Milk ejection reflex/Letdown reflex: in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into subareolar sinuses, from where it can be excreted via the nipple.[47] Suckling by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).
In all groups, [intravenous tryptophan] impaired memory and psychomotor performance significantly. In conclusion, cognitive deficits in [bipolar patients] following [intravenous tryptophan] may reflect a central 5-HT vulnerability in frontal brain areas. Independent of [intravenous tryptophan], cognitive deficits in [bipolar patients] provide evidence for a trait marker for [bipolar disorders].
Thymosin Beta 4 is a protein that is made up of 43 amino acids. The TMSB4X gene found in the test subject's body encodes the peptide. There have been a variety of clinical trials that have been performed using this peptide. In the research, it’s been found that the Thymosin Beta 4 may be used after a heart attack takes place in order to reactivate the cells in the cardiac progenitor, so that repair can be done to the damaged tissue in the heart.
Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(4):553-557. View abstract.

Formulated Supplementary Sports Foods: The edible products sold on this site are not suitable for children under 15 years of age or pregnant women: Should only be used under medical or dietetic supervision. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. The food is not a sole source of nutrition and should be consumed in conjunction with a nutritious diet; and the food should be used in conjunction with an appropriate physical training or exercise program.


This is exactly the type of question myself, my team of coaches and the community in my Inner Circle can help to answer for you. The Inner Circle is a collective of people who are pursuing the same goals you are – trying to live a healthy, happy, adventurous, fulfilling and limitless life in a modern world. In the Inner Circle, we all help each other with questions, ideas, motivation, suggestions and much more!
At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.
Suggested doses vary depending on the source – some sellers will encourage higher use! One site suggests starting with a dose of 0.25mg. If side-effects (see above) are not proving troublesome, the site advises users to attempt to increase daily dosage. After 2-3 weeks of daily use, or when the desired level of pigmentation has been achieved, people who use Melanotan II should start a maintenance phase of two injections per week.
Hey Adrian, thanks for reaching out. Firstly, I am not a doctor and nothing I say should be taken as medical advice. For something like this I suggest you book a consult at
Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.
Like I said, it’s amazing stuff. And it shouldn’t come as a surprise that it affects that amazing part of your brain so intimately involved in keeping you safe…the amygdala. Remember, trust has a lot to do with survival among social animals who depend on each other for safety and protection. Show someone an untrustworthy face, and the amygdala is one of two areas that become more active than anywhere else in the brain.7 It is apparently programmed for reading trust just as it is for snakes or spiders.
I’m always interested in learning about better supplements for my health. I’ve heard a lot of good things about peptides, but this was the first time I’ve read about TB-500 in particular. It sounds like it can have a major impact on helping you recover from injuries, which is a huge deal in today’s world. I may need to look into it some more before actually buying it, but thank you so much for taking the time to explain it!
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.

Though it may be unlikely to form part of any official psychiatric programme in the UK, Phil Cowen, Professor of Psychopharmacology at Oxford University, admitted that there are various groups for whom it could be helpful. "About half of people with severe depression never see a doctor anyway, so it's reasonable to think it's fine for them to treat themselves with something like a supplement. Perhaps if you had mild symptoms, a smaller dose would be helpful. I'd also prefer to prescribe things like exercise or computer-based CBT if it's that stage, though. But depression and anxiety is very different between people, that's important to keep in mind. No treatment is the same for anyone."
A handful of large-scale clinical trials are now getting under way to test oxytocin and oxytocin-based therapies for autism spectrum disorder, and to work out who could benefit. Linmarie Sikich, a child psychiatrist at the University of North Carolina is heading the largest of these trials. Sikich plans to recruit 300 people with autism spectrum disorder, ranging in age from 3 to 17, and give them 6 months of either oxytocin or a placebo, followed by 6 months in which everyone will receive oxytocin.
Thymosin β4 has been tested in multicenter trials sponsored jointly by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc (Rockville, MD, USA) and Sigma Tau (Pomezia, Italy) in the United States and Europe in patients with bed sores, ulcers caused by venostasis, and Epidermolysis bullosa simplex and was found to accelerate bed sore and stasis ulcer repair by one month. It has also been tested in patients with chronic neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects and found to promote repair.

So far, few studies have definitively linked autism to problems in oxytocin signalling. Some of the clearest evidence emerged in February, from a team led by neurogeneticist Daniel Geschwind of the University of California, Los Angeles. The group showed that mice that lacked a working copy of the Cntnap2 gene — which has been implicated in a small subset of human autism cases — had fewer oxytocin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus and socialized less with other mice than did control mice15. After receiving doses of oxytocin every day for two weeks, the mice behaved normally again. “Until this, there was no evidence that there was a subtype of autism that had to do with oxytocin deficits,” Geschwind says.


Thymosin beta 4 accelerated skin wound healing in a rat model of a full thickness wound where the epithelial layer was destroyed. When Tb4 was applied topically to the wound or injected into the animal, epithelial layer restoration in the wound was increased 42% by day four and 61% by day seven, after treatment, compared to untreated. Furthermore, Tb4 stimulated collagen deposition in the wound and angiogenesis. Tb4 accelerated keratinocyte migration, resulting in the wound contracting by more than 11%, compared to untreated wounds, to close the skin gap in the wound. An analysis of skin sections (histological observations) showed that the Tb4 treated wounds healed faster than the untreated. Proof of accelerated cell migration was also seen in vitro, where Tb4 increased keratinocyte migration two to three fold, within four to five hours after treatment, compared to untreated keratinocytes.
In a 2-week long clinical trial involving 25 overweight diabetic subjects given no dietary restrictions, subjects who received 5-HTP had reduced caloric, carbohydrate, and fat intake compared to placebo. Subjects who received 5-HTP also have reduced body weight, blood sugar, insulin and HbA1C levels after 2 weeks, possibly due to changes in the diet (R).
Recent preclinical studies by us and others have revealed that endogenous neurorestoration is present after TBI, including neurogenesis, axonal sprouting, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis, which may contribute to the spontaneous functional recovery.13-18 In addition, treatments that promote these neurorestorative processes have been demonstrated to improve functional recovery after brain injury.19,20 However, clinical trials in TBI have primarily targeted neuroprotection, and trials directed specifically at neurorestoration have not been conducted. The essential difference between neuroprotective and neurorestorative treatments is that the former target the lesion that is still not irreversibly injured and the latter treat the intact tissue.19 Thus, neurorestorative treatments can be made available for a larger number of TBI patients.
TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes.
An interesting concept that has emerged from initial findings is that regeneration and fibrosis are competing events in the vertebrate heart. That is, if there is a capacity for injury-stimulated cardiomyocyte hyperplasia beyond a certain threshold, regenerative mechanisms will overcome scarring. Results consistent with this idea came from experiments with zebrafish possessing a ts mutation in the cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Mps1 (Poss et al., 2002b). As mentioned earlier, mps1 mutants were initially identified based on their defects in caudal fin regeneration. Serendipitously, mps1 mutants also showed defects in cardiac regeneration at a temperature restrictive for the mutation (Poss et al., 2002b). Instead of regenerating muscle in response to ventricular resection injury, mps1 mutants repaired wounds by forming large, collagen-rich scars. Inhibition of Fgf signaling also stunts cardiac regeneration and causes scarring (Lepilina et al., 2006). These results indicate that even vertebrates with high cardiac regenerative capacity have a default scarring mechanism; normally, regeneration somehow restricts this pathway (Fig. 8). The implication is exciting; perhaps by stimulating regeneration in a poorly-regenerative system like the mammalian heart, scarring events characteristic of myocardial infarction would be restricted by new muscle formation. Similarly, deterring cardiac scarring mechanisms would perhaps favor regeneration in mammals.

In the prairie vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[57] Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, so it likely also does in humans. In a 2003 study, both humans and dog oxytocin levels in the blood rose after five to 24 minutes of a petting session. This possibly plays a role in the emotional bonding between humans and dogs.[58]

At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.
Secretion of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve endings is regulated by the electrical activity of the oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus. These cells generate action potentials that propagate down axons to the nerve endings in the pituitary; the endings contain large numbers of oxytocin-containing vesicles, which are released by exocytosis when the nerve terminals are depolarised.
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
The soluble form of Ac-SDKP peptide, derived from thymosin beta-4, has been described as a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and as a stimulator of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo (Koutrafouri et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2004). This peptide has been selectively bound to acrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels via thiol groups from cysteine residues (Song et al., 2014). Unfortunately, the immobilization process was poorly characterized and the effect of hydrogels on EC function was not tested in vitro. In a mouse model of chronic myocardial infarction, hydrogels with immobilized Ac-SDKP did not show improved regeneration potential. Yet, Ac-SDKP-HA hydrogels with entrapped stem cell homing factor SDF-1 showed a significant increase of myocardial regeneration and recovery of heart function, as compared to groups with only one or none of these factors, suggesting a potentially interesting synergistic effect.
Hi..i had 3 major muscle tears(complete)..2 in shoulder and 1in bicep..they all needed surgery for reattachment.. ive done a 20 day round with 157 and believed it helped..im at 7 weeks post op and have about 5 month’s of recovery still to go.. thinking another round of 157..wondering if the TB500 might be a better option or stay with 157? As an athlete and top Spartan racer,im looking to speed up process by any %. Any thoughts/opinions or recommendations are greatly appreciated! Thanks for your help and this info :)

A: 5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is sold as a dietary supplement for "anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches and other conditions." Because dietary supplements (e.g., 5-HTP) have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. However, 5-HTP does interact with prescription antidepressants, taking them together can lead to serotonin syndrome which is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. 5-HTP has not been proven safe or effective for the treatment of depression or bipolar disorder. There are many prescription medications that have been proven safe and effective for these conditions. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. Laura Cable, Pharm.D., BCPS


Solvent-free Bulletproof Medium-Chain-Triglyceride (MCT) oil. Pure Caprylic and Capric acids. No Lauric Acid. A rapidly metabolised source of energy. Very little MCT oil is stored as fat because it is used for energy so quickly! Formulated supplementary sports food to be consumed as part of a nutritious diet and as part of a program of physical activity. Also available: Bulletproof...
The pamphlet, titled "Melanotan-2: Safe enhanced tanning" says although the drug is not approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia's drug watchdog) and that studies into its effects are under way, it "is safe" and and its use "well documented". It says people can be referred to a "suitable doctor who is trained to prescribe MT2" so the pharmacy can dispense it to them.
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
At least one study using an extract of Griffonia simplicifolia (10.24mg giving 2.56mg 5-HTP; confounded with Centella asiatica and Taraxacum officinale at 11.7mg and 4.55mg Paulina cupana and 9.75mg Artichoke extract) taken in three hits, five times a day (40mg 5-HTP total), by 20 overweight or obese females (non-depressive and without eating disorders) for 4 weeks has noted an increase in satiety and reduced binge eating tendencies; the increase in satiety was said to account for the improved weight loss results seen in the experimental group when both were given weight loss advice and diets.[3] This spray has been noted elsewhere to increase satiety (and vicariously through that, body weight) over 2 months in a similar demographic of women.[2]
Work with cell cultures and experiments with animals have shown that administration of thymosin β4 can promote migration of cells, formation of blood vessels, maturation of stem cells, survival of various cell types and lowering of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These multiple properties have provided the impetus for a worldwide series of on-going clinical trials of potential effectiveness of thymosin β4 in promoting repair of wounds in skin, cornea and heart.[17]

Brooke, my mother was prescribed Bpc 157 for leaky gut and chronic ibs. She took it about 30 days, before she saw an improvement. After 45 days she claimed the ibs she suffered with 40 years was gone. Bpc 157 fixed what she thought was not fixable. Her doctor told her to inject sub-q as his patients got better results that way. He said if she couldn’t handle needles they make a capsule form designed to get to gut where it is needed but they are more expensive. The stuff she used was prescribed and compounded by Tailor Made compounding labs, you can get it prescribed for ibs issues.
Members agreed that the relevant matters under Section 52E(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 included: (a) risks and benefits of the use of a substance; (b) the purpose for which a substance is to be used and the and extent of use; (c) the toxicity of a substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
Such tissue-regenerating properties of thymosin β4 may ultimately contribute to repair of human heart muscle damaged by heart disease and heart attack. In mice, administration of thymosin β4 has been shown to stimulate formation of new heart muscle cells from otherwise inactive precursor cells present in the outer lining of adult hearts,[18] to induce migration of these cells into heart muscle[19] and recruit new blood vessels within the muscle.[20]

To untangle the ways different hormones together influence behavior in more naturalistic contexts, we worked with the Tsimane people in Bolivia. Traditional societies like the Tsimane are not living relics of the past, but their lifeways – small, tight-knit communities that produce their own food – can reveal the kinds of situations our hormone systems are well adapted to.


During the 2000s, the Melanotan II peptide and the metabolite derived from it, the erectile dysfunction-focused Bremelanotide (also known as PT-141), were patented and then licensed to biotechnology companies hoping to develop them into profitable prescription drugs. However, these companies also offer the peptides for direct sale to researchers. These transactions occupy a legal gray area, since the peptides are banned for human use outside clinical trials. While they can be purchased from various websites specializing in research chemicals, the purchaser usually has to affirm prior to final sale that the peptide "will not be used for human consumption" and is being acquired for "research purposes only."
The vascular system in the normal adult brain is stable, but is activated in response to certain pathological conditions including injuries.68 Von Willebrand factor (vWF) staining has been used to identify vascular structure in the brain after TBI.69 TBI alone significantly increased vascular density in the injured cortex, CA3, and DG of the ipsilateral hemisphere when examined at day 35 after TBI compared to sham controls.18,34,64,65 Tβ4 treatment significantly increased the vascular density in these regions compared to saline treatment.34 This is in agreement with in vitro and in vivo pro-angiogenic effect of Tβ4.70,71
Serotonin syndrome (Serotonin toxicity) is caused by an excess of serotonin in the brain. It is most often caused by taking more than one Serotonin-enhancing substance at the same time, such as 5-HTP and an antidepressant medication. Symptoms range in severity according to the level of intoxication and may include increased heart rate, tremor, sweating, mental agitation, seizures, shock, organ failure and death (9).
Six hours later, the mice were returned to cages with the aggressive mice. The mice that were missing their oxytocin receptors didn't appear to remember the aggressive mice and show any fear. Conversely, when mice with increased numbers of oxytocin receptors were reintroduced to the aggressive mice, they showed an intense fear reaction and avoided the aggressive mice.
5-HTP increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin might lead to too much serotonin and cause side effects including heart problems, shivering and anxiety. Other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin levels include Hawaiian baby woodrose, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and St. John's wort.
These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.6

You can browse Drugs A-Z for a specific prescription or over-the-counter drug or look up drugs based on your specific condition. This information is for educational purposes only, and not meant to provide medical advice, treatment, or diagnosis. Remember to always consult your physician or health care provider before starting, stopping, or altering a treatment or health care regimen.
Horvath, G. A., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. G., Salvarinova-Zivkovic, R., Lillquist, Y. P., Connolly, M., Hyland, K., Blau, N., Rupar, T., and Waters, P. J. Autosomal recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency without hyperphenylalaninemia: evidence of a phenotypic continuum between dominant and recessive forms. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(1):127-131. View abstract.