Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Jump up ^ Xu J, Jian B, Chu R, Lu Z, Li Q, Dunlop J, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, McGonigle P, Levy RJ, Liang B (December 2002). "Serotonin mechanisms in heart valve disease II: the 5-HT2 receptor and its signaling pathway in aortic valve interstitial cells". The American Journal of Pathology. 161 (6): 2209–18. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64497-5. PMC 1850896. PMID 12466135.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide.
Oxytocin is known as the hormone that promotes feelings of love, bonding and well-being. It's even being tested as an anti-anxiety drug. But new research shows oxytocin also can cause emotional pain. Oxytocin appears to be the reason stressful social situations, perhaps being bullied at school or tormented by a boss, reverberate long past the event and can trigger fear and anxiety in the future. That's because the hormone actually strengthens social memory in the brain.
Moreover, Tβ4 concentration revealed wide variability, and it decreased in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as periodontal disease progressed [19]. In contrast, Tβ4 mRNA expression was 3.76 fold higher in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, compared with healthy individuals’ tissue obtained from public microarray data (GEO assession: GSE 23586) [20]. However, the Tβ4 mRNA level did not change in the periodontal-diseased gingival tissue (arbitrary units; 6.249) when compared with healthy tissue (arbitrary units; 6.242) (GEO assession: GSE 10334) [21]. Although Tβ4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, the precise role of Tβ4 in the inflammatory response remains unclear.
Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43 amino acid protein (a peptide) that was originally identified in calf thymus, an organ that is central in the development of immunity. Tb4 was later found in all cells except red blood cells. It is highest in blood platelets that are the first to enter injured areas, in wound healing. Tb4 is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids.
People are using 5-HTP for absolutely everything from sleep disorders to OCD symptoms. After asking people in mental health Facebook groups whether they used it and why, I was inundated with responses. Sach Tennant, from London, takes it for her PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). "I only take it when I feel low and it only takes one hour to feel calm," she told me. "This month I only needed one to feel better. I don't get the zombie antidepressant feeling – you still have your emotions. Sleep is good on it. I used to have an inner voice that was male and used to bully me during PMT time. Noises seemed too loud, even like somebody eating a bag of crisps. Topping up with 5-HTP has stopped all this."
Serotonin appears to be associated with panic attacks. Although studies that have used tryptophan depletion techniques in humans do not necessarily induce a panic attack[34][35][36] it appears it may sensitize the body by an increase in neurovegetative panic symptoms and increased anxiety[37] which suggests that serotonin is protective against panic attacks, at least acutely.[38][39] A study in 24 unmedicated panic disorder patients and normal participants given 200mg 5-HTP prior to a 35% CO2 test (used to induce a panic attack-like response) noted that the test was able to induce panic attack in both panic disorder patients and normal persons and that 200mg 5-HTP was protective in both conditions but to a greater degree in persons suffering from panic disorders.[40] This has been replicated with cholecystokinin-4 induced panic attack with 200mg 5-HTP in otherwise healthy persons.[41]
What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now
A: 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement. Because dietary supplements have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well-known. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. For more specific information, consult with your pharmacist about the potential for drug interactions based on your specific condition and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals, and herbals, as well as the foods you eat. Always keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care providers and your pharmacist. If possible, use one pharmacy for all your prescription medications and over-the-counter products. This allows your pharmacist to keep a complete record of all your prescription drugs and to advise you about drug interactions and side effects. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Jen Marsico, RPh
Jump up ^ Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (February 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1162–6. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1162L. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1162. PMC 319967. PMID 6940133.
