Studies demonstrate that TB-500 is a potent, naturally occurring wound repair factor with anti-inflammatory properties. Tß4 is different from other repair factors, such as growth factors, in that it promotes endothelial and keratinocyte migration. It also does not bind to the extracellular matrix and has a very low molecular weight meaning it can travel relatively long distances through tissues. One of TB-500 key mechanisms of action is its ability to regulate the cell-building protein, Actin, a vital component of cell structure and movement. Of the thousands of proteins present in cells, actin represents up to 10% of the total proteins which therefore plays a major role in the genetic makeup of the cell.

The CCI model we used causes cortical tissue loss. Traditionally, the target for neuroprotective treatment of TBI is to reduce the lesion volume.39,40 A major limitation of neuroprotection strategies is the short time window between injury and treatment. In the vast majority of preclinical TBI studies, the treatment compounds provide neuroprotection only when administered early (usually several hours after brain injury).11 The administration of a compound early in the clinical setting is not practical.41 The neuroprotective effects demonstrated in rodents may diminish if the treatment compounds are given in the clinical setting beyond the short neuroprotective window. We are able to stimulate recovery of neurological function without altering the lesion volume, which has also been demonstrated in our experimental studies of stroke,19,42,43 and is in essence, enhancement of neurorecovery.19 The extended 24-hour window for treatment which improves neurological recovery, without altering CCI cortical volume, is a major benefit of the neurorestorative therapy. Recently, we evaluated the efficacy of delayed Tβ4 treatment on spatial learning and sensorimotor functional recovery in rats after TBI induced by CCI.34 Briefly, TBI rats received Tβ4 at a dose of 6 mg/kg or a vehicle (saline) administered i.p. starting at 24 hours after injury and then every third day for 2 weeks. The dose of Tβ4 was selected based on our previous studies in animal models of stroke and EAE.25,27 Tβ4 did not alter lesion volume (14.2 ± 3.9% for saline treatment vs. 15.7 ± 3.6% for Tβ4 treatment). TBI caused neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral CA3 and DG examined 35 days after injury compared to sham controls. Tβ4 treatment initiated 24 hours post injury significantly reduced cell loss in these two regions compared to saline controls. Tβ4-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning (MWM test) and sensorimotor (mNSS test) functional recovery compared to the saline-treated TBI rats.34

It is highly important to understand that MT2 itself does not protect skin from burning, tan protects your skin. Until some base tan is developed users should still take care not to over-expose skin to uv rays. Starting only with the amount of exposure that the user's skin can handle without burning. It should not take long before the user can handle longer exposures to strong sunlight without adverse effects.
Ive been struggling with my left brachialis and so after listening to a podcast in which you mentioned BPC-157 I tried it out. I was hoping for a miracle cure, which I did not get. However, I believe it certainly helped a lot. I am considering a second round. But the peptide rabbit hole is certainly interesting and I am most keen to try some others. But I would like to see if you have some advise for me on another topic. After having listened to your podcast with Dr Gains I thought that either you or Dr Gains may be able to at least point me in the right direction. My wife suffers from a condition called Pelvic Vein Congestion which causes her a lot of pain. From what I understand, she has a seemingly unnatural mass of veins around her uterus which may also suffer from a “valve” type problem in which blood can potentially run in the opposite direction and pool in locations which causes pain. She has been to doctors which offer invasive solutions with unattractive success rates. I have been searching for other cures, but the only thing that I found (supplement with Diosmin and Hisperidan) had some psychological effects. Any thoughts?

This anti-social effect of a social hormone brings some nuance to the story of oxytocin. In one study, researchers found that Dutch students given a snort of the hormone became more positive about fictional Dutch characters, but were more negative about characters with Arab or German names. The finding suggests that oxytocin's social bonding effects are targeted at whomever a person perceives as part of their in-group, the researchers reported in January 2011 in the journal PNAS.
The vascular system in the normal adult brain is stable, but is activated in response to certain pathological conditions including injuries.68 Von Willebrand factor (vWF) staining has been used to identify vascular structure in the brain after TBI.69 TBI alone significantly increased vascular density in the injured cortex, CA3, and DG of the ipsilateral hemisphere when examined at day 35 after TBI compared to sham controls.18,34,64,65 Tβ4 treatment significantly increased the vascular density in these regions compared to saline treatment.34 This is in agreement with in vitro and in vivo pro-angiogenic effect of Tβ4.70,71
Oxytocin is relatively safe when used at recommended doses. Potential side effects include: Central nervous system: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, seizures; Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, systemic venous return, cardiac output, and arrhythmias;Genitourinary: Impaired uterine blood flow, pelvic hematoma, tetanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage.
For this study, one of us, Ben Trumble, followed Tsimane men as they went hunting for food. Typically, Tsimane men set out alone or with a partner in the early morning and search in the forest for prey such as wild pigs, deer, monkeys, or the rare tapir. Following long looping trails they might be gone for eight or nine hours, traveling about six miles (ten kilometers). Ben collected saliva samples throughout the hunt in order to measure changes in men’s hormone levels.
RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals is focusing on the commercialization of Tb4 “For the treatment of injured tissue and non-healing wounds, to enable more rapid repair and/or tissue regeneration.” Especially needy are diabetics who suffer from poor blood circulation and loss of sensation of pain that keeps their wounds unnoticed and unattended for days, leading to ulcers that may not heal. Other hard healing wounds are pressure ulcers in patients who are bed ridden and often receive skin grafts as treatment, or reconstructive surgery.

Oxytocin affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic attraction and subsequent monogamous pair bonding. An oxytocin nasal spray caused men in a monogamous relationship, but not single men, to increase the distance between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter by 10 to 15 centimeters. The researchers suggested that oxytocin may help promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.[109] For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "bonding hormone". There is some evidence that oxytocin promotes ethnocentric behavior, incorporating the trust and empathy of in-groups with their suspicion and rejection of outsiders.[66] Furthermore, genetic differences in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been associated with maladaptive social traits such as aggressive behavior.[110]


An estimated 1.4 million people sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in the United States, and more than 5 million people are coping with disabilities from TBI at an annual cost of more than $56 billion.1 There are no commercially-available pharmacological treatment options available for TBI because all clinical trial strategies have failed.2,3 The disappointing clinical trial results may be due to variability in treatment approaches and heterogeneity of the population of TBI patients.4-9 Another important aspect is that most clinical trial strategies have used drugs that target a single pathophysiological mechanism, although many mechanisms are involved in secondary injury after TBI.4 Neuroprotection approaches have historically been dominated by targeting neuron-based injury mechanisms as the primary or even exclusive focus of the neuroprotective strategy.3 In the vast majority of preclinical studies, the treatment compounds are administered early and, frequently, even before TBI.10,11 Clinically, the administration of a compound early may be problematic because of the difficulty in obtaining informed consent.12

Toxicity includes renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of new moles, with one report of melanoma associated with use of melanotan II. Other case reports include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (consisting of seizures, visual disturbance, confusion, headache, vomiting); refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome; shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping & pain, dizziness and lethargy.

Dosages for maintenance begin once you have achieved your desired level of tan. It requires considerably less frequent dose than once every day. In spite of the fact that levels are diverse for everybody, all things considered 500mcg each 3 to 4 days or 1mg a week with a little measure of UV exposure will keep your tan maintained. It maintains the colour without further darkening the skin.


In mammals, many mysteries remain. Oxytocin is difficult to measure reliably in the brain, making it hard to know exactly where, when and how much is normally released; nor do scientists understand precisely how it works to alter behaviour. “What we need to start thinking about is the more fundamental role that oxytocin plays in the brain,” Young says. The determination to find out has been strengthened by a growing move in neuroscience to characterize circuits that are important in brain operations. “That's the level that's critical for understanding how the brain is regulating behaviour,” says Thomas Insel, director of the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, who has studied oxytocin in voles.

Romantic attachment: In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. For example, if a couple is separated for a long period of time, anxiety can increase due to the lack of physical affection. Oxytocin may aid romantically attached couples by decreasing their feelings of anxiety when they are separated.[101]
The first study to show that Tβ4-promoted tissue repair was a dermal study performed in rats (Malinda et al., 1999). It had previously been found to promote angiogenesis and was reported to be high in platelets (Grant et al., 1995; Hannappel & van Kampen, 1987; Malinda, Goldstein, & Kleinman, 1997; Philp, Huff, Gho, Hannappel, & Kleinman, 2003). Since platelets are the first cells to enter a wound, it was clear that Tβ4 should be tested in dermal wounds in an animal model (Malinda et al., 1997, 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003). In the first dermal study using 8 mm full-thickness punch wounds in rats, Tβ4 at 5 μg/50 μL of phosphate-buffered saline was found to accelerate wound closure, increase angiogenesis, and accelerate collagen deposition (Malinda et al., 1999). Tβ4 was only applied at the time of injury and at 48 h since after that the crust had formed. Visible macroscopic improvement was seen in the treated group by day 4. The study also found that Tβ4 promoted keratinocyte migration in vitro with activity in the picogram range. The findings were confirmed in various additional animal models (Table 1) and led to the clinical trials for hard to heal wound in patients as detailed in Table 2.
Nasally administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[76] Indeed, studies in rodents have shown oxytocin can efficiently inhibit fear responses by activating an inhibitory circuit within the amygdala.[77][78] Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude.[79] Individuals who receive an intranasal dose of oxytocin identify facial expressions of disgust more quickly than individuals who do not receive oxytocin.[75][qualify evidence] Facial expressions of disgust are evolutionarily linked to the idea of contagion. Thus, oxytocin increases the salience of cues that imply contamination, which leads to a faster response because these cues are especially relevant for survival. In another study, after administration of oxytocin, individuals displayed an enhanced ability to recognize expressions of fear compared to the individuals who received the placebo.[80] Oxytocin modulates fear responses by enhancing the maintenance of social memories. Rats that are genetically modified to have a surplus of oxytocin receptors display a greater fear response to a previously conditioned stressor. Oxytocin enhances the aversive social memory, leading the rat to display a greater fear response when the aversive stimulus is encountered again.[74]
Dosages for maintenance begin once you have achieved your desired level of tan. It requires considerably less frequent dose than once every day. In spite of the fact that levels are diverse for everybody, all things considered 500mcg each 3 to 4 days or 1mg a week with a little measure of UV exposure will keep your tan maintained. It maintains the colour without further darkening the skin.

A study using an oral cavity spray of 5-HTP (via the plant source of Griffonia Simplicifolia) has noted that 7.68mg of 5-HTP via 30.72mg of Griffonia Simplicifolia extract taken five times daily (total daily dose of around 40mg) has confirmed an increase in urinary 5-HIAA (from 3.71+/-1.27mg/24 hours to 8.80+/-4.02mg/24 hours; a 137% increase) relative to baseline, confirming that 5-HTP can be absorbed sublingually.[3] Similar results have been noted elsewhere with this spray, although it should be noted that it is confounded with other herbs (detailed in the appetite subsection).[2]
Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
First, dietary supplements are not regulated as drugs in the US, and the careful testing and quality control that are required of prescription drugs do not apply to supplements like 5-HTP. This is why serious adverse effects and major outbreaks, like the one associated with tryptophan, can occur. You can minimize this risk by using only USP-Verified supplements.
We are proud to offer 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical  Grade Melanotan 2, produced in the USA!  Our state of the art labs individually vacuum seal sterile vials of 99.9% Pure Pharmaceutical Grade Peptides as a lyophilized solid, with no added fillers like mannitol.  We strongly believe in bringing you quality MT2 that is free from fillers and additives like mannitol, unlike many cheap Chinese imports that are flooding the market.   In addition, we want you to know that many overseas imports are subject to potentially hazardous chemical degradation.  This is due to long transportation time and fluctuating temperatures that can reduce the effectiveness and even potentially increase the side effects of MT2.   Our supplies are always fresh and kept in climate controlled storage until it is sent to your door. 
Injection is the most effective way to administrate the peptide and results are seen the fastest and best. The nasal spray method is effective up to 30 – 40% because the nasal passages have poor absorption rate, you have to apply the nasal spray at least two to three times more than the injection. The injectable product of the Melanotan is very superior as compared to the nasal version. The nasal versions generally take four to five weeks for displaying the results appose to 10 days with the injection.
I’m always interested in learning about better supplements for my health. I’ve heard a lot of good things about peptides, but this was the first time I’ve read about TB-500 in particular. It sounds like it can have a major impact on helping you recover from injuries, which is a huge deal in today’s world. I may need to look into it some more before actually buying it, but thank you so much for taking the time to explain it!
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
Establishment of maternal behavior: Successful reproduction in mammals demands that mothers become attached to and nourish their offspring immediately after birth. It is also important that non-lactating females do not manifest such nurturing behavior. The same events that affect the uterus and mammary gland at the time of birth also affect the brain. During parturition, there is an increase in concentration of oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid, and oxytocin acting within the brain plays a major role in establishing maternal behavior.
But this isn’t the only study to show the subtle side of oxytocin. Just three months ago, I wrote about research from Heejung Kim at the University of California, which showed how oxytocin’s effects vary across different cultures. To fulfil its many roles, oxytocin has to dock at a protein called the ‘oxytocin receptor’, encoded by a gene called OXTR.
“This is a very ancient molecule,” says Sue Carter, a neuroscientist at Indiana University in Bloomington, whose lab pioneered many of the early studies of oxytocin in voles. “It has been used and reused for many purposes across the evolution of modern animals, and almost everybody who's tried to look at an effect of oxytocin on anything like social behaviour has found something.”

Research shows that co-administration with carbidopa greatly increases plasma 5-HTP levels.[46] However, several studies have reported that 5-HTP is effective even without a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (e.g. carbidopa).[47][unreliable medical source?] Other studies have indicated the risk of a scleroderma-like condition resulting from the combination of 5-HTP and carbidopa.[48]

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