Oxytocin has been of keen interest to neuroscientists since the 1970s, when studies started to show that it could drive maternal behaviour and social attachment in various species. Its involvement in a range of social behaviours2, including monogamy in voles, mother–infant bonding in sheep, and even trust between humans, has earned it a reputation as the 'hug hormone'. “People just concluded it was a bonding molecule, a cuddling hormone, and that's the pervasive view in the popular press,” says Larry Young, a neuroscientist at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, who has been studying the molecule since the 1990s.
Jump up ^ PDB: 1HJ0​; Stoll R, Voelter W, Holak TA (May 1997). "Conformation of thymosin beta 9 in water/fluoroalcohol solution determined by NMR spectroscopy". Biopolymers. 41 (6): 623–34. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0282(199705)41:6<623::AID-BIP3>3.0.CO;2-S. PMID 9108730. The thymosin is β9, bovine orthologue of human β10. Stabilised by organic solvent, the structure was determined by NMR. (Free β-thymosins lack a stable fold in solution)

Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.[48] Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.[49]
Ive been struggling with my left brachialis and so after listening to a podcast in which you mentioned BPC-157 I tried it out. I was hoping for a miracle cure, which I did not get. However, I believe it certainly helped a lot. I am considering a second round. But the peptide rabbit hole is certainly interesting and I am most keen to try some others. But I would like to see if you have some advise for me on another topic. After having listened to your podcast with Dr Gains I thought that either you or Dr Gains may be able to at least point me in the right direction. My wife suffers from a condition called Pelvic Vein Congestion which causes her a lot of pain. From what I understand, she has a seemingly unnatural mass of veins around her uterus which may also suffer from a “valve” type problem in which blood can potentially run in the opposite direction and pool in locations which causes pain. She has been to doctors which offer invasive solutions with unattractive success rates. I have been searching for other cures, but the only thing that I found (supplement with Diosmin and Hisperidan) had some psychological effects. Any thoughts?
Because of its role in creating serotonin, 5-HTP is indirectly involved in producing melatonin, a hormone that is critical for sleep. Melatonin helps the body’s bio clock stay in sync, and regulates daily sleep-wake cycles. A strong bio clock and regular sleep-wake routines are the cornerstone of healthy, restful, rejuvenating sleep. Research suggests that 5-HTP may help shorten the time it takes to fall asleep and increase sleep amounts.
Thymosin beta(4), a small ubiquitous protein containing 43 aa, has structure/function activity via its actin-binding domain and numerous biological affects on cells. Since it is the major actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells and is found essentially in all cells and body fluids, thymosin beta(4) has the potential for significant roles in tissue development, maintenance, repair, and pathology. Several active sites with unique functions have been identified, including the amino-terminal site containing 4 aa (Ac-SDKP) that generally blocks inflammation and reduces fibrosis. Another active site at the amino terminus contains 15 aa, including Ac-SDKP, and promotes cell survival and blocks apoptosis, while a short sequence containing LKKTETQ, the central actin-binding domain (aa 17-23) plus 1 additional amino acid (Q), promotes angiogenesis, wound healing, and cell migration. Several additional biological activities have been identified but not yet localized in the molecule, including its antimicrobial activity, the induction of various genes (including laminin-5, MMPs, TGF beta, zyxin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, and angiogenesis-related proteins), and the ability to activate ILK/PINCH/Akt, and other signaling molecules important in both apoptosis and inflammatory pathways. This review details these important physiologically and pathologically active sites and their potential therapeutic uses.
Before the treatment, the female mice were largely indifferent to the cries of a distressed baby, and were even known to trample over them. But after an injection of oxytocin, the mice started to respond more like mothers, picking up the mewling pup in their mouths. Froemke, a neuroscientist at New York University's Langone Medical Center in New York City, was monitoring the animals' brains to find out why that happened.
Naturalistic studies like ours can help unravel the evolutionary history and function of these hormones. Basically, the fact that hormone mechanisms have been tweaked during evolution suggests that the behaviors they promote have provided fitness benefits in the past. In this case, hunting and sharing meat must have increased men’s reproductive success.
Establishment of maternal behavior: Successful reproduction in mammals demands that mothers become attached to and nourish their offspring immediately after birth. It is also important that non-lactating females do not manifest such nurturing behavior. The same events that affect the uterus and mammary gland at the time of birth also affect the brain. During parturition, there is an increase in concentration of oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid, and oxytocin acting within the brain plays a major role in establishing maternal behavior.
Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
Actual injection can be done Subq or IM that is - subcutaneous or intramuscular. Injection site does not matter, there is no one site better than others so use one which is more comfortabe to reach, after injection product is absorbed into bloodstream and spread through the body evenly. Subq injection takes place by pinching the skin loose from the muscle and raising it so the needle can be inserted in the fat layer of skin.
She recruited 31 men* and asked them to sniff either an oxytocin nasal spray or another spray with the same ingredients minus oxytocin – a placebo. A few weeks later, the sprays were swapped so that the men who took oxytocin now took the placebo, and vice versa. At the time, neither the scientists nor the volunteers knew which was which – that was only revealed after the experiment was over.
In addition, in the Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled single- and multiple-dose Phase 1 clinical trial, the safety and pharmacokinetics of the intravenous administration of TB-4 was evaluated. From this, intravenous administration of TB-4 appears to be safe and well-tolerated by all subjects with no dose limiting toxicity or serious adverse events reported.
Although Tβ4 contains only 43 amino acids, it appears to have a wide range of regenerative activities and specific sites on the molecule have been shown to mediate these effects (Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015; Sosne, Qiu, Goldstein, & Wheater, 2010). Both chemically synthesized and recombinant forms have shown efficacy for dermal healing in preclinical models and in human patients (Ehrlich & Hazard, 2012; Kim & Kwon, 2014, 2015; Malinda et al., 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Philp et al., 2006; Ti et al., 2015; Treadwell et al., 2012). A dimeric form has been found to accelerate the rate of dermal healing in an animal model more rapidly than that of the parent molecule (Xu et al., 2013). Tβ4 has also shown repair and regenerative activity in a number of other injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, a model of multiple sclerosis, ischemic limbs, and cardiac damage due to ischemia (Bock-Marquette, Saxena, White, Dimaio, & Srivastava, 2004; Cheng, Kuang, Zhang, Ju, & Wang, 2014; Dube, Bollini, Smart, & Riley, 2012; Morris, Chopp, Zhang, Lu, & Zhang, 2010; Morris et al., 2014; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Postrach et al., 2014; Smart et al., 2007; Sopko et al., 2011; Ti et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2012; Wei, Kim, Li, Wu, & Gupta, 2014; Xiong, Mahmood, Meng, et al., 2011; Zhang, Zhang, Morris, et al., 2009; Zuo et al., 2013). The processes and pathways for Tβ4-mediated repair are similar in these various tissues and support the observed promotion of dermal healing.
Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking. In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experimental explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.13
The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
Disclaimer: Thymosin Beta 4 is a peptide that should only be purchased for use in experimentation and research. It should not be purchased for human use or any other purpose than for research. It is advised that once purchased, the peptide is used within experimental circumstances that are under strict lab regulations. It is recommended that researchers use protective gear in order to prevent contact with the substance. However, if exposure is made with the peptide, it is very important to cleanse the area immediately to prevent harm.
Cells were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for indicated times (A). Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide (0.1–5 μg/mL) for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 60 minutes (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.
The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm in both men and women.[5][6] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[5] Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm. [7] A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediantly after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted that these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue."[8]

This anti-social effect of a social hormone brings some nuance to the story of oxytocin. In one study, researchers found that Dutch students given a snort of the hormone became more positive about fictional Dutch characters, but were more negative about characters with Arab or German names. The finding suggests that oxytocin's social bonding effects are targeted at whomever a person perceives as part of their in-group, the researchers reported in January 2011 in the journal PNAS.

Oxytocin is known as the hormone that promotes feelings of love, bonding and well-being. It's even being tested as an anti-anxiety drug. But new research shows oxytocin also can cause emotional pain. Oxytocin appears to be the reason stressful social situations, perhaps being bullied at school or tormented by a boss, reverberate long past the event and can trigger fear and anxiety in the future. That's because the hormone actually strengthens social memory in the brain.
Can a supplement proven to fight blue moods also help stimulate weight loss? “Yes it can!” say experts who are now prescribing a natural compound called 5-HTP. According to top integrative health expert Tasneem Bhatia, MD, author of What Doctors Eat ($15.99, Amazon), “5-HTP is converted directly to serotonin, and serotonin makes you feel good, feel happy, feel full — and when you feel that way, you’re going to eat less.” In fact, Dr. Bhatia adds that while most appetite suppressants only target physical hunger, this one also “works to reduce ‘emotional hunger’ and stress-related urges to eat.” Dr. Oz said he left impressed after consulting with a panel of 5-HTP experts, including American Board of Obesity Medicine alum Denise E. Bruner, MD. He said the supplements may even be “a secret weapon for hunger!”
For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.
Research in the early 1960s showed that in rats, administration of α-MSH caused sexual arousal, and work on this continued in many labs up through the 1980s, when scientists at University of Arizona began attempting to develop α-MSH and analogs as potential sunless tanning agents, and synthesized and tested several analogs, including melanotan-I and melanotan II.[6][9]
Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.
Again, the three groups of mice were exposed to the stressful experience of social defeat in the cages of other more aggressive mice. This time, six hours after the social stress, the mice were put in a box in which they received a brief electric shock, which startles them but is not painful. Then 24 hours later, the mice were returned to the same box but did not receive a shock.

RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
However, the Food and Drug Administration and its equivalents in other countries have issued repeated advisory notices about Melanotan II, urging consumers to stop using and purchasing this unapproved product. David Carter of the United Kingdom's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency was unequivocal in his denunciation, warning would-be buyers against being "fooled into thinking that Melanotan offers a shortcut to a more even tan." Liverpool John Moores University researcher Michael Evans-Brown cautioned that the peptide may be linked to dyspepsia and various cardiovascular problems, such as increases in blood pressure, while others have noted it appears to stimulate the growth of moles on the body.
I am not a doctor and nothing I say should be taken as medical advice. If it were me, I would try TB500, and to inject simply get as close to the injury site as possible. If you want to go into detail feel free to book a consult at 

The diverse activities related to tissue repair may depend on interactions with receptors quite distinct from actin and possessing extracellular ligand-binding domains. Such multi-tasking by, or "partner promiscuity" of, proteins has been referred to as protein moonlighting.[14] Proteins such as thymosins which lack stable folded structure in aqueous solution, are known as intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). Because IUPs acquire specific folded structures only on binding to their partner proteins, they offer special possibilities for interaction with multiple partners.[15] A candidate extracellular receptor of high affinity for thymosin β4 is the β subunit of cell surface-located ATP synthase, which would allow extracellular thymosin to signal via a purinergic receptor.[16]


A: 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement. Because dietary supplements have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well-known. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. For more specific information, consult with your pharmacist about the potential for drug interactions based on your specific condition and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals, and herbals, as well as the foods you eat. Always keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care providers and your pharmacist. If possible, use one pharmacy for all your prescription medications and over-the-counter products. This allows your pharmacist to keep a complete record of all your prescription drugs and to advise you about drug interactions and side effects. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Jen Marsico, RPh
Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.

A: 5-HTP (5-hydroxy-tryptophan) 5-htp-5-hydroxytryptophan is converted to serotonin in the body. Because 5-HTP is related to serotonin, it should not be taken with drugs, which may affect serotonin level. These drugs are SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) such as Paxil (paroxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Prozac (fluoxetine), Celexa (citalopram) and others. The list of drugs: Plavix (clopidogrel), Lipitor (atorvastatin), Uroxatral (alfuzosin), bisoprolol, aspirin and lisinopril do not affect serotonin in the body. Tramadol, however, has a weak inhibition of serotonin reuptake and can increase serotonin levels. It is therefore recommended that tramadol and 5-HTP be used with caution. The patient needs to be monitored for serotonin syndrome, which may include changes in mental status, tremor, hyperthermia, rigidity, seizure, increase sweating and shaky movement. The interaction may also cause a cerebral vasoconstrictive disorder such as Call-Fleming syndrome. It is important to discuss the use of tramadol and 5-HTP with your healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP. Lori Mendoza, RPh

Melanotan II has reported toxicity effects from therapeutic and overdose exposures including: renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of pre-existing moles, rapid increase in the number of new moles associated with causing melanomas, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome, shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping and pain, dizziness and lethargy. XXXXXX alone has received 28 calls about melanotan II since 2006.


“The study is kind of a high-water mark for the field, putting different levels all together: a robust behaviour, a brain region, and a cellular basis for it,” says Richard Tsien, a neuroscientist also at Langone. Tsien has been studying the action of oxytocin on neuronal circuits in detail, by examining slices of the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. In a 2013 study6 of rats, Tsien's team found that oxytocin selectively acts on a type of cell called an inhibitory interneuron in a way that quiets background chatter within the neuronal circuit. “Oxytocin improved signal transmission, almost doubling the ability of information to flow through the system,” Tsien says. In effect, it is producing more signal and less noise.
Astrocytes constitute the largest population of cells in the central nervous system, constituting approximately 90% of human parenchymal cells. Astrocytes are highly responsive to injury, undergoing rapid hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Astrocytes act as physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration by forming glial scars along ischemic lesions and producing axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycans. Administration of MSCs significantly attenuates the glial scar in the ischemic boundary and reduces expression of inhibitory proteins, such as Nogo. Analysis of single-cell astrocytes isolated from the ischemic boundary by laser capture microdissection reveals that administration of MSCs dramatically down regulates neurocan, an axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycan. Coculture of MSCs with astrocytes also substantially reduces neurocan expression in astrocytes activated by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that injected MSCs reduce physical and biochemical barriers of astrocytes, which also contribute to axonal and neurite outgrowth.
Few forms of trust are more basic than that between a newborn and its mother. Scientists have discovered that this relationship is strengthened by the hormone oxytocin, released when the baby stares up at mom while breast feeding. Staring lovingly at your boyfriend or girlfriend can trigger their release of oxytocin too, as can warm physical contact like touching and hugging. (Levels increase during sex and peak at orgasm, which may help explain the age-old question “But will you love me in the morning, when your oxytocin levels have dropped?”) Oxytocin reduces stress in arguing couples, helps us recognize faces, even helps us look at a face (in fact, just a pair of eyes) and identify the mood that person is in. The stuff is magic.
A number of factors can inhibit oxytocin release, among them acute stress. For example, oxytocin neurons are repressed by catecholamines, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to many types of stress, including fright. As a practical endocrine tip - don't wear a gorilla costume into a milking parlor full of cows or set off firecrackers around a mother nursing her baby.
These proteins, which typically contain 2-4 repeats of the β-thymosin sequence, are found in all phyla of the animal kingdom, with the probable exception of sponges[21] The sole mammalian example, a dimer in mice, is synthesised by transcriptional read-through between two copies of the mouse β15 gene, each of which is also transcribed separately.[22] A uniquely multiple example is the protein thypedin of Hydra which has 27 repeats of a β-thymosin sequence.[23]
The pore-forming subunit of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 encoded by SCN5A is a critical determinant of myocardial excitability and conduction. Loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A can clinically manifest as progressive cardiac conduction disorders or as arrhythmic syndromes, such as Brugada syndrome. In addition to electrophysiological dysfunction, SCN5A mutations are also associated with myocardial fibrosis manifesting as global cardiomyopathy. In a 10-year old child exhibiting Brugada syndrome, the mutation SCN5AE555X was discovered. Therefore, cardiac sodium channelopathy pig models were generated by homologous recombination in the genetic background of outbred Yucatan minipigs via SCNT exhibiting the orthologous porcine heterozygous mutation SCN5AE558X. The heterozygous mutant animals were viable and fertile, and showed no sudden death over a 2-year monitoring period. They showed reduced SCN5A protein expression, which resulted in diminished total sodium conductance. The heterozygous mutant hearts showed slowed conduction and increased susceptibility for ventricular arrhythmias in the absence of structural defects of the myocardium or specialized conduction system. In total, a novel animal model was established for understanding the mechanisms linking sodium channel dysfunction to cardiac pathophysiology (Park et al., 2015b).
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.
In a study that hasn’t been published yet, Feldman found that oxytocin receptor genes are also linked to empathy in couples. She looked at variants in the gene that have been linked with an increased risk for autism, a disorder that is marked by major social communication deficits. She found that the more of these “risk variants” a person had, the less empathy they showed toward their partner when that partner shared a distressing experience.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours, post-incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours, and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Mouse BMMs were cultured with CM in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL), as described in Materials and methods. After 5 days, cells were fixed and stained for TRAP as a marker of osteoclasts (A), and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) was scored (B). TRAP osteoclast activity was assayed using the TRAP cytochemical stain technique (C). * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
She recruited 31 men* and asked them to sniff either an oxytocin nasal spray or another spray with the same ingredients minus oxytocin – a placebo. A few weeks later, the sprays were swapped so that the men who took oxytocin now took the placebo, and vice versa. At the time, neither the scientists nor the volunteers knew which was which – that was only revealed after the experiment was over.
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
Maternal behavior: Female rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior.[59] By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior toward foreign lambs upon cerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise.[60] Oxytocin is involved in the initiation of maternal behavior, not its maintenance; for example, it is higher in mothers after they interact with unfamiliar children rather than their own.[61]
Due to its molecular structure and low molecular weight, TB-500 is very versatile, mobile and possesses the ability to travel long distances through tissues. This means that when targeting injured areas (chronic or acute), TB-500 has the ability to circulate through the body and “find” those areas of injury in order to enhance the healing or growth process. Many users have also noted the added benefits of improved flexibility, reduced inflammation in tendons, re-growth of lost hair, and darkening of grayed hair.
Hypoxic heart disease is a predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. As adult mammals are incapable of cardiac repair after infarction, the discovery of effective methods to achieve myocardial and vascular regeneration is crucial. Efforts to use stem cells to repopulate damaged tissue are currently limited by technical considerations and restricted cell potential. We discovered that the small, secreted peptide thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) could be sufficiently used to inhibit myocardial cell death, stimulate vessel growth, and activate endogenous cardiac progenitors by reminding the adult heart on its embryonic program in vivo. The initiation of epicardial thickening accompanied by increase of myocardial and epicardial progenitors with or without infarction indicate that the reactivation process is independent of injury. Our results demonstrate Tbeta4 to be the first known molecule able to initiate simultaneous myocardial and vascular regeneration after systemic administration in vivo. Given our findings, the utility of Tbeta4 to heal cardiac injury may hold promise and warrant further investigation.
Hi Jesse, while I cant make specific sarms recommendations as it would be teetering on giving medical advice, I have a ton of resources on this on BenGreenfieldFitness.com that you can easily search through. There is also a lot of invaluable discussion on sarms going on in the comments sections of these articles. The Kion Community is also a great place to ask a question like this: https://Facebook.com/groups/GetKion
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.
Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.