High and low oxytocin levels are possible, but research has not yet found any implications of these conditions. Men with high levels of oxytocin sometimes develop benign prostatic hyperplasia, or the enlarging of the prostate gland. This condition can cause urinary complaints. A lack of oxytocin can prevent the milk letdown reflex and make breastfeeding difficult. Low oxytocin levels have also been linked to depression, but using oxytocin to treat mental health conditions has not yet been studied sufficiently.
To investigate whether the newborn neurons generated in the DG are capable of projecting their axons into the CA3 region of the hippocampus after TBI, we stereotactically injected a fluorescent tracer, 1,1″-dioleyl-3,3,3″,3″-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate (Dil, Delta 9-DiI; AnaSpec, San Jose, CA) into the ipsilateral CA3 region (stereotaxic coordinates AP, -3.6 mm bregma, ML, 3.6 mm, DV, 3.0 mm, Paxinos and Watson, 1994) at day 28 after TBI. BrdU (100mg/kg, ip) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 1 after TBI for 10 days to label newly generated cells. One week after DiI injection (i.e., 35 days after TBI), the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Their brains were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The brain was cut into seven equally spaced 2-mm coronal blocks using a rat brain matrix. The brain blocks containing the hippocampus were processed for vibratome sections (100 μm) followed by BrdU staining. BrdU and DiI labeling in the hippocampus on brain sections was analyzed with a Bio-Rad MRC 1024 (argon and krypton) laser-scanning confocal imaging system mounted onto a Zeiss microscope (Bio-Rad, Cambridge, MA). Co-localization of BrdU-positive nuclei within retrogradely DiI-labeled granule cells was found, indicating that newborn granule neurons extend axons into the CA3 region that are capable of retrogradely transporting DiI from the CA3 to their cell bodies within the DG after TBI (Fig.2). This finding suggests that newborn granule neurons may be incorporated into functional hippocampal circuitry after TBI.
Who is 5-HTP best for? Emotional eaters stand to benefit greatly, of course. So do carb addicts. Carbs help the body make 5-HTP — so when 5-HTP or serotonin are low, carb cravings kick in. Boosting 5-HTP with a supplement has been shown to slash carb cravings by more than 50 percent. And if a “fat gene” runs in your family, early evidence hints that this genetic tendency toward obesity is linked to “decreased activity of an enzyme that helps turn tryptophan into 5-HTP,” explains Michael T. Murray, ND, author of 5-HTP: The Natural Way to Overcome Depression, Obesity and Insomnia ($14.77, Amazon). Though more human research is needed, Dr. Murray believes 5-HTP supplements are a quick fix for the genetic glitch.
The need to balance hunting pride and social obligations, and the necessity to reconnect with a family that depends on their provisioning were likely experienced by men throughout much of human evolutionary history. Oxytocin is found in all mammals and originated in the mother-infant bond, where it helps with childbirth, nursing and bonding. In some species, this existing hormonal mechanism could then be harnessed for novel contexts – for instance, men investing in pair-bonding and family provisioning, which is rare among mammals.
I found this to be an excellent supplement for myself, which overcomes the rate limiting step when the body converts tryptophan to 5-HTP. I am sleeping much better and handling life's normal stresses better. If you haven't already, become familiar with how/why the body converts L-Tryptophan > 5-HTP > Serotonin > Melatonin. Very interesting! Thank you Bulk Nutrients for making this available.
I was just diagnosed with achilles tendonosis in both of my achilles. I am an avid lifter as well as city leagues for football and basketball, I live in Montana so I hike a lot and participate In obstacle course races. My achilles have ground me to a halt over the last 3 months months. I have been referred to a surgeon for a Tenex procedure on both achilles. I am only 32 the last thing I want is have both of my achilles cut into. I’m looking at the TB-500 and BPC-157 to hopefully avoid surgery. I have done my research but am getting conflicting numbers as far as dosing. I am roughly 240 pounds and 6’5 could u recommend a dosage and cycle? Also I was wondering where the most effective injection site would be? Do I need it directly into the achilles itself or is local good enough?
RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals is focusing on the commercialization of Tb4 “For the treatment of injured tissue and non-healing wounds, to enable more rapid repair and/or tissue regeneration.” Especially needy are diabetics who suffer from poor blood circulation and loss of sensation of pain that keeps their wounds unnoticed and unattended for days, leading to ulcers that may not heal. Other hard healing wounds are pressure ulcers in patients who are bed ridden and often receive skin grafts as treatment, or reconstructive surgery.

