Addiction vulnerability: Concentrations of endogenous oxytocin can impact the effects of various drugs and one's susceptibility to substance use disorders. Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, can impact development of dependence. The status of the endogenous oxytocin system might enhance or reduce susceptibility to addiction through its interaction with these systems. Individual differences in the endogenous oxytocin system based on genetic predisposition, gender and environmental influences, may therefore affect addiction vulnerability. Oxytocin may be related to the place conditioning behaviors observed in habitual drug abusers.
To determine whether MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the anti-osteoclastogenic function of Tβ4, the effect of Tβ4 peptide on the phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK(s) as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in RANKL-stimulated BMMs were examined. As shown in Fig 8B, Tβ4 peptide inhibited the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65.
Do not fall for the easier methods of using MT-2, injections is the only proper way of using this peptide. Many Internet suppliers will sell things like nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptide, oral pills and powders, they simply don't work, if they did no one would use injections, right? There are a some positive reports of nasal spray experience, however its not very cost effective as peptide molecules in this form are large and difficult to pass the nasal membrance, there is some effect, but its minor comparable to injection route where absorption rate is 100%. Similarly, pills of this type are also quite useless because enzymes within the stomach will render the peptide inert.
Serotonin influences sleep and sleep-wake cycles in many ways, and scientists continue to make discoveries about how this important neurochemical affects our sleeping and waking lives. One important way serotonin affects sleep and bio time is through its relationship with the “sleep hormone” melatonin. Melatonin is made from serotonin in the presence of darkness. (Remember, melatonin production in the body is triggered by darkness and suppressed by exposure to natural and artificial light.) Healthy serotonin levels are essential for maintaining healthy melatonin levels—and both serotonin and melatonin are critical to sleep and a well-functioning bio clock. With its ability to increase serotonin, 5-HTP supports a neurochemical process that can enable high-quality sleep and keep the body’s bio clock in sync.
I’m curious to know where you got your reconstitution calculation from; you recommend putting approx 3 cc’s in a 5 mg TB-500 which ‘almost fills’ the vial. I have been doing a ton of research on TB-500 and finding contradictory recommendations on how to reconstitute. Because the dosing for TB-500 is higher than what I’m used to with GHRH & GHRP – I felt a lower reconstitution mixture would reduce the amount I needed to take (but now I’m wondering if I’ve been over dosing based on your formula). Would really appreciate knowing how you arrived at filling an insulin syringe ‘three times’ equal to 3 cc’s – just want to make sure i’m dosing correctly
For now, Bartz isn’t sure why oxytocin can have such different effects. Her most educated guess is that the hormone triggers a biased trip down memory lane. Under its influence, people are more likely to remember information about their mother that fits with their current attitudes to relationships. If they are anxious, they’re more likely to remember the negative side of their early life. It’s a reasonable enough idea, and one that Bartz intends to test in the future. It will also be good to repeat the study in a larger group – 31 men make for a relatively small study.
Half the group of burned volunteers got a whiff of Eau de Oxytocin, half got a sniff of Eau de Placebo. Those who sniffed the oxytocin were more trusting and ready to invest with an anonymous trustee a second time than were the placebo-exposed subjects. And when they were asked “Do you want to try this again?” the oxytocin-treated volunteers responded more quickly than the volunteers who hadn’t gotten the nose full of Trust Spray.6
Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
Total RNA was extracted from cells using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was performed using oligo deoxythymidine primer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in 20 μl volumes at 42°C for 60 min. The RT-PCR reaction was done with 1 μg of total RNA, 1 μl of 20 μM oligo dT primer, and 18 μl of reaction mixture by AccuPower RT/PCR PreMix (Bioneer, Daejeon, Korea). Then, PCR was performed in a 20 μl total mixture volume for 25 cycles at 95°C for 1 min, 55°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 1 min. Primer sequences are detailed in Table 1. PCR products were subjected to electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gels and visualized with ethidium bromide.
In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland. These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens, a brain structure where oxytocin receptors are expressed. The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be coordinated through its common release through these collaterals. Oxytocin is also produced by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord. Depending on the species, oxytocin receptor-expressing cells are located in other areas, including the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
One study investigating romantic stress that looked at nondepressed youth who went through a recent breakup and were given 60mg of Griffonica Simplicifonia (12.8mg 5-HTP) twice a day for 6 weeks in an open-label study noted reductions in percieved romantic stress when measured at the 3 week mark with no further improvement at 6 weeks; there was no control nor placebo group in this study.
Oxytocin in a nine amino acid peptide that is synthesized in hypothalamic neurons and transported down axons of the posterior pituitary for secretion into blood. Oxytocin is also secreted within the brain and from a few other tissues, including the ovaries and testes. Oxytocin differs from antidiuretic hormone in two of the nine amino acids. Both hormones are packaged into granules and secreted along with carrier proteins called neurophysins.
The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene. This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I. The inactive precursor protein is progressively hydrolyzed into smaller fragments (one of which is neurophysin I) via a series of enzymes. The last hydrolysis that releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM).
To evaluate the indirect effect of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were incubated with RANKL and CM, prepared from HPDLCs treated with H2O2 and different concentrations of Tβ4, and allowed to differentiate into osteoclasts. As shown in Fig 6, Tβ4 peptide dose-dependently decreased the number of osteoclasts and TRAP activity. To determine whether the reduction in osteoclast generation by Tβ4 could be due to effects of Tβ4 peptide on viability of the BMMs, a cytotoxicity assay was performed. The viability of BMMs was not significantly affected by Tβ4 peptide (data not shown).
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Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43 amino acid protein (a peptide) that was originally identified in calf thymus, an organ that is central in the development of immunity. Tb4 was later found in all cells except red blood cells. It is highest in blood platelets that are the first to enter injured areas, in wound healing. Tb4 is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids.
“Further analysis by gender revealed that females in the 5-HTP group had a significantly lower panic rate and intensity of cognitive symptoms whereas, in males, the effect of 5-HTP was limited to lowering the intensity of somatic panic symptoms. Thus, an increased availability of 5-HT may have a gender-dependent protective effect in CCK-4-induced panic.”
5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement for use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid. It is also marketed in many European countries for the indication of major depression under the trade names Cincofarm, Levothym, Levotonine, Oxyfan, Telesol, Tript-OH, and Triptum.