Milk ejection reflex/Letdown reflex: in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into subareolar sinuses, from where it can be excreted via the nipple. Suckling by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
In addition to its intracellular role as the major actin-sequestering molecule in cells of many multicellular animals, thymosin β4 shows a remarkably diverse range of effects when present in the fluid surrounding animal tissue cells. Taken together, these effects suggest that thymosin has a general role in tissue regeneration. This has suggested a variety of possible therapeutic applications, and several have now been extended to animal models and human clinical trials.
An interesting concept that has emerged from initial findings is that regeneration and fibrosis are competing events in the vertebrate heart. That is, if there is a capacity for injury-stimulated cardiomyocyte hyperplasia beyond a certain threshold, regenerative mechanisms will overcome scarring. Results consistent with this idea came from experiments with zebrafish possessing a ts mutation in the cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Mps1 (Poss et al., 2002b). As mentioned earlier, mps1 mutants were initially identified based on their defects in caudal fin regeneration. Serendipitously, mps1 mutants also showed defects in cardiac regeneration at a temperature restrictive for the mutation (Poss et al., 2002b). Instead of regenerating muscle in response to ventricular resection injury, mps1 mutants repaired wounds by forming large, collagen-rich scars. Inhibition of Fgf signaling also stunts cardiac regeneration and causes scarring (Lepilina et al., 2006). These results indicate that even vertebrates with high cardiac regenerative capacity have a default scarring mechanism; normally, regeneration somehow restricts this pathway (Fig. 8). The implication is exciting; perhaps by stimulating regeneration in a poorly-regenerative system like the mammalian heart, scarring events characteristic of myocardial infarction would be restricted by new muscle formation. Similarly, deterring cardiac scarring mechanisms would perhaps favor regeneration in mammals.
5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
Friedman, J., Roze, E., Abdenur, J. E., Chang, R., Gasperini, S., Saletti, V., Wali, G. M., Eiroa, H., Neville, B., Felice, A., Parascandalo, R., Zafeiriou, D. I., Arrabal-Fernandez, L., Dill, P., Eichler, F. S., Echenne, B., Gutierrez-Solana, L. G., Hoffmann, G. F., Hyland, K., Kusmierska, K., Tijssen, M. A., Lutz, T., Mazzuca, M., Penzien, J., Poll-The BT, Sykut-Cegielska, J., Szymanska, K., Thony, B., and Blau, N. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency: a treatable mimic of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:520-530. View abstract.
Ultimately, this lack of literature on the drug best serves to illustrate the recklessness of Stephen Dank in committing to something so experimental in nature. Perhaps he was privy to anecdotal evidence the rest of us weren’t. The drug has been used by amateur athletes and bodybuilders, and reportedly in the equine industry. Nevertheless, any benefits are unsubstantiated, which lends to an exasperation shared by supporters as to why Dank would risk so much for a substance that potentially offers no advantage at all. As a supporter, I would have much preferred a drug that allowed us to hit a target inside 50.
Recent reports have stated that inhibitors of Wnt signaling have emerged as promising strategies for bone disease and inflammatory diseases [26, 55]. Wnt5a, one of the most common Wnt molecules that activate the non-canoical pathway, binds to Fzd and its co-receptor, Ror2 . In synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients, the expressions of Wnt5a and Frizzled5 (Fzd5) were significantly enhanced  and their blockades inhibited synoviocyte activation . Recently, Wnt5a was highly expressed in synovial tissues in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis where inhibition of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling suppressed bone loss . Our data demonstrated that ROS up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2, as well as mRNA and protein expressions in time- and dose-dependent manners in PDLCs.
Thymosins were discovered in the mid 1960’s, when Allan Goldstein from the Laboratory of Abraham White at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York studied the role of the thymus in development of the vertebrate immune system. Since then, Dr. Goldstein founded a company that creates thymosin alpha 1 for the purpose of increasing immune cell activity, and thymosin beta 4 (TB-500) to promote wound repair and healing.
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Obesity. Early research suggests that taking 5-HTP might help reduce appetite, caloric intake, and weight in obese people. Other research suggests that using a specific mouth spray containing 5-HTP and other extracts (5-HTP-Nat Exts, Medestea Biotech S.p.a., Torino, Italy) for 4 weeks increases weight loss by about 41% in overweight postmenopausal women.
Humans are social animals. Our individual prospects depend to a significant degree on the prospects of the group(s) to which we belong, and how well we get along with the group(s). Survival means being acutely sensitive to who is on our side and who is not. So it isn’t surprising that trust matters so much to how we go about protecting ourselves. And it isn’t surprising to find the instinct for trust rooted deep in the brain.
Oxytocin is known to be metabolized by the oxytocinase, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase. Other oxytocinases are also known to exist. Amastatin, bestatin (ubenimex), leupeptin, and puromycin have been found to inhibit the enzymatic degradation of oxytocin, though they also inhibit the degradation of various other peptides, such as vasopressin, met-enkephalin, and dynorphin A.
Oxytocin has been shown to help people with autism improve their ability to recognize emotion, and Wallum found that the same receptor variant that increases risk for marital crisis in women is linked to social problems in girls. These include trouble getting along with others and a preference for being alone. This and Feldman’s work on oxytocin’s importance for the mother–child bond suggests that the hormone is more involved in the communication component of love between couples than the romantic component of love.
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.
MAPKs and NF-κB played pivotal roles in the development of osteoclasts downstream of RANK signaling . In this study, we demonstrated that Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited RANKL-induced p38