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Injection is the most effective way to administrate the peptide and results are seen the fastest and best. The nasal spray method is effective up to 30 – 40% because the nasal passages have poor absorption rate, you have to apply the nasal spray at least two to three times more than the injection. The injectable product of the Melanotan is very superior as compared to the nasal version. The nasal versions generally take four to five weeks for displaying the results appose to 10 days with the injection.

Adam Guastella, a clinical psychologist at University of Sydney’s Brain and Mind Research Institute, and a pioneer in studies of how oxytocin can help people with autism, thinks the hormone can also help people in couple therapy by facilitating empathic communication. His research has shown that people who get oxytocin are more focused on positive emotion: they remember happy faces better than angry and neutral ones. Research by others has shown that oxytocin increases trust, generosity and our ability to identify emotion in facial expressions. It is perhaps by these mechanisms that the hormone improves communication.


I went to a neurologist, He said it was just in my head because I have depression–the exact reason why I took 5HTP. Not satisfied with that doctor, I went to an immunologist. He said I got myositis. Eosinophilic Myositis. From my blood test, I got positive ANA IF, very high number of IgE, elevated Creatine Kinase, and very low Vitamin D 25(OH)D. But my ANA Profile test showed negative.
How would that work? Feldman thinks that these types of behaviors are intimately linked with oxytocin in a positive feedback loop. “Oxytocin can elicit loving behaviors, but giving and receiving these behaviors also promotes the release of oxytocin and leads to more of these behaviors,” she says. She thinks that talk therapy alone can boost the oxytocin system, but admits that in some cases it might help to jump-start the feedback loop by administering oxytocin. If Guastella’s results support his hypothesis, talk and hormone therapy together might be the best recipe for breaking down dysfunctional communication between partners, especially in cases where the behaviors have been learned in childhood.
Growing up, Joe was plagued with a myriad of health issues such as gut problems, autoimmune issues, chronic fatigue, brain fog, insomnia, and general inflammation. Both conventional and alternative doctors weren’t able to help him, so he decided to fix himself. With lots of health questions and few satisfying answers, Joe decided to read every research paper he could get his hands on and conduct thousands of experiments on his own body in order to fix his health issues. Joe started SelfHacked in late 2013 when he successfully fixed all of his issues, and now it gets millions of readers a month looking to educate themselves about how they can improve their health. Joe is now a thriving author, speaker, and serial entrepreneur, founding SelfDecode & LabTestAnalyzer.
The studies that have been conducted have determined that this peptide is potent and that it occurs totally naturally. It does help to repair wounds using its anti-inflammatory characteristics. Unlike with growth factors and other repair factors, this peptide increases the migration of endothelial and keratinocyte. It also does not conjoin to extracellular matrixes and is noted as having a molecular weight that is very low, which enables it to travel far distances within tissues.
To pursue the sexual dysfunction agent, melanotan-II was licensed by Competitive Technologies to Palatin Technologies.[9] Palatin ceased development of melanotan-II in 2000 and synthesized, patented, and began to develop bremelanotide, a likely metabolite of melanotan-II that differs from melanotan-II in that it has a hydroxyl group where melanotan-II has an amide.[6][13] Competitive Technologies sued Palatin for breach of contract and to try to claim ownership of bremelanotide;[13] the parties settled in 2008 with Palatin retaining rights to bremelanotide, returning rights to melanotan-II to Competitive Technologies, and paying $800,000.[14]
Obesity. Early research suggests that taking 5-HTP might help reduce appetite, caloric intake, and weight in obese people. Other research suggests that using a specific mouth spray containing 5-HTP and other extracts (5-HTP-Nat Exts, Medestea Biotech S.p.a., Torino, Italy) for 4 weeks increases weight loss by about 41% in overweight postmenopausal women.
Oxytocin is known as the hormone that promotes feelings of love, bonding and well-being. It's even being tested as an anti-anxiety drug. But new research shows oxytocin also can cause emotional pain. Oxytocin appears to be the reason stressful social situations, perhaps being bullied at school or tormented by a boss, reverberate long past the event and can trigger fear and anxiety in the future. That's because the hormone actually strengthens social memory in the brain.
I was just diagnosed with achilles tendonosis in both of my achilles. I am an avid lifter as well as city leagues for football and basketball, I live in Montana so I hike a lot and participate In obstacle course races. My achilles have ground me to a halt over the last 3 months months. I have been referred to a surgeon for a Tenex procedure on both achilles. I am only 32 the last thing I want is have both of my achilles cut into. I’m looking at the TB-500 and BPC-157 to hopefully avoid surgery. I have done my research but am getting conflicting numbers as far as dosing. I am roughly 240 pounds and 6’5 could u recommend a dosage and cycle? Also I was wondering where the most effective injection site would be? Do I need it directly into the achilles itself or is local good enough?
^ Jump up to: a b Marazziti D, Dell'Osso B, Baroni S, Mungai F, Catena M, Rucci P, Albanese F, Giannaccini G, Betti L, Fabbrini L, Italiani P, Del Debbio A, Lucacchini A, Dell'Osso L (October 2006). "A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment". Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2 (1): 28. doi:10.1186/1745-0179-2-28. PMC 1621060. PMID 17034623.
But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.
Cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described in bipolar disorders… Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan; 5-HT) is possibly involved in these cognitive processes, more particularly in executive functions, learning, memory, and attention. The aim of this study was to investigate serotonergic vulnerability and its relation to cognitive functioning in healthy first-degree relatives of [bipolar disorders] patients…
Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Tβ4 is known to be involved in various cellular responses, including antiinflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. Emerging evidence suggests that Tβ4 is expressed in the liver; however, its biological roles are poorly understood. Herein, we introduce liver fibrogenesis and recent findings regarding the function of Tβ4 in various tissues and discuss the potential role of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis with a special focus on the effects of exogenous and endogenous Tβ4. Recent studies have revealed that activated HSCs express Tβ4 in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with the exogenous Tβ4 peptide inhibits the proliferation and migration of activated HSCs and reduces liver fibrosis, indicating it has an antifibrotic action. Meanwhile, the endogenously expressed Tβ4 in activated HSCs is shown to promote HSCs activation. Although the role of Tβ4 has not been elucidated, it is apparent that Tβ4 is associated with HSC activation. Therefore, understanding the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis may provide a novel treatment for patients.
But this isn’t the only study to show the subtle side of oxytocin. Just three months ago, I wrote about research from Heejung Kim at the University of California, which showed how oxytocin’s effects vary across different cultures. To fulfil its many roles, oxytocin has to dock at a protein called the ‘oxytocin receptor’, encoded by a gene called OXTR.
Showa Denko, the source of up to 60% of all the tryptophan sold in the United States, had used an untested manufacturing process that reduced the amount of activated charcoal used to filter fermented raw tryptophan. Some reports suggest that purity may be a potential problem for 5-HTP as well. No cases of EMS resulting from 5-HTP use have been reported, however.
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.[1]
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James Bates* who recently started taking it for panic attacks, said, "A friend who had anxiety recommended 5-HTP to me. I used to take beta-blockers and Valium but the doctors have got funny about giving them to me. I needed an alternative and didn't fancy getting back on Prozac. I've only been taking the supplements for a month but so far, it's helped a lot. I've only had two panic attacks, whereas usually I'd have four or five."

