Young says that the oxytocin field would benefit from closer collaboration between basic and clinical researchers. If basic scientists can work out how oxytocin helps the brain to process social stimuli, then that might help in the design of stimuli — in the form of behavioural therapies — that could be given alongside the hormone to change behaviour, just as oxytocin and pup calls together affect virgin mice. “I think in the future these two branches need to have more communication,” Young says.
Another interesting agent reported to significantly accelerate chronic wound repair is infrared (700–1200 nm wavelength) and near infrared (600–700 nm) light delivered through lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (Mester et al., 1968; Rochkind et al., 1989; Conlan, 1996; Schindl et al., 2000; Enwemeka, 2004). Spectroscopic measurements indicate that photons at wavelengths of 630–800 nm penetrate through the skin and muscles of the forearm and lower leg (Chance et al., 1988; Beauvoit et al., 1994, 1995). The effect of the light may be to stimulate cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and production of ATP (Karu, 1999).
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a highly conserved, naturally occurring, water-soluble regenerative peptide that is found in all tissues and in all cell types, except red blood cells (Goldstein, Hannappel, Sosne, & Kleinman, 2012; Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015). It is also found in the blood and in other body fluids, including tears, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and wound fluids (Badamchian et al., 2007; Huang, Wang, Barnes, & Elmets, 2006; Mohring, Kellmann, Jurgens, & Schrader, 2005). Both platelets and leukocytes release Tβ4 into the wound fluid such that the final concentration is 13 μg/mL (Fromm, Gunne, Bergman, et al., 1996; Hannappel & van Kampen, 1987).
The N-terminal half of β-thymosins bears a strong similarity in amino acid sequence to a very widely distributed sequence module, the WH2 module. (Wasp Homology Domain 2 - the name is derived from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein). Evidence from X-ray crystallography shows that this part of β-thymosins binds to actin in a near-identical manner to that of WH2 modules, both adopting as they bind, a conformation which has been referred to as the β-thymosin/WH2 fold. β-thymosins may therefore have evolved by addition of novel C-terminal sequence to an ancestral WH2 module. However, sequence similarity searches designed to identify present-day WH2 domains fail to recognise β-thymosins, (and vice versa) and the sequence and functional similarities may result from convergent evolution.
Melanotan peptides are stable and durable when shipped, surviving about 37 degrees temperatures for around a month or more. Even during summer, this peptide can be shipped without hassles. Once they have been received, they ought to be put away in the refrigerator or better still, freezer to avert conceivable deterioration until ready to be mixed, which then the mixed Melanotan is stored in the refrigerator.
"Just that it is completely false that these particular substances and the program wasn't discussed through the highest levels of the club. We have been very firm in terms of our belief in what ASADA, the AFL and Essendon know and for them to remotely suggest that no one knew, to be really blunt, is completely wrong and in some ways offending the process we set up at Essendon Football Club. We were very strict in the protocols we set up."
It turns out oxytocin is responsible for a lot more than just love. New science has found that this amazing molecule also influences how sociable each of us is, allowing us to 'tune in' to the social information around us, perceiving it in much higher resolution. Scientists are now applying this new knowledge in the lab, and as reporter Dr Graham Phillips finds out, they're discovering oxytocin's great potential to treat social disorders, like drug addiction and alcoholism.
In years past, oxytocin had the reputation of being an "uncomplicated" hormone, with only a few well-defined activities related to birth and lactation. As has been the case with so many hormones, further research has demonstrated many subtle but profound influences of this little peptide, particularly in regards to its effects in the brain. Oxytocin has been implicated in setting a number of social behaviors in species ranging from mice to humans. For example, secretion or administration of oxytocin in humans appears to enhance trust and cooperation within socially-close groups, while promoting defensive aggression toward unrelated, competing groups.