TBI patients frequently suffer from long-term deficits in cognitive and motor performance. No single animal model can adequately mimic all aspects of human TBI owing to the heterogeneity of clinical TBI.11 Some features of cognitive and motor function in humans have been successfully demonstrated in experimental brain trauma models.28-30 The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model is one of the most widely used TBI models. The CCI-TBI model has many clinically relevant features in that CCI causes not only cortical damage but also selective neuronal death in the hippocampus in rodents, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction and spatial learning and memory deficits, respectively.18,31-33

Once the baby is born, oxytocin promotes lactation by moving the milk into the breast. When the baby sucks at the mother's breast, oxytocin secretion causes the milk to release so the baby can feed. At the same time, oxytocin is released into the brain to stimulate further oxytocin production. Once the baby stops feeding, the production of the hormone stops until the next feeding.
In all groups, [intravenous tryptophan] impaired memory and psychomotor performance significantly. In conclusion, cognitive deficits in [bipolar patients] following [intravenous tryptophan] may reflect a central 5-HT vulnerability in frontal brain areas. Independent of [intravenous tryptophan], cognitive deficits in [bipolar patients] provide evidence for a trait marker for [bipolar disorders].
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as nature’s love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocin’s role in the mother–child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. “The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found,” she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women.
The need to balance hunting pride and social obligations, and the necessity to reconnect with a family that depends on their provisioning were likely experienced by men throughout much of human evolutionary history. Oxytocin is found in all mammals and originated in the mother-infant bond, where it helps with childbirth, nursing and bonding. In some species, this existing hormonal mechanism could then be harnessed for novel contexts – for instance, men investing in pair-bonding and family provisioning, which is rare among mammals.
Supplementation of 5-HTP has been shown to be more effective than tryptophan supplementation alone. This additional benefit of 5-HTP supplementation arises because 5-HTP bypasses the cell's L-tryptophan's own self-regulation on the IDO enzyme, in which it upregulates the activity of IDO (discussed in next section) to maintain body homeostasis of tryptophan[6] and it bypasses the tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme, which is the rate limiting step in serotonin biosynthesis.[7]
Reconstituting tanning peptide is a part of the process required for use of the product and will require full attention to get proper results. 1 or 2ml sterile water is usually used, diluting with more water will improve dosing accuracy. Lovemelanotan peptide calculator is ideal tool for anyone just starting out and not sure how to reconstitute or dose the product properly.
Researchers often investigate the effects of hormones on behavior in laboratory experiments with student subjects. Some studies show that when you give people oxytocin they become more generous and trusting. In others that administer testosterone to men, the opposite happens. The strength of such studies is that they can demonstrate cause and effect – the behavior change only occurs in subjects receiving hormones, not in those who get a placebo. But this research has weaknesses as well: it often focuses on single hormones, ignoring their potential interactions, and behavior is measured with highly artificial tasks.

The two main actions of oxytocin in the body are contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins, which increase the contractions further. Manufactured oxytocin is sometimes given to induce labour if it has not started naturally or it can be used to strengthen contractions to aid childbirth. In addition, manufactured oxytocin is often given to speed up delivery of the placenta and reduce the risk of heavy bleeding by contracting the uterus. During breastfeeding, oxytocin promotes the movement of milk into the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple. Oxytocin is also present in men, playing a role in sperm movement and production of testosterone by the testes.

Hypoxic heart disease is a predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. As adult mammals are incapable of cardiac repair after infarction, the discovery of effective methods to achieve myocardial and vascular regeneration is crucial. Efforts to use stem cells to repopulate damaged tissue are currently limited by technical considerations and restricted cell potential. We discovered that the small, secreted peptide thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) could be sufficiently used to inhibit myocardial cell death, stimulate vessel growth, and activate endogenous cardiac progenitors by reminding the adult heart on its embryonic program in vivo. The initiation of epicardial thickening accompanied by increase of myocardial and epicardial progenitors with or without infarction indicate that the reactivation process is independent of injury. Our results demonstrate Tbeta4 to be the first known molecule able to initiate simultaneous myocardial and vascular regeneration after systemic administration in vivo. Given our findings, the utility of Tbeta4 to heal cardiac injury may hold promise and warrant further investigation.

Evidence accumulated over the past decades has overturned the traditional dogma that the adult mammalian brain cannot generate new neurons. Adult neurogenesis has been identified in all vertebrate species examined thus far including humans.44-49 Newly generated neuronal cells originate from neural stem cells in the adult brain. Neural stem cells are the self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neuronal and glial cells of the nervous system.50 The major function of neurogenesis in adult brain seems to replace the neurons that die regularly in certain brain areas. Granule neurons in the DG continuously die and the progenitors in the subgranular zone of the DG may proliferate at the same rate as mature neuronal death to maintain a constant DG cell number.51 Similarly, the newly proliferated cells from the subventricular zone migrate and replenish the dead olfactory bulb neurons.52 Here, we focus on DG neurogenesis which is important for spatial learning and memory. In normal adult rats, newborn neural cells migrate from the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus into the granule cell layer and eventually become mature granule neurons.53 These new granule neurons extend axonal processes to their postsynaptic targets54-57 and receive synaptic input.58 TBI stimulates widespread cellular proliferation in rats and results in focal neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus.59,60 Some of the newly generated granule neurons integrate into the hippocampus. The integration of the injury-induced neurogenic population into the existing hippocampal circuitry coincides with the time point when cognitive recovery is observed in injured animals.44

