These results were in agreement with previous studies that showed Wnt5a expression can be induced in activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) after inflammatory stimulation [58, 59]. In addition, we found that the effects of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17), the expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), osteoclastogenic cytokines (cathepsin-K, calcitonin receptor or Calcr, NFATc1, and RANK), and osteoclastic differentiation, were reversed by exogenous treatment with Wnt5a siRNA but enhanced by rh-Wnt5a, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenetic effects of Tβ4 activation were involved the Wnt5a-dependent signaling pathway. Similar to our results, Wnt5a knock-down markedly reduced cytokine/chemokine production induced by TNF in HDPCs [60].
Thymosins were discovered in the mid 1960’s, when Allan Goldstein from the Laboratory of Abraham White at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York studied the role of the thymus in development of the vertebrate immune system. Since then, Dr. Goldstein founded a company that creates thymosin alpha 1 for the purpose of increasing immune cell activity, and thymosin beta 4 (TB-500) to promote wound repair and healing.
A later experiment by another group took it a step further. This time the volunteers were told how they did, and in half of the cases, they learned that the trustee had burned them and kept the money. The volunteers who were burned were asked whether they wanted to try again. What would you do? This would be like getting that spam from the Nigerian Prince a second time and sending him $5,000 again, right?
Cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described in bipolar disorders… Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan; 5-HT) is possibly involved in these cognitive processes, more particularly in executive functions, learning, memory, and attention. The aim of this study was to investigate serotonergic vulnerability and its relation to cognitive functioning in healthy first-degree relatives of [bipolar disorders] patients…
Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
If you were to go on the internet, read the hype, you'd probably think it'll be something like having an ecstasy tablet or having an orgasm or something like that, but the reality is you probably wouldn't be able to distinguish it from placebo. So the effects are extremely subtle. Now, that subtlety isn't necessarily because of oxytocin itself being a subtle hormone, it's just this issue of it penetrating the brain. So when you take it intranasally, we're still trying to work out how much gets into the brain, but probably only a vanishingly small amount.
This is a great product, I have been having digestive problems after 13 major surgeries and suffering from Crohn's Disease my whole life. Currently I can only tolerate a liquid diet. Was very depressed, found this and started taking it and it has made a HUGE difference to my life. Only have very mild depression symptoms now, and sleep better at night. Bought the powder to get the dose right, looks like 100mg suits my 50 kg frame. Only bad thing is the packaging. The 10 grams of powder is lost in the large packet, very hard to get it out and measure the same dose every night. I purchased miniature measuring spoons from ebay and they make life much easier. Sort out the correct spoon for your dosage with the scales then off you go. Can be tricky getting it in and out of the bag, often get powder everywhere, but usually just lick it off. A pill container would work much better for this power.

To investigate the effect of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-induced signaling cascades, the activation states of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) as well as NF-κB p65 were examined in PDLCs. H2O2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK(s) and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (Fig 5A). Treatment of cells with Tβ4 peptide blocked H2O2-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of ERK and JNK (Fig 5B).
Humans are social animals. Our individual prospects depend to a significant degree on the prospects of the group(s) to which we belong, and how well we get along with the group(s). Survival means being acutely sensitive to who is on our side and who is not. So it isn’t surprising that trust matters so much to how we go about protecting ourselves. And it isn’t surprising to find the instinct for trust rooted deep in the brain.
What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now
Interestingly, there are numerous differences in the biology of teleosts and mammals, as well as specific differences in cardiomyocyte cellular structure and anatomy, all of which might contribute to regenerative variability. Unlike mammals, zebrafish can grow throughout most of adulthood, a phenomenon called “indeterminate growth” (Jordan, 1905). In fact, their growth can be affected markedly by changes in nutrition and population density (Goldsmith et al., 2006). It is thus possible that the capacity to replace cardiac tissue rapidly in teleosts has been retained in evolution as a function of the need for robust animal and cardiac growth. Indeed, a recent study has found that experimentally-induced adult cardiac growth in zebrafish is hyperplastic, and appears to rely on the same signals present or required during cardiac regeneration (Wills et al., 2008).
The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
Oxytocin affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic attraction and subsequent monogamous pair bonding. An oxytocin nasal spray caused men in a monogamous relationship, but not single men, to increase the distance between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter by 10 to 15 centimeters. The researchers suggested that oxytocin may help promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.[109] For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "bonding hormone". There is some evidence that oxytocin promotes ethnocentric behavior, incorporating the trust and empathy of in-groups with their suspicion and rejection of outsiders.[66] Furthermore, genetic differences in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been associated with maladaptive social traits such as aggressive behavior.[110]
You can't purchase oxytocin spray at any retail outlet and as our experts made clear in the program, buying a product online gives you no guarantee of what is actually in the product - it could be oxytocin or it could be something else - nor is it proven that the spray will actually reach your brain. For these reasons, none of our experts recommend purchasing oxytocin spray.
For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the “love hormone,” because it is associated with good feelings and emotions. But its role in the body is much more complex than that. It is not a bliss or hug hormone, but it does appear to be connected to human emotions and the regulation of childbirth and breast-feeding.
A 2002 review concluded that although the data evaluated suggests that 5-HTP is more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression, the evidence was insufficient to be conclusive due to a lack of clinical data meeting the rigorous standards of today.[2] More and larger studies using current methodologies are needed to determine if 5-HTP is truly effective in treating depression.[3][4] In small controlled trials 5-HTP has also been reported to augment the antidepressant efficacy of the antidepressant clomipramine.[5][6][7]