The potential of Tb4 to repair sun damaged and aging skin is yet to be established by extensive studies. Many of the biological events that occur in wounding are involved in skin impaired by sun and aging. Ultraviolet radiation damage or other injuries to skin that are associated with aging may be in the future repairable with Tb4, similar to the success with wound repair. It is a hopeful prediction that this small anti-inflammatory molecule, which plays a vital role in regeneration, remodeling and healing of damaged tissues, would help rejuvenate aging skin. The effects of Tb4 in accelerating wound repair are important following surgery; Tb4 would then have practical applications following cosmetic surgery, a procedure growing in popularity in our society, in dealing with aging skin.

TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes.

In the experiments, an epithelial wound was made in the corneas of sedated rats. A Tb4 solution was applied at several concentrations to the injured eyes in one group of rats while another group was treated with a solution without Tb4. Following 12, 24 and 36 hours, the eyes were tested by microscopic observation for epithelial growth over the injured site. Investigators found the Tb4 accelerated corneal wound repair at doses of Tb4 similar to those found to repair skin wounds. When tested 24 hours after treatment, the rate of accelerated repair was proportional to the concentration of Tb4, with the highest dose (25 microgram) showing a threefold acceleration of epithelial cell migration, compared to untreated. Treatment with Tb4 showed anti-inflammatory effects, helping resolve the injury. An application to human cells in a model of human corneal cells in culture showed that Tb4 enhanced epithelial cell migration in vitro.
If you’re looking for hard proof that taking 5-HTP to lose weight works, we’ve got it: In a University of Rome study, obese women who took 5-HTP began eating between 1,000 to 2,000 fewer calories per day. And even as their caloric intake plummeted to a level that would leave many dieters irritable, serotonin was soothing these ladies — and not one reported hunger or diet crankiness. Further boosting spirits: The supplements quadrupled their weight loss, compared to folks given a placebo pill. “They ate a lot less than they normally would because it was easy for them,” Dr. Bhatia notes. Hearing about such an easy way to lose weight might be enough to inspire you to try the supplement for yourself. So, we went ahead and rounded up everything you need to know to get started.
People are using 5-HTP for absolutely everything from sleep disorders to OCD symptoms. After asking people in mental health Facebook groups whether they used it and why, I was inundated with responses. Sach Tennant, from London, takes it for her PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). "I only take it when I feel low and it only takes one hour to feel calm," she told me. "This month I only needed one to feel better. I don't get the zombie antidepressant feeling – you still have your emotions. Sleep is good on it. I used to have an inner voice that was male and used to bully me during PMT time. Noises seemed too loud, even like somebody eating a bag of crisps. Topping up with 5-HTP has stopped all this."
Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). α-MSH is a melanocortin I receptor agonist which has a role in human pigmentation by stimulating production of eumelanin. Melanotan II was originally developed as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. However, the proposal was abandoned when development of the metabolite bremelanotide was established.
TB-500 is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring peptide present in virtually all human and animal cells, Thymosin Beta-4. This potent peptide is a member of a ubiquitous family of 16 related molecules with a high conservation of sequence and localization in most tissues and circulating cells in the body. TB-500 not only binds to actin, but also blocks actin polymerization and is the actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.
In addition to its intracellular role as the major actin-sequestering molecule in cells of many multicellular animals, thymosin β4 shows a remarkably diverse range of effects when present in the fluid surrounding animal tissue cells. Taken together, these effects suggest that thymosin has a general role in tissue regeneration. This has suggested a variety of possible therapeutic applications, and several have now been extended to animal models and human clinical trials.
As shown in Figure 1, thymic hormones also modulate the production of hypothalamus pituitary hormones and neuropeptides. Initial experiments revealed that neonatal thymectomy promotes a decrease in the number of secretory granules in acidophic cells of the adenopituitary [44]. In the same vein, athymic nude mice display low levels of various pituitary hormones, such as PRL, GH, LH and FSH [45]. With regard to thymic peptides, thymosin beta-4, when perfused intraventricularly, stimulates LH and LHRH secretion [46]. Similar results were obtained with another thymic peptide, thymulin, in perfused or fragmented pituitary preparations [47]. The administration of thymopoietin (another chemically-defined thymic hormone) in children with Hodgkin’s disease increased GH and cortisol serum levels [48]. Moreover, thymopentin (the synthetic biologically active peptide of thymopoietin) enhances in vitro the production of ACTH and beta-endorphin [49]. In addition, thymulin exhibits an in vitro stimulatory effect on perfused rat pituitaries, enhancing PRL, GH, TSH and LH release [50]. Using short-term cultures of pituitary fragments, an increase in ACTH secretion occurs after in vitro thymulin addition, with no changes in GH levels and significant reductions in PRL release [47]. A further thymosin peptide was recently isolated with the task in stimulating IL-6 release from rat glioma cells [51]. By contrast, thymosin alpha-1 is apparently able to down regulate TSH, ACTH and PRL secretion in vivo with no modifications on GH levels [52]. These inhibitory effects seem to occur through hypothalamic pathways. Indeed, the production of the corresponding releasing hormones by hypothalamic neurones decreased after in vitro addition of thymosin alpha-1 in medial basal hypothalamic fragments [52].