These proteins became of interest in neurobiology with the finding that in the nudibranch (sea slug) Hermissenda crassicornis, the protein Csp24 (conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein-24), with 4 repeats, is involved in simple forms of learning: both one-trial enhancement of the excitability of sensory neurons in the conditioned stimulus pathway,[25] and in multi-trial Pavlovian conditioning.[26] The phosphorylation of Csp24, in common with post-translational modifications of a number of cytoskeleton-related proteins may contribute to actin-filament dynamics underlying structural remodeling of responsive cells.[26]
Thymosin β4 was initially perceived as a thymic hormone. However this changed when it was discovered that it forms a 1:1 complex with G (globular) actin, and is present at high concentration in a wide range of mammalian cell types.[11] When appropriate, G-actin monomers polymerize to form F (filamentous) actin, which, together with other proteins that bind to actin, comprise cellular microfilaments. Formation by G-actin of the complex with β-thymosin (= "sequestration") opposes this.

Hi Ben. Have a groin problem which I have had for years and it just won’t go away it’s not a hernia or osteitis pubis I had an MRI and the specialist said they wouldn’t operate. I can still play sport but I’m just less agile and slower than normal and it takes a few days for the groin pain to go away after sport. Would tb500 help to heal it or would bpc157 or something else be better? Thanks :)
One study investigating romantic stress that looked at nondepressed youth who went through a recent breakup and were given 60mg of Griffonica Simplicifonia (12.8mg 5-HTP) twice a day for 6 weeks in an open-label study noted reductions in percieved romantic stress when measured at the 3 week mark with no further improvement at 6 weeks; there was no control nor placebo group in this study.[29]
Three groups of mice were individually placed in cages with aggressive mice and experienced social defeat, a stressful experience for them. One group was missing its oxytocin receptors, essentially the plug by which the hormone accesses brain cells. The lack of receptors means oxytocin couldn't enter the mice's brain cells. The second group had an increased number of receptors so their brain cells were flooded with the hormone. The third control group had a normal number of receptors.

Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use: if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking carbidopa or drugs/supplements with serotonergic activity including, but not limited to, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's Wort, antidepressants, pain killers, over-the-counter cough and cold medication containing dextromethorphan, anti-nausea medication and anti-migraine medication. Discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner if you show signs of weakness, oral ulcers, or abdominal pain accompanied by severe muscle pain. Do not use if you have scleroderma. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness. Some people may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness.

Thymosin beta-4 is a very large molecule. In fact, it is so large that it cannot fit entirely into the receptor. Different sections of the molecule have different activities. TB-500 is the part of thymosin beta-4 hormone which promotes the most useful effects (overall healing, repair, new blood and muscle cells). For medical applications it is more practical to use the TB-500 instead of the entire Thymosin Beta-4 protein.
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.[23] Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C.[24]
In years past, oxytocin had the reputation of being an "uncomplicated" hormone, with only a few well-defined activities related to birth and lactation. As has been the case with so many hormones, further research has demonstrated many subtle but profound influences of this little peptide, particularly in regards to its effects in the brain. Oxytocin has been implicated in setting a number of social behaviors in species ranging from mice to humans. For example, secretion or administration of oxytocin in humans appears to enhance trust and cooperation within socially-close groups, while promoting defensive aggression toward unrelated, competing groups.
Jump up ^ Carlier MF, Hertzog M, Didry D, Renault L, Cantrelle FX, van Heijenoort C, Knossow M, Guittet E (September 2007). "Structure, function, and evolution of the beta-thymosin/WH2 (WASP-Homology2) actin-binding module". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1112: 67–75. Bibcode:2007NYASA1112...67C. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.037. PMID 17947587.
Silencing of the Tβ4 or Wnt5a gene was achieved by transfecting cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cells were transfected with Tβ4 or Wnt5a siRNAs (30 nM) for 24 hours using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were transfected with Silencer negative control siRNA using the same protocol.
Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).

Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking. In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experimental explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.[20]

Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine (CYIQNCPLG). The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.
Our research mainly focusses on this early social experiences that people have that can be positive or negative, and that can really shape our developing brain. There have been some very interesting studies, for example, with children that grew up in Romanian orphanages. And we know that that early start, where it's really deprived from social contact and physical contact, had a massive impact. So we see that oxytocin levels, for example, are much lower than we would expect in other kids.