Tβ4 is the major monomeric actin-sequestering peptide in human tissues, and can bind globular actin (G-actin) in a 1:1 ratio and consequently involved in cytoskeletal regulation by inhibiting the polymerization of G-actin into fibrous actin (F-actin) [7]. In addition, Tβ4 is an ubiquitous naturally occurring molecule and is found at concentrations of 1 × 10−5 to 5.6 × 10−1 M in a variety of tissues and cell types, yet, no receptors for the protein have been identified [33]. A recent study suggests that internalization of exogenous Tβ4 is essential for its subsequent cellular functions [34]. Moreover, Tβ4 has been shown to be associated with, wound healing, hair growth, immunomodulation, and angiogenesis [7–9].
The following medications and other supplements may interact with 5-HTP. Effects may include increasing or decreasing sleepiness and drowsiness, interfering with the effectiveness of the medications or supplements, and interfering with the condition that is being treated by the medication or supplement. These are lists of commonly used medications and supplements that have scientifically identified interactions with 5-HTP. People who take these or any other medications and supplements should consult with a physician before beginning to use 5-HTP.

Some work has pointed to a potential dark side to oxytocin. Carter's group found that a single low dose of the hormone given to baby prairie voles improved their pair bonding as adults, but that higher doses interfered with that behaviour — possibly because oxytocin started to activate other receptors16. And human studies have suggested that in certain contexts, a puff of oxytocin can cause people to be more aggressive in defending themselves against outsiders or competitors17. In patients with a psychiatric condition known as borderline personality disorder, a single dose of oxytocin has been found to hinder trust and cooperation18.
I broke my neck this year at C6-C7 facets. Started taking TB-500 immediately following the accident. I don’t sit still well and was back in the gym almost immediately, simply to not go stir crazy and pump the blood anyway I could. 8 weeks later I was hitting bodyweight overhead squats for reps with the jerk, 0 pain and completely stable spine. I’m in my late 30s. I eat well, sleep well, and drink a lot of water. I doubt I would have been as well off, had I not taken the TB.
5-HTP helps the body to produce more serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood and sleep-wake cycles. Healthy levels of serotonin contribute to a positive mood and outlook and also promote restful sleep. Serotonin also plays an important role in many other of the body’s functions, including digestion, appetite, and pain perception.
Formulated Supplementary Sports Foods: The edible products sold on this site are not suitable for children under 15 years of age or pregnant women: Should only be used under medical or dietetic supervision. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. The food is not a sole source of nutrition and should be consumed in conjunction with a nutritious diet; and the food should be used in conjunction with an appropriate physical training or exercise program.
In a 2-week long clinical trial involving 25 overweight diabetic subjects given no dietary restrictions, subjects who received 5-HTP had reduced caloric, carbohydrate, and fat intake compared to placebo. Subjects who received 5-HTP also have reduced body weight, blood sugar, insulin and HbA1C levels after 2 weeks, possibly due to changes in the diet (R).
“Further analysis by gender revealed that females in the 5-HTP group had a significantly lower panic rate and intensity of cognitive symptoms whereas, in males, the effect of 5-HTP was limited to lowering the intensity of somatic panic symptoms. Thus, an increased availability of 5-HT may have a gender-dependent protective effect in CCK-4-induced panic.”
Members agreed that the relevant matters under Section 52E(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 included: (a) risks and benefits of the use of a substance; (b) the purpose for which a substance is to be used and the and extent of use; (c) the toxicity of a substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
Exogenous Tβ4 can function like a hormone on cells in terms of its ability to modulate their biological behavior. Since one of the primary roles of Tβ4 in cells is the sequestration of actin monomers, and the protein is not secreted, previously indicated that it was unlikely that Tβ4 could have a hormonal function [42]. However, other studies have shown that the intracellular level of Tβ4 or its mRNA can be significantly and rapidly altered by external stimuli and that change in the level of Tβ4 often are correlated with cell differentiation [18, 43]. In the present study, exogenous Tβ4 peptide activate intracellular Tβ4, which results suggested that exogenous Tβ4 spontaneously enter the cytoplasm through rapid internalization, and acts their functions same as endogenous one [8, 18].
Milk ejection reflex/Letdown reflex: in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into subareolar sinuses, from where it can be excreted via the nipple.[47] Suckling by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.

Three groups of mice were individually placed in cages with aggressive mice and experienced social defeat, a stressful experience for them. One group was missing its oxytocin receptors, essentially the plug by which the hormone accesses brain cells. The lack of receptors means oxytocin couldn't enter the mice's brain cells. The second group had an increased number of receptors so their brain cells were flooded with the hormone. The third control group had a normal number of receptors.
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.[23] Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C.[24]
Melanotans include melanotan I (afamelanotide) and melanotan II. Both melanotan I and II are widely abused to obtain a cosmetic tan. The melanotans are potent, non-selective melanocortin receptor agonists affecting MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. These receptors are responsible for many physiological systems including: pigmentation, energy, sexual function, immune system, inflammation and the cardiovascular system.
Mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMMs) of 5-week-old female ICR mice (Charles River Laboratories, Seoul, South Korea) were used as previously described [23]. Animals were maintained in accordance with the National Institute of Toxicological Research of the Korea Food and Drug Administration guideline for the humane care and use of laboratory animals Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval was obtained from Kyung Hee University (Seoul, Korea). Briefly, bone marrow of tibiae and femurs of mice were flushed with α-MEM. After removing erythrocytes with hypotonic buffer, cells were cultured in α-MEM containing 10% FBS for 24 h and adherent cells were discarded. Non-adherent bone marrow cells were transferred onto 100-mm non-coated petri dishes at 5×106 cells per dish and cultured in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml) for 3 days. Condition medium (CM) was obtained from HPDLCs treated with 200 μM H2O2 or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) for 2 days. To evaluate the osteoclastogenic activity of CM from HPDLCs, we added the CM mixture (60% CM plus 40% fresh α-MEM without M-CSF or RANKL) or rh-Tβ4 to pre-osteoclast-stage cells and further cultured the cells for up to 5 days to achieve mature osteoclast differentiation BMMs (1.5 × 105 cells/well) and PDLCs (1.5 × 104 cells/well) were co-cultured for 7 days in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml), RANKL (100 ng/mL), H2O2 (200 μM) or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) in α-MEM, supplemented with10% in 48-well plates under 5% CO2 atmosphere.

Despite this, Tβ4’s place on the banned-substances list is warranted. It reflects the possibility that the effects of the supplement may manifest as a tangible improvement in athletes. However, any time a journalist flippantly declares it “heals damaged tissue and speeds recovery”, it should be noted that such claims are a harmful distortion of the facts.
Last month, in the article “How To Use BPC-157: A Complete Dummies Guide To Healing The Body Like Wolverine“, I introduced the little-known concept of using BPC-157 peptide self-injections and oral BPC-157 peptide consumption (currently completely legal and not banned by sporting organizations) for everything from rapidly healing leaky gut to fixing tendon, ligament and muscle injuries.

Such tissue-regenerating properties of thymosin β4 may ultimately contribute to repair of human heart muscle damaged by heart disease and heart attack. In mice, administration of thymosin β4 has been shown to stimulate formation of new heart muscle cells from otherwise inactive precursor cells present in the outer lining of adult hearts,[18] to induce migration of these cells into heart muscle[19] and recruit new blood vessels within the muscle.[20]
The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.
Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78(6):676-683. View abstract.
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