All of this becomes heavily ironic when you consider that the chemical in question – a hormone called oxytocin – is often billed as the “hormone of love”, and even marketed as “Liquid Trust”. As a new study shows, the reality is much more complicated. Describing oxytocin as the “hormone of love” is like describing a computer as a “writing tool” – it does other things too, some of which aren’t pleasant.


I’ve used powdered 5-HTP a couple times now, it doesn’t taste great and it’s resulted in an unpleasant stomach upset that lasted 45–60 minutes. For that reason I’ll likely not continue to use it. I did not find it’s effect on mood remarkable enough that I would want to put up with the stomach upset. My go to Nootropics for mood are Rhodiola and Phenibut and my go to Biohacks for mood are meditation and no fap, I don’t feel the need to use a whole lot more mood promoting strategies.
Mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMMs) of 5-week-old female ICR mice (Charles River Laboratories, Seoul, South Korea) were used as previously described [23]. Animals were maintained in accordance with the National Institute of Toxicological Research of the Korea Food and Drug Administration guideline for the humane care and use of laboratory animals Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval was obtained from Kyung Hee University (Seoul, Korea). Briefly, bone marrow of tibiae and femurs of mice were flushed with α-MEM. After removing erythrocytes with hypotonic buffer, cells were cultured in α-MEM containing 10% FBS for 24 h and adherent cells were discarded. Non-adherent bone marrow cells were transferred onto 100-mm non-coated petri dishes at 5×106 cells per dish and cultured in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml) for 3 days. Condition medium (CM) was obtained from HPDLCs treated with 200 μM H2O2 or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) for 2 days. To evaluate the osteoclastogenic activity of CM from HPDLCs, we added the CM mixture (60% CM plus 40% fresh α-MEM without M-CSF or RANKL) or rh-Tβ4 to pre-osteoclast-stage cells and further cultured the cells for up to 5 days to achieve mature osteoclast differentiation BMMs (1.5 × 105 cells/well) and PDLCs (1.5 × 104 cells/well) were co-cultured for 7 days in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml), RANKL (100 ng/mL), H2O2 (200 μM) or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) in α-MEM, supplemented with10% in 48-well plates under 5% CO2 atmosphere.

Outside the brain, oxytocin-containing cells have been identified in several diverse tissues, including in females in the corpus luteum[34][35] and the placenta;[36] in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig;[37] and in both sexes in the retina,[38] the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues.
Once the baby is born, oxytocin promotes lactation by moving the milk into the breast. When the baby sucks at the mother's breast, oxytocin secretion causes the milk to release so the baby can feed. At the same time, oxytocin is released into the brain to stimulate further oxytocin production. Once the baby stops feeding, the production of the hormone stops until the next feeding.
Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and dynorphin, for example, that act locally. The magnocellular neurons that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurons that make vasopressin, and are similar in many respects.

But returning hunters also need to share meat with their families and friends; this is where oxytocin comes into play. It can help overcome the potentially negative social effects of testosterone. Men who were absent for longer seem to need more oxytocin to reconnect with their families; it seems that absence does indeed make the heart grow fonder, via an oxytocin blast.
It should be noted that supplemental 5-HTP can cause an increase in urinary 5-HIAA, which is the major metabolite of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Increased urinary 5-HIAA is also sometimes a diagonistic marker for carcinoid tumors due to increased conversion of tryptophan to serotonin in these tumors,[62][63] and in this case serum chromogranin A should be measured (as supplemental 5-HTP does not appear to increase chromogranin A).[63]

Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.


Can a supplement proven to fight blue moods also help stimulate weight loss? “Yes it can!” say experts who are now prescribing a natural compound called 5-HTP. According to top integrative health expert Tasneem Bhatia, MD, author of What Doctors Eat ($15.99, Amazon), “5-HTP is converted directly to serotonin, and serotonin makes you feel good, feel happy, feel full — and when you feel that way, you’re going to eat less.” In fact, Dr. Bhatia adds that while most appetite suppressants only target physical hunger, this one also “works to reduce ‘emotional hunger’ and stress-related urges to eat.” Dr. Oz said he left impressed after consulting with a panel of 5-HTP experts, including American Board of Obesity Medicine alum Denise E. Bruner, MD. He said the supplements may even be “a secret weapon for hunger!”
Skin is the largest organ of the body, which makes up 16% of total body weight. It is also the largest organ that provides immune protection and plays a role in inflammation. Composed of specialized epithelial and connective tissue cells, skin is our major interface with the environment, a shield from the outside world and a means of interacting with it. As such, the skin is subjected to insults and injuries: burns from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation that elicit inflammatory reactions, damage from environmental pollutants and wear and tear that comes with aging.
5-HTP appears to reduce food intake secondary to increasing satiety, although most studies are currently conducted in women (in regards to 5-HTP being related to serotonin, this may be relevant; see our creatine page and the Depression section for more information). At least one study that was mixed gender supports the notion it benefits both genders, however
The reason for the difference is the density of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Life pair bonders, like prairie voles or, indeed, ourselves, have a high density of receptors in the reward centre of the brain. Non-pair bonders, like meadow voles, certainly enjoy sex, but their lower density of receptors means it doesn't matter so much who the partner is. So it's not the oxytocin itself making sex enjoyable. What it's doing is influencing our mating behaviour.
About three months after quitting, I did have a major relapse, which was falling back into old habits for about two weeks. And the whole time I knew what was happening, I knew how dangerous it was, but I couldn't stop myself. I felt like I couldn't connect to anyone without drinking. I couldn't talk to my friends, I couldn't be open and honest with anybody in my life without already having had a few drinks. It was a really disconnected, really unpleasant feeling. That's what I couldn't sit with and I couldn't cope with that feeling, so I went back to drinking.
To pursue the sexual dysfunction agent, melanotan-II was licensed by Competitive Technologies to Palatin Technologies.[9] Palatin ceased development of melanotan-II in 2000 and synthesized, patented, and began to develop bremelanotide, a likely metabolite of melanotan-II that differs from melanotan-II in that it has a hydroxyl group where melanotan-II has an amide.[6][13] Competitive Technologies sued Palatin for breach of contract and to try to claim ownership of bremelanotide;[13] the parties settled in 2008 with Palatin retaining rights to bremelanotide, returning rights to melanotan-II to Competitive Technologies, and paying $800,000.[14]
Injected oxytocin analogues are used to induce labour and support labour in case of non-progression of parturition. It has largely replaced ergotamine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to increase milk production. The tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile®) acts as an antagonist of oxytocin receptors; this drug is registered in many countries to suppress premature labour between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline).
The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[31] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.[citation needed]
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.[1]
Feeding: a 2012 paper suggested that oxytocin neurons in the para-ventricular hypothalamus in the brain may play a key role in suppressing appetite under normal conditions and that other hypothalamic neurons may trigger eating via inhibition of these oxytocin neurons. This population of oxytocin neurons are absent in Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that leads to uncontrollable feeding and obesity, and may play a key role in its pathophysiology.[54]

Do I have to diet? Studies show that 5-HTP enhances weight loss even if you continue eating your normal foods. Without a diet, you stand to lose about a pound a week; many folks eventually drop 15 pounds or more without dieting. Of course, taking 5-HTP to lose weight works by lowering caloric intake — and the more calories you cut, the more you’ll lose. So if you want to maximize results, try tweaking your diet at the two-week mark, when 5-HTP will have fully kicked in, diminishing hunger and carb cravings. Below, we’ve got a version of the diet used in one university study that helped 5-HTP takers lose several times more weight than folks getting a placebo.

5-HTP increases a chemical in the brain. This chemical is called serotonin. Some medications used for depression also increase serotonin. Taking 5-HTP with these medications used for depression might cause there to be too much serotonin. This could cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.

Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.
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