatment decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human corneal epithelial cells [51].
Once the baby is born, oxytocin promotes lactation by moving the milk into the breast. When the baby sucks at the mother's breast, oxytocin secretion causes the milk to release so the baby can feed. At the same time, oxytocin is released into the brain to stimulate further oxytocin production. Once the baby stops feeding, the production of the hormone stops until the next feeding.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine (CYIQNCPLG). The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.

In persons with Panic Disorders (versus persons without as control) ingesting 200mg of 5-HTP, both groups experienced an increase in salivary cortisol within 3 hours but the persons with Panic Attacks continued to have greater increases after the 3 hour mark; this increased cortisol was independent of any percieved side-effects such as headache, fatigue, perspiration, nausea, etc.[43]
The full-length Tβ4 polypeptide has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation [44]. It is also reported that only the 4-AA, amino-terminal peptide of Tβ4, known as Ac-SDKP, can block inflammation [45]. In this study, we used a synthetically human peptide produced copy of a naturally occurring, highly conserved 43-amino acid (MW = 4964 Da) water soluble acidic peptide, originally isolated from bovine thymus tissue [46]. This peptide is produced by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis in accordance with the current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations (21 CFR 210 and 211) of the FDA [47]. An effective healer, Tβ4 can be administered topically on the surface of cells and systemically, through injection [9–11]. In this study, Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2, expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and mRNA expression of TNF- α, IL-1β, -6, -8, and -17 in cultured PDLCs. These findings suggested that Tβ4 activation possessed anti-inflammatory activity in PDLCs. These results were consistent with previous in vivo and in vitro studies [9–15]. MAPK is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase consisting of three-enzyme modules; its targets, inducing ERK, JNK and p38 kinases, are important in cellular signal transduction pathways and exert an anti-inflammatory response [48, 49]. NF-κB is a major transcription factor involved in the release of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response, and the degradation and phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα are necessary to release NF-κB from the cytoplasmic NF-κB/Iκ-Bα complex and allow its subsequent translocation to the nucleus of the cell [50]. In this study, Tβ4 peptide down-regulated the H2O2-triggered activation of the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB in PDLCs. These results suggested that the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB pathway may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation in PDLCs. Consistent with our findings, Tβ4 treatment decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human corneal epithelial cells [51].

Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32:553-557. View abstract.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours, post-incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours, and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Mouse BMMs were cultured with CM in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL), as described in Materials and methods. After 5 days, cells were fixed and stained for TRAP as a marker of osteoclasts (A), and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) was scored (B). TRAP osteoclast activity was assayed using the TRAP cytochemical stain technique (C). * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
Melanotan II tanning injections have received media attention over the past few years and have been dubbed the "barbie drug" by XXXXXX. The XXXXXX website states that all products are manufactured and compounded in pharmacies in Australia and, pending the satisfactory completion of a short medical assessment, will express post products to a nominated shipping address. The XXXXXX website also states that melanotan II is defined as a 'more potent peptide' when compared to melanotan I, offering a greater density in peptide chain with noticeable results in a shorter timeframe. There are also claims of enhancing male libido, sexual performance, curing erectile dysfunction and as an appetite suppressant.
Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein thymosin β4. They are found almost exclusively in multicellular animals. Thymosin β4 was originally obtained from the thymus in company with several other small proteins which although named collectively "thymosins" are now known to be structurally and genetically unrelated and present in many different animal tissues.
Fortunately for the players, despite the appending doom touted by the media, the current research suggests Tβ4 is safe. 23 non-clinical toxicology studies have been performed “that demonstrate the safety of Tβ4 for its current and planned uses in man”. Significantly, a human clinical trial in healthy volunteers found “intravenous administration of Tβ4 appears to be safe and well-tolerated by all subjects with no dose limiting toxicity or serious adverse events reported”. Admittedly, this trial is limited in that it only followed subjects for a period of 28 days, and thus there is a need for further research if Tβ4 is ever to be developed as a medication.
Melanotans include melanotan I (afamelanotide) and melanotan II. Both melanotan I and II are widely abused to obtain a cosmetic tan. The melanotans are potent, non-selective melanocortin receptor agonists affecting MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. These receptors are responsible for many physiological systems including: pigmentation, energy, sexual function, immune system, inflammation and the cardiovascular system.

Provide a record of any correspondence between ASADA staff and the World Anti-Doping Authority containing the keywords:  "Thymosin", "Thymosin Beta 4", "TB-500", "TB500", "TB4" or "Thymomodulin" between June 2011 and September 2013. Provide audit logs showing the date upon which Thymosin Beta 4 was published as a banned substance on the check your substances website. Provide a log of all receipts (provided online or by telephone) given to athletes in response to requests containing the keywords "Thymosin", "Thymosin Beta 4", "TB-500", "TB500", "TB4" or "Thymomodulin" between June 2011 and September 2013.
Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking. In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experimental explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.13
Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).

Robert Love, a urologist in Dallas, understands why there is such back-channel demand for a product like Melanotan II. "People sometimes want to handle performance issues on their own, without a physician involved, either because they are embarrassed or because they may be uninsured or lack adequate insurance," he told Motherboard. "Handling things this way is not advisable. We have prescription drugs that address erectile dysfunction issues. And although this isn't my area, there are alternative ways of getting suntans—tanning beds, spray tans—though of course extended outdoor sun exposure should be avoided if possible."
"By understanding the oxytocin system's dual role in triggering or reducing anxiety, depending on the social context, we can optimize oxytocin treatments that improve well-being instead of triggering negative reactions," said Jelena Radulovic, the senior author of the study and the Dunbar Professsor of Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The paper was published July 21 in Nature Neuroscience.

Good quality Griffonia Simplicifonia, however the pouch is a very inconvenient packaging choice! Why not use the small 25-50gm pill bottle type? I used to be a quality controller in food additives and it would be so perfect to take doses from and fairly cheap and easy to source. I can understand if this is a new product for your line however but you should invest in this for 5htp alone perhaps. Thank you though will be ordering more down the track!


The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem. You should not stop taking any medication without first consulting your physician.

Outside the brain, oxytocin-containing cells have been identified in several diverse tissues, including in females in the corpus luteum[34][35] and the placenta;[36] in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig;[37] and in both sexes in the retina,[38] the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues.


5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taking by mouth appropriately. 5-HTP has been used safely in doses up to 400 mg daily for up to one year. However, some people who have taken it have developed a condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia). Some people think EMS might be caused by an accidental ingredient or contaminant in some 5-HTP products. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to know if EMS is caused by 5-HTP, a contaminant, or some other factor. Until more is known, 5-HTP should be used cautiously.
×