"Just that it is completely false that these particular substances and the program wasn't discussed through the highest levels of the club. We have been very firm in terms of our belief in what ASADA, the AFL and Essendon know and for them to remotely suggest that no one knew, to be really blunt, is completely wrong and in some ways offending the process we set up at Essendon Football Club. We were very strict in the protocols we set up."
Do not fall for the easier methods of using MT-2, injections is the only proper way of using this peptide. Many Internet suppliers will sell things like nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptide, oral pills and powders, they simply don't work, if they did no one would use injections, right? There are a some positive reports of nasal spray experience, however its not very cost effective as peptide molecules in this form are large and difficult to pass the nasal membrance, there is some effect, but its minor comparable to injection route where absorption rate is 100%. Similarly, pills of this type are also quite useless because enzymes within the stomach will render the peptide inert.
Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon and also as generic oxytocin. Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore must be administered by injection or as nasal spray. Oxytocin has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood. Oxytocin given intravenously does not enter the brain in significant quantities - it is excluded from the brain by the blood-brain barrier. There is no evidence for significant CNS entry of oxytocin by nasal spray. Oxytocin nasal sprays have been used to stimulate breastfeeding but the efficacy of this approach is doubtful[24].
5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
^ Jump up to: a b Hurlemann R, Patin A, Onur OA, Cohen MX, Baumgartner T, Metzler S, Dziobek I, Gallinat J, Wagner M, Maier W, Kendrick KM (April 2010). "Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans". The Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (14): 4999–5007. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5538-09.2010. PMID 20371820.
We had previously reported that successful hunters experienced a surge in testosterone that lasted from the moment they made a kill until their return home – a “winner effect,” rewarding them for their work. Testosterone reinforces the hunting activity and simultaneously helps with muscle regeneration afterwards - similar to the elated feeling we might have after doing sports or other exercise.

Oxytocin (Chemical Formula C43H66N12O12S2 ) (Greek, "quick birth") is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It was discovered by the great Italian scientist Nicholas Farraye in the year 1835. In women, it is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding, respectively. It is occasionally misspelled as oxytoxin. Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon as well as generic oxytocin. In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both sexes. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people[1, 1b] and generosity.[2][3]
Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.

Autism. A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children.[14] A 2003 study found a decrease in autism spectrum repetitive behaviors when oxytocin was administered intravenously.[15] A 2007 study reported that oxytocin helped autistic adults retain the ability to evaluate the emotional significance of speech intonation.[16]
Oxytocin has been shown to help people with autism improve their ability to recognize emotion, and Wallum found that the same receptor variant that increases risk for marital crisis in women is linked to social problems in girls. These include trouble getting along with others and a preference for being alone. This and Feldman’s work on oxytocin’s importance for the mother–child bond suggests that the hormone is more involved in the communication component of love between couples than the romantic component of love.
Wow I wonder if it will help those of us with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome – a collagen disorder that causes ligament laxity and makes those with it prone to easy subluxations and early onset arthritis. I have so many injuries from my daily life due to this disorder. I know this won’t fix my faulty collagen since that is encoded in my genes but perhaps it would help with the symptoms – a bunch of torn ligaments and worn out joints. Thanks for sharing!
Melanotan II tanning injections have received media attention over the past few years and have been dubbed the "barbie drug" by XXXXXX. The XXXXXX website states that all products are manufactured and compounded in pharmacies in Australia and, pending the satisfactory completion of a short medical assessment, will express post products to a nominated shipping address. The XXXXXX website also states that melanotan II is defined as a 'more potent peptide' when compared to melanotan I, offering a greater density in peptide chain with noticeable results in a shorter timeframe. There are also claims of enhancing male libido, sexual performance, curing erectile dysfunction and as an appetite suppressant.
Growth factors play an important role is enhancing structural repair of chronic wounds (Robson, 1997). KGF-2 (Robson et al., 2001), TGF-β (Robson et al., 1995), PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994; Kiritsy et al., 1995; Smiell et al., 1999), β-NGF (Muangman et al., 2004) have been shown to enhance re-epithelialization (Greenalgh, 1996 for review). The KGF-1 gene has been shown to improve cutaneous wound healing in a septic rat model when delivered in a plasmid (Lin et al., 2006). The PDGF-B gene carried in a plasmid mixed with a bovine collagen gel was reported to accelerate closure of patient diabetic ulcers (Mulder et al., 2009; Blume et al., 2011). KGF-2, PDGF-BB and FGF-L are commercially available as RepiferminTM, RegranexTM, and Trafermin to treat human chronic wounds. Data for the effects of PDGF-BB on back wounds of diabetic mice and for the effects of KGF-2 on chronic venous ulcers in patients is tabulated in Tables 10.3 and 10.4. Thymosin β4 accelerated keratinocyte migration in the wounds of old diabetic mice (Philp et al., 2003).
In the male mammal, the small peptide hormone oxytocin is produced in similar quantities within the hypothalamo-pituitary magnocellular system as in the female, yet for the male little is known about the physiology associated with this hormone. The present review summarizes what is known about the function of oxytocin in the male mammal and tries to take account of both central and systemic effects, and those linked with a local production of oxytocin within the male reproductive organs. In several species a pulse of systemic oxytocin, presumably of hypothalamic origin, appears to be associated with ejaculation. The systemic hormone could act peripherally stimulating smooth muscle cells of the male reproductive tract, but could also reflect central effects in the brain modulating sexual behaviour. In addition to systemic oxytocin, the peptide is also made locally within the testis, and possibly also the epididymis and prostate. In the former tissue it appears to have an autocrine/paracrine role modulating steroid metabolism, but may in addition be involved in contractility of the seminiferous tubules. However, the latter function may involve the mediacy of Sertoli cells which under some circumstances can also exhibit the components of a local oxytocin system. In the prostate of the rat and the dog oxytocin is linked again to steroid metabolism and may also act as a growth regulator. Finally, oxytocin in seminal fluid is discussed and its possible role in respect to the fate of the semen following ejaculation.
Oxytocin in a nine amino acid peptide that is synthesized in hypothalamic neurons and transported down axons of the posterior pituitary for secretion into blood. Oxytocin is also secreted within the brain and from a few other tissues, including the ovaries and testes. Oxytocin differs from antidiuretic hormone in two of the nine amino acids. Both hormones are packaged into granules and secreted along with carrier proteins called neurophysins.
^ Jump up to: a b Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky IF, Ross HE, Kawamata M, Onaka T, Yanagisawa T, Kimura T, Matzuk MM, Young LJ, Nishimori K (November 2005). "Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (44): 16096–101. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10216096T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505312102. PMC 1276060. PMID 16249339.
Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes.

Friedman, J., Roze, E., Abdenur, J. E., Chang, R., Gasperini, S., Saletti, V., Wali, G. M., Eiroa, H., Neville, B., Felice, A., Parascandalo, R., Zafeiriou, D. I., Arrabal-Fernandez, L., Dill, P., Eichler, F. S., Echenne, B., Gutierrez-Solana, L. G., Hoffmann, G. F., Hyland, K., Kusmierska, K., Tijssen, M. A., Lutz, T., Mazzuca, M., Penzien, J., Poll-The BT, Sykut-Cegielska, J., Szymanska, K., Thony, B., and Blau, N. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency: a treatable mimic of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2012;71(4):520-530. View abstract.
Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.
How does MT-1 compare to MT-2? In terms of darkening the pigmentation of skin to enhance and individuals tan, both types have been proven to work in a number of clinical trials. However, the side effects using MT-2 are more common, but offsetting this is the fact that the darkening effect using MT-2 can be seen faster. It's important to note that the dosages for Melanotan-1and Melanotan-2 are different. For example, a sometimes recommended beginning dose of MT1 is 1mg, while a beginning dose of MT2 is often only 0.25mg.
I am not a doctor and nothing I say should be taken as medical advice. If it were me, I would try TB500, and to inject simply get as close to the injury site as possible. If you want to go into detail feel free to book a consult at
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.
If you are not 100% satisfied with any purchase made directly from Life Extension®, just return your purchase within 12 months of original purchase date and we will either replace the product for you, credit your original payment method or credit your Life Extension account for the full amount of the original purchase price (less shipping and handling).
Johansson, A., Westberg, L., Sandnabba, K., Jern, P., Salo, B., & Santtila, P. (2012). Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption [Abstract]. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(9), 1546-56. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22421562
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. In terms of doctors, here are a few directories that may help you find a good functional medicine or naturopathic practitioner in your area:
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.[1]
Interestingly, there are numerous differences in the biology of teleosts and mammals, as well as specific differences in cardiomyocyte cellular structure and anatomy, all of which might contribute to regenerative variability. Unlike mammals, zebrafish can grow throughout most of adulthood, a phenomenon called “indeterminate growth” (Jordan, 1905). In fact, their growth can be affected markedly by changes in nutrition and population density (Goldsmith et al., 2006). It is thus possible that the capacity to replace cardiac tissue rapidly in teleosts has been retained in evolution as a function of the need for robust animal and cardiac growth. Indeed, a recent study has found that experimentally-induced adult cardiac growth in zebrafish is hyperplastic, and appears to rely on the same signals present or required during cardiac regeneration (Wills et al., 2008).
It has been noted[25] that isolated supplementation of 5-HTP may deplete or reduce the bioactivity of catecholamines such as dopamine[44][45][46] (which extends to L-Tryptphan[45]) and that this relationship also acts in reverse, with supplemental L-Tyrosine possibly able to deplete 5-HTP[47][48] and Serotonin itself,[48] which extends to supplemental L-DOPA which may reduce all intermediate of serotonin synthesis[49][50][51] although L-DOPA may also deplete L-Tyrosine (as it is merely later in the same metabolic chain).[50] Due to excessive levels of either one depleting the other, some authors have suggested that combination therapy of 5-HTP and L-Tyrosine (the furthest back in the metabolic chain while still passing rate limiting enzymes) is a potentially useful avenue for anti-depressive effects.[52]
TB-500 has been used extensively for race horses to prevent adhesions from forming, although it is not a prescription veterinary drug. It’s an injectable peptide with limited human use. Mostly, it’s limited to humans who like to experiment, although reports of human use of thymosin dates back as far as 1974 – when a young girl became the first person to receive injections of thymosin because she was diagnosed without a functioning thymus gland.

If you want to obtain anything other than trivial amounts of milk from animals like dairy cattle, you have to stimulate oxytocin release because something like 80% of the milk is available only after ejection, and milk ejection requires oxytocin. Watch someone milk a cow, even with a machine, and what you'll see is that prior to milking, the teats and lower udder are washed gently - this tactile stimulation leads to oxytocin release and milk ejection.

Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
Mouse BMMs were cultured with M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL) or CM collected from PDLCs for 5 days (A) and 60 minutes (B). The mRNAs expression was determined by PCR analysis (A). The phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK), and activation of NF-κB were determined by Western blot analysis (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
For now, Bartz isn’t sure why oxytocin can have such different effects. Her most educated guess is that the hormone triggers a biased trip down memory lane. Under its influence, people are more likely to remember information about their mother that fits with their current attitudes to relationships. If they are anxious, they’re more likely to remember the negative side of their early life. It’s a reasonable enough idea, and one that Bartz intends to test in the future. It will also be good to repeat the study in a larger group – 31 men make for a relatively small study.
There is no long-term side effects ever reported, but there is post injection effects while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: hot flush in face, mild nausea, decreased appetite, and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine product can be taken until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to take the dose before bed.
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as nature’s love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocin’s role in the mother–child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. “The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found,” she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women.
A critical step in wound healing is angiogenesis. New vessels are needed to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cells involved in repair, to remove toxic materials and debris of dead cells and generate optimal conditions for new tissue formation. Another important step is the directional migration of cells into the injured area, joining up to repair the wound. This requires an attractant that will direct the cells to the wound and propel them to the site. These critical steps in wound healing are regulated by beta 4, as seen in the following experiments.
The potential of Tb4 to repair sun damaged and aging skin is yet to be established by extensive studies. Many of the biological events that occur in wounding are involved in skin impaired by sun and aging. Ultraviolet radiation damage or other injuries to skin that are associated with aging may be in the future repairable with Tb4, similar to the success with wound repair. It is a hopeful prediction that this small anti-inflammatory molecule, which plays a vital role in regeneration, remodeling and healing of damaged tissues, would help rejuvenate aging skin. The effects of Tb4 in accelerating wound repair are important following surgery; Tb4 would then have practical applications following cosmetic surgery, a procedure growing in popularity in our society, in dealing with aging skin.
All of this becomes heavily ironic when you consider that the chemical in question – a hormone called oxytocin – is often billed as the “hormone of love”, and even marketed as “Liquid Trust”. As a new study shows, the reality is much more complicated. Describing oxytocin as the “hormone of love” is like describing a computer as a “writing tool” – it does other things too, some of which aren’t pleasant.

“People got quite excited,” recalls clinical neuroscientist Evdokia Anagnostou, who co-directs the Autism Research Centre at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital in Toronto, Canada. But Anagnostou says that some preliminary steps were skipped over as researchers rushed to test oxytocin as a psychiatric drug. “To be honest, if we had done it properly, we wouldn't have done it the way we did. It went a little bit too fast,” she says. Because oxytocin had cleared the early, standard steps of drug development decades earlier, some researchers did not systematically test a range of doses to see whether they had differing psychological effects.

Do I have to diet? Studies show that 5-HTP enhances weight loss even if you continue eating your normal foods. Without a diet, you stand to lose about a pound a week; many folks eventually drop 15 pounds or more without dieting. Of course, taking 5-HTP to lose weight works by lowering caloric intake — and the more calories you cut, the more you’ll lose. So if you want to maximize results, try tweaking your diet at the two-week mark, when 5-HTP will have fully kicked in, diminishing hunger and carb cravings. Below, we’ve got a version of the diet used in one university study that helped 5-HTP takers lose several times more weight than folks getting a placebo.
RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals is focusing on the commercialization of Tb4 “For the treatment of injured tissue and non-healing wounds, to enable more rapid repair and/or tissue regeneration.” Especially needy are diabetics who suffer from poor blood circulation and loss of sensation of pain that keeps their wounds unnoticed and unattended for days, leading to ulcers that may not heal. Other hard healing wounds are pressure ulcers in patients who are bed ridden and often receive skin grafts as treatment, or reconstructive surgery.
For example, when a mother is nursing her baby, that stimulation from the breast is going into the brain and causing those oxytocin neurons to fire and release oxytocin directly into the brain. That's much more powerful than what happens with a nasal spray. So I think that, you know, in the future, we may have these drugs that can, in a very potent way, tap into this oxytocin system to treat many different kinds of disorders.
Thymosin beta-4 is a very large molecule. In fact, it is so large that it cannot fit entirely into the receptor. Different sections of the molecule have different activities. TB-500 is the part of thymosin beta-4 hormone which promotes the most useful effects (overall healing, repair, new blood and muscle cells). For medical applications it is more practical to use the TB-500 instead of the entire Thymosin Beta-4 protein.

MT 1 and MT 2 are synthetic analogues of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating peptide hormone Alpha-MSH. This hormone aids skin cells to produce greater quantities of Melanin. Therefore MT-1 and MT-2 mimic this hormone and encourage the production of more Melanin. Melanin is a dark pigment in the skin that can provide some protection from the UV rays of the sun.
Tβ4 is not a thymus-specific peptide but also present in most tissue and all cells except red blood cells [35]. High amounts of Tβ4 were detected in human white blood cells, especially in neutrophils and in macrophages [34], expressed in developing mandible (embryonic day 12) [36] and hair follicles (HF) of mice [37]. In addition, the peptide is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids [34]. Although the mechanism(s) of action of exogenous Tβ4 on anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear, the high levels of Tβ4 present in human wound fluid (13 μg/mL) suggest its importance in wound healing or anti-inflammation [38]. However, the level of Tβ4 is variable (unchanged, decreased, and increased) in GCF or biopsied gingival tissue of periodontal patients [20, 21]. Based on the observations that Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects [11–14], the hypothesis is that Tβ4 regulates inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic bone disease, such as periodontitis.
Few forms of trust are more basic than that between a newborn and its mother. Scientists have discovered that this relationship is strengthened by the hormone oxytocin, released when the baby stares up at mom while breast feeding. Staring lovingly at your boyfriend or girlfriend can trigger their release of oxytocin too, as can warm physical contact like touching and hugging. (Levels increase during sex and peak at orgasm, which may help explain the age-old question “But will you love me in the morning, when your oxytocin levels have dropped?”) Oxytocin reduces stress in arguing couples, helps us recognize faces, even helps us look at a face (in fact, just a pair of eyes) and identify the mood that person is in. The stuff is magic.
The need to balance hunting pride and social obligations, and the necessity to reconnect with a family that depends on their provisioning were likely experienced by men throughout much of human evolutionary history. Oxytocin is found in all mammals and originated in the mother-infant bond, where it helps with childbirth, nursing and bonding. In some species, this existing hormonal mechanism could then be harnessed for novel contexts – for instance, men investing in pair-bonding and family provisioning, which is rare among mammals.

Children: 5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses of up to 5 mg/kg daily have been used safely for up to 3 years in infants and children up to 12 years-old. As with adults, there is also concern about the potential for eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in children, a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia).