Its unique potential as a healing substance lies in that it interacts with cellular actin and regulates its activity. Tb4 prevents actin from assembling (polymerizing) to form filaments but supplies a pool of actin monomers (unpolymerized actin) when a cell needs filaments for its activity. A cell cannot divide if actin is polymerized. Tb4 therefore serves in vivo to maintain a reservoir of unpolymerized actin that will be put to use when cells divide, move and differentiate.
As shown in Figure 1, thymic hormones also modulate the production of hypothalamus pituitary hormones and neuropeptides. Initial experiments revealed that neonatal thymectomy promotes a decrease in the number of secretory granules in acidophic cells of the adenopituitary . In the same vein, athymic nude mice display low levels of various pituitary hormones, such as PRL, GH, LH and FSH . With regard to thymic peptides, thymosin beta-4, when perfused intraventricularly, stimulates LH and LHRH secretion . Similar results were obtained with another thymic peptide, thymulin, in perfused or fragmented pituitary preparations . The administration of thymopoietin (another chemically-defined thymic hormone) in children with Hodgkin’s disease increased GH and cortisol serum levels . Moreover, thymopentin (the synthetic biologically active peptide of thymopoietin) enhances in vitro the production of ACTH and beta-endorphin . In addition, thymulin exhibits an in vitro stimulatory effect on perfused rat pituitaries, enhancing PRL, GH, TSH and LH release . Using short-term cultures of pituitary fragments, an increase in ACTH secretion occurs after in vitro thymulin addition, with no changes in GH levels and significant reductions in PRL release . A further thymosin peptide was recently isolated with the task in stimulating IL-6 release from rat glioma cells . By contrast, thymosin alpha-1 is apparently able to down regulate TSH, ACTH and PRL secretion in vivo with no modifications on GH levels . These inhibitory effects seem to occur through hypothalamic pathways. Indeed, the production of the corresponding releasing hormones by hypothalamic neurones decreased after in vitro addition of thymosin alpha-1 in medial basal hypothalamic fragments .
Tβ4 is not a thymus-specific peptide but also present in most tissue and all cells except red blood cells . High amounts of Tβ4 were detected in human white blood cells, especially in neutrophils and in macrophages , expressed in developing mandible (embryonic day 12)  and hair follicles (HF) of mice . In addition, the peptide is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids . Although the mechanism(s) of action of exogenous Tβ4 on anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear, the high levels of Tβ4 present in human wound fluid (13 μg/mL) suggest its importance in wound healing or anti-inflammation . However, the level of Tβ4 is variable (unchanged, decreased, and increased) in GCF or biopsied gingival tissue of periodontal patients [20, 21]. Based on the observations that Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects [11–14], the hypothesis is that Tβ4 regulates inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic bone disease, such as periodontitis.
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as nature’s love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocin’s role in the mother–child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. “The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found,” she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women.
Friedman, J., Roze, E., Abdenur, J. E., Chang, R., Gasperini, S., Saletti, V., Wali, G. M., Eiroa, H., Neville, B., Felice, A., Parascandalo, R., Zafeiriou, D. I., Arrabal-Fernandez, L., Dill, P., Eichler, F. S., Echenne, B., Gutierrez-Solana, L. G., Hoffmann, G. F., Hyland, K., Kusmierska, K., Tijssen, M. A., Lutz, T., Mazzuca, M., Penzien, J., Poll-The BT, Sykut-Cegielska, J., Szymanska, K., Thony, B., and Blau, N. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency: a treatable mimic of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:520-530. View abstract.
The PDLCs were pre-treated with Wnt5a siRNA (30 nM) or Wnt5 peptide (500 ng/mL) for 2 hours, post-incubated with Tβ4 peptide (1 μg/mL) and 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E), and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2-treated group. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
Loading is not absolutely necessary, it is only done to achieve results faster. Loading means taking doses more frequently to build up initial tan faster thus getting in tan maintenance mode sooner. Typical loading is done by taking 0.5mg once a day until desired skin tone is achieved. Loading dose can slightly vary from person to person, depending on skin type, bodyweight and other factors, but 0.5mg is pretty standard for most
My mother was a mother of 6 born between 1948 and 1961. She was a great advocate for lots of cuddles and physical contact with all of her children (as was my dad). This included baby massage directly on the skin as she emphasised touch as being very important. She passed this knowledge onto me when I became an aunt and then a mother. I am very grateful to have had such a hands on, affectionate and intuitive mother as a role model.
Oxytocin in a nine amino acid peptide that is synthesized in hypothalamic neurons and transported down axons of the posterior pituitary for secretion into blood. Oxytocin is also secreted within the brain and from a few other tissues, including the ovaries and testes. Oxytocin differs from antidiuretic hormone in two of the nine amino acids. Both hormones are packaged into granules and secreted along with carrier proteins called neurophysins.
I have taken BPC-157 in conjunction with TB-500 after reading about someone’s experience. I used the BPC-157 at an injury/inflammation site in my shoulder. I have a pain that came out of nowhere and has prevented me from doing bench presses mainly, and shoulder presses. I also got pain when I did external rotation of my shoulder. The BPC-157 gave me good results at 250 mcg twice daily intramuscularly. The pain is not completely gone but it has definitely lessened in severity. I don’t get any pain with a reverse grip press so I have been doing those with light weight and I can now do shoulder presses. BPC-157 really blew me away on how quickly it improved my gut status. For me it only took 4 days of orally dosing with 250 mcg. So I did both the oral and intramuscular daily for a month. Two weeks into the BPC-157 I ordered TB-500 and did 1mg per week subq in my thigh because I didn’t know about injecting intramuscularly at the injury site.
TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums). It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
When combined with antidepressants of the MAOI or SSRI class, very high parenteral doses of 5-HTP can cause acute serotonin syndrome in rats. It is unclear if such findings have clinical relevance, as most drugs will cause serious adverse events or death in rodents at very high doses. In humans 5-HTP has never been clinically associated with serotonin syndrome, although 5-HTP can precipitate mania when added to an MAOI.