Evidence for this role of oxytocin come from two types of experiments. First, infusion of oxytocin into the ventricles of the brain of virgin rats or non-pregnant sheep rapidly induces maternal behavior. Second, administration into the brain of antibodies that neutralize oxytocin or of oxytocin antagonists will prevent mother rats from accepting their pups. Other studies support the contention that this behavioral effect of oxytocin is broadly applicable among mammals.
Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.
There have been encouraging results for the use of Tβ4 as a topical gel to treat venous stasis ulcers, a type of wound that develops on the lower leg of patients with chronic vascular disease. Two other reports indicated that Tβ4, formulated in eye-drops, may enhance corneal wound healing in diabetic patients, and improve ocular discomfort. These are the most advanced trials to date. As of yet, despite promising animal models, there has been no significant study exploring the efficacy of intravenous Tβ4 injections in treating ischemic heart injury.
This is a great product, I have been having digestive problems after 13 major surgeries and suffering from Crohn's Disease my whole life. Currently I can only tolerate a liquid diet. Was very depressed, found this and started taking it and it has made a HUGE difference to my life. Only have very mild depression symptoms now, and sleep better at night. Bought the powder to get the dose right, looks like 100mg suits my 50 kg frame. Only bad thing is the packaging. The 10 grams of powder is lost in the large packet, very hard to get it out and measure the same dose every night. I purchased miniature measuring spoons from ebay and they make life much easier. Sort out the correct spoon for your dosage with the scales then off you go. Can be tricky getting it in and out of the bag, often get powder everywhere, but usually just lick it off. A pill container would work much better for this power.
Treated cells were washed with PBS and cytosolic protein extracts were prepared using 1X cell lysis buffer (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA) supplemented with protease inhibitor cocktail. Protein concentrations were determined using the Bradford assay (Bio-Rad, CA, USA) as per the manufacturer's protocol. Aliquots of protein lysates were separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate–10% polyacrylamide gels and Western blotting was performed. The proteins were transferred onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Bio-Rad, CA, USA) in transfer buffer (20 mm Tris, 150 mm glycine, 20% methanol, pH 8.0; TBS-T) at 4°C and 100 V for 1 hour. The membrane was blocked with 5% dry milk in TBS-T for 1 hour at room temperature and incubated with primary antibodies (1:1000) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies. Protein bands were detected using an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) system (Amersham Biosciences, Backinghamshire, UK).
5-HTP is necessary for the proper functioning of your body. It is decarboxylated in the brain and liver to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Serotonin is involved in the communication between nearly all of our 40 million brain cells, and is also found in large quantities in the cells of the gut, and in blood platelets. Because of its widespread distribution through the cells of the body, Serotonin is believed to have a large number of psychological and physiological effects. It has been used to treat conditions as diverse as obesity, depression, fibromyalgia, insomnia, and headaches, with varying success.
I’m always interested in learning about better supplements for my health. I’ve heard a lot of good things about peptides, but this was the first time I’ve read about TB-500 in particular. It sounds like it can have a major impact on helping you recover from injuries, which is a huge deal in today’s world. I may need to look into it some more before actually buying it, but thank you so much for taking the time to explain it!
This may be an odd question. But would this be good to inject or spray on those that have undergone hair transplants in the first month of surgery. Fue microscars. I see you mention it improves hair growth and blood flow. both which basically what rogaine claims to do. Surely this would benefit new transplanted hair follicles in taking and holding? Interested in your thoughts in the matter.
Cells were incubated for 48 hours with the indicated times with 200 μM H2O2 (A) and the indicated concentrations of H2O2 (B) for 48 hours. The mRNA and protein expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
When combined with antidepressants of the MAOI or SSRI class, very high parenteral doses of 5-HTP can cause acute serotonin syndrome in rats. It is unclear if such findings have clinical relevance, as most drugs will cause serious adverse events or death in rodents at very high doses. In humans 5-HTP has never been clinically associated with serotonin syndrome, although 5-HTP can precipitate mania when added to an MAOI.