The biologically active form of oxytocin, commonly measured by RIA and/or HPLC techniques, is also known as the octapeptide "oxytocin disulfide" (oxidized form), but oxytocin also exists as a reduced straight-chain (non-cyclic) dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.[120] It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical scavenger, as donating an electron to a free radical allows oxytoceine to be re-oxidized to oxytocin via the dehydroascorbate / ascorbate redox couple.[121]

A warning: unlike BPC-157, TB-500 is absolutely, 100% banned by WADA and most other global sporting organization both in-competition and out-of-competition. You should NOT use this if you are competing in any such sanctioned sport as it definitely falls under the banned category of “Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances and Mimetics (S2)”.

Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury. This large number of pleiotropic effects results from Tβ4’s many interactions with cellular signaling pathways, particularly indirect regulation of cellular motility and movement via the SRF–MRTF–G-actin transcriptional pathway. Variation in effects and effect sizes in animal models may potentially be due to variable distribution of Tβ4. Preclinical studies of PK/PD relationships and a reliable pharmacodynamic biomarker would facilitate clinical development of Tβ4.
Increasing trust and reducing fear. In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.[18] Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[19] There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however.

5-HTP is necessary for the proper functioning of your body. It is decarboxylated in the brain and liver to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Serotonin is involved in the communication between nearly all of our 40 million brain cells, and is also found in large quantities in the cells of the gut, and in blood platelets. Because of its widespread distribution through the cells of the body, Serotonin is believed to have a large number of psychological and physiological effects. It has been used to treat conditions as diverse as obesity, depression, fibromyalgia, insomnia, and headaches, with varying success.
My physiotherapist suggested BCP-157. We injected this into the palm for a few weeks 3x week. We then worked up a 50/50 mix of BCP and TB500. I’ve upped my injections ( 5-7 injections) into the surrounding areas of the protruding nodes in my palm. The results have been significant. Into week 6 of a 3x injection program, and the chords are opening up (reacting to the ‘rematrixing’ of the cells). The TB seems to disperse the liquid throughout my palm. My ‘clutched palm’ is reduced and flexibility is restored. We’re going to stick with this for another couple of months.
5-HTP has been investigated for its role in hot flashes as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been noted to reduce the occurrence of hot flashes and menopausal symptoms.[30][31] In a study in menopausal females given 150mg 5-HTP daily (50mg taken thrice a day) for a period of one week failed to quantitivatively reduce the occurrance of hot flashes[32] as assessed by a Flashmark Pro recording device.[33]

Froemke's study1, published in April, showed that oxytocin temporarily suppresses inhibitory neurons — those that dampen neural activity — which allows excitatory cells to respond more strongly and reliably. “Our hypothesis is that the virgin brain is a blanket of inhibition, and that pairing the pup calls with oxytocin allows the network to be reconfigured,” says Froemke. The hormone may serve to amplify incoming signals and allow them to be recognized as behaviourally important. (It is at least possible, he says, that this same mechanism could explain why some human mothers feel they are uniquely tuned to a baby's cries.)

I don’t recall any literature (research or anecdotal) suggesting that TB 500 showed efficacy with regard to repair of brain tissue. I have however read anecdotal comments regarding N-Acetyl Semax Amidate with regard to increase in BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and the growth of new neurons. I am currently testing N-Acetyl Semax Amidate for its nootropic properties however I have read post in which people suggest that it is “healing” brain damage.
Oxytocin affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic attraction and subsequent monogamous pair bonding. An oxytocin nasal spray caused men in a monogamous relationship, but not single men, to increase the distance between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter by 10 to 15 centimeters. The researchers suggested that oxytocin may help promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.[109] For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "bonding hormone". There is some evidence that oxytocin promotes ethnocentric behavior, incorporating the trust and empathy of in-groups with their suspicion and rejection of outsiders.[66] Furthermore, genetic differences in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been associated with maladaptive social traits such as aggressive behavior.[110]

The tb-500 has a systematic effect regardless of where it is injected. Some believe that thymosin beta-4 should be injected as close to the injury as possible however there is no evidence to show this would be superior. It can be injected subcutaneously (stomach fat) or intramuscularly (shoulders, thighs, buttocks). Injections should be given in different sites (rotated) each time. Depending on the spot, you can either feel nothing or you can feel slight pain - you will learn your favorite spots in time.
Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78(6):676-683. View abstract.