Studies on diabetic rats indicated significant increases in the amount of collagen and in tensile strength of light-treated wounds over controls (Stadler et al., 2001; Reddy et al., 2001). In combination with hyperbaric oxygen, light-treated skin wounds in rats closed faster (Yu et al., 1997), an effect that was associated with a more uniform rise and fall in VEGF and FGF-2 instead of the sharp peaks at day four and subsequent rapid drop-off observed in control wounds (Whelan et al., 2001). In vitro, proliferation of mouse fibroblasts was increased by over 150% and that of human epithelial cells by 155–171% (Whelan et al., 2001). Whelan et al. (2001) also reported that wound-healing time was decreased by 50% aboard a submarine, where the atmosphere is lower in oxygen and higher in carbon dioxide, and that children suffering from oral mucositis as a result of chemotherapy experienced a 47% reduction in pain. Recently, however, a randomized trial using a 980 nm diode laser to treat venous leg ulcers of 18 patients indicated no difference in reduction of ulcer size compared to the 16 control patients (Leclere et al., 2010).
In reality, SSRIs and 5-HTP aren't so different. Both affect serotonin. SSRIs work by blocking serotonin from being reabsorbed by nerve cells so more serotonin is available to help brain cells work efficiently. As a doctor would later tell me, 5-HTP, on the other hand, "provides your body with the tools to make more serotonin, as opposed to antidepressants, which are just working with the serotonin that you have already."
Research shows that co-administration with carbidopa greatly increases plasma 5-HTP levels.[46] However, several studies have reported that 5-HTP is effective even without a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (e.g. carbidopa).[47][unreliable medical source?] Other studies have indicated the risk of a scleroderma-like condition resulting from the combination of 5-HTP and carbidopa.[48]
But this isn’t the only study to show the subtle side of oxytocin. Just three months ago, I wrote about research from Heejung Kim at the University of California, which showed how oxytocin’s effects vary across different cultures. To fulfil its many roles, oxytocin has to dock at a protein called the ‘oxytocin receptor’, encoded by a gene called OXTR.
But long before that, say researchers, oxytocin could use a rebranding. “It doesn't induce love; it doesn't induce massive amounts of trust,” Guastella says. “The problem we've got ourselves into is that we're trying to look for a simple answer: either oxytocin does or does not work in a patient population, or it does or does not enhance a certain social process.”

I was just diagnosed with achilles tendonosis in both of my achilles. I am an avid lifter as well as city leagues for football and basketball, I live in Montana so I hike a lot and participate In obstacle course races. My achilles have ground me to a halt over the last 3 months months. I have been referred to a surgeon for a Tenex procedure on both achilles. I am only 32 the last thing I want is have both of my achilles cut into. I’m looking at the TB-500 and BPC-157 to hopefully avoid surgery. I have done my research but am getting conflicting numbers as far as dosing. I am roughly 240 pounds and 6’5 could u recommend a dosage and cycle? Also I was wondering where the most effective injection site would be? Do I need it directly into the achilles itself or is local good enough?


Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.[48] Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.[49]

5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
To determine the direct effect of Tβ4 peptide on osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were directly exposed to Tβ4 peptide. Direct treatment with Tβ4 peptide also reduced the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells and TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 7A and 7B). Since Tβ4 downregulated H2O2-induced various cytokines expression, the indirect effect of Tβ4 on osteoclast formation through PDLC cells using co-culture system were investigated. After addition of Tβ4 peptide to the BMMs-PDLCs co-culture, the number of osteoclast and TRAP activity were also significantly decreased (Fig 7C and 7D).
But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.

Jump up ^ Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P, Schulte-Körne G, Strauch K, Remschmidt H (March 2010). "Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 153B (2): 629–39. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31032. PMID 19777562.
5-HTP is necessary for the proper functioning of your body. It is decarboxylated in the brain and liver to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Serotonin is involved in the communication between nearly all of our 40 million brain cells, and is also found in large quantities in the cells of the gut, and in blood platelets. Because of its widespread distribution through the cells of the body, Serotonin is believed to have a large number of psychological and physiological effects. It has been used to treat conditions as diverse as obesity, depression, fibromyalgia, insomnia, and headaches, with varying success.
Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.

A handful of large-scale clinical trials are now getting under way to test oxytocin and oxytocin-based therapies for autism spectrum disorder, and to work out who could benefit. Linmarie Sikich, a child psychiatrist at the University of North Carolina is heading the largest of these trials. Sikich plans to recruit 300 people with autism spectrum disorder, ranging in age from 3 to 17, and give them 6 months of either oxytocin or a placebo, followed by 6 months in which everyone will receive oxytocin.


Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Tβ4 is known to be involved in various cellular responses, including antiinflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. Emerging evidence suggests that Tβ4 is expressed in the liver; however, its biological roles are poorly understood. Herein, we introduce liver fibrogenesis and recent findings regarding the function of Tβ4 in various tissues and discuss the potential role of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis with a special focus on the effects of exogenous and endogenous Tβ4. Recent studies have revealed that activated HSCs express Tβ4 in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with the exogenous Tβ4 peptide inhibits the proliferation and migration of activated HSCs and reduces liver fibrosis, indicating it has an antifibrotic action. Meanwhile, the endogenously expressed Tβ4 in activated HSCs is shown to promote HSCs activation. Although the role of Tβ4 has not been elucidated, it is apparent that Tβ4 is associated with HSC activation. Therefore, understanding the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis may provide a novel treatment for patients.
Once the baby is born, oxytocin promotes lactation by moving the milk into the breast. When the baby sucks at the mother's breast, oxytocin secretion causes the milk to release so the baby can feed. At the same time, oxytocin is released into the brain to stimulate further oxytocin production. Once the baby stops feeding, the production of the hormone stops until the next feeding.

5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and can result in serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use: if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking carbidopa or drugs/supplements with serotonergic activity including, but not limited to, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's Wort, antidepressants, pain killers, over-the-counter cough and cold medication containing dextromethorphan, anti-nausea medication and anti-migraine medication. Discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner if you show signs of weakness, oral ulcers, or abdominal pain accompanied by severe muscle pain. Do not use if you have scleroderma. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness. Some people may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness.
The scientists discovered that oxytocin strengthens negative social memory and future anxiety by triggering an important signaling molecule -- ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinases) -- that becomes activated for six hours after a negative social experience. ERK causes enhanced fear, Radulovic believes, by stimulating the brain's fear pathways, many of which pass through the lateral septum. The region is involved in emotional and stress responses.

Jump up ^ Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Faliva M, Bucci M, Perna S (March 2012). "Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration". Eating and Weight Disorders. 17 (1): e22–8. doi:10.3275/8165. PMID 22142813.
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