At least one study using an extract of Griffonia simplicifolia (10.24mg giving 2.56mg 5-HTP; confounded with Centella asiatica and Taraxacum officinale at 11.7mg and 4.55mg Paulina cupana and 9.75mg Artichoke extract) taken in three hits, five times a day (40mg 5-HTP total), by 20 overweight or obese females (non-depressive and without eating disorders) for 4 weeks has noted an increase in satiety and reduced binge eating tendencies; the increase in satiety was said to account for the improved weight loss results seen in the experimental group when both were given weight loss advice and diets.[3] This spray has been noted elsewhere to increase satiety (and vicariously through that, body weight) over 2 months in a similar demographic of women.[2]
Research substantiates Wiebe's anecdotal claims. Melanotan.org, a forum dedicated to the peptide that shut down in 2011, had thousands of regular posters, many of whom have since migrated to other discussion boards. In 2009, a BBC report tracking just six needle exchanges found that hundreds of individuals had visited these exchanges in order to receive syringes for Melanotan II use. A year later, the Norwegian Pharmacy Association disclosed that, in Norway alone, several thousand syringes had been distributed to individuals seeking to inject the peptide. Linn Connie Danielsen, a model and blogger, told the Norwegian newspaper Verdens Gangthat Melanotan II helps ease the stressful impact of extended winter sun deprivation. "A nice tan in the winter is good to see," she said.
Both the production of oxytocin and response to oxytocin are modulated by circulating levels of sex steroids. The burst of oxytocin released at birth seems to be triggered in part by cervical and vaginal stimulation by the fetus, but also because of abruptly declining concentrations of progesterone. Another well-studied effect of steroid hormones is the marked increase in synthesis of uterine (myometrial) oxytocin receptors late in gestation, resulting from increasing concentrations of circulating estrogen.
Oxytocin is relatively safe when used at recommended doses. Potential side effects include: Central nervous system: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, seizures; Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, systemic venous return, cardiac output, and arrhythmias;Genitourinary: Impaired uterine blood flow, pelvic hematoma, tetanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage.
MAPKs and NF-κB played pivotal roles in the development of osteoclasts downstream of RANK signaling [54]. In this study, we demonstrated that Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited RANKL-induced p38, ERK, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggested that Tβ4 activation might inhibit osteoclast differentiation via inhibition of the signaling cascades MAPK/NF-κB/NFATc1.
As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis [24], we examined whether H2O2 could down-regulate or up-regulate Tβ4 expression in PDLCs. As shown in Fig 1A and 1B, Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated by H2O2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Because maximal Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were achieved with 200 μM H2O2 within 48 hours in PDLCs, this concentration was used in subsequent experiments.
When combined with antidepressants of the MAOI or SSRI class, very high parenteral doses of 5-HTP can cause acute serotonin syndrome in rats.[23][24] It is unclear if such findings have clinical relevance, as most drugs will cause serious adverse events or death in rodents at very high doses. In humans 5-HTP has never been clinically associated with serotonin syndrome, although 5-HTP can precipitate mania when added to an MAOI.[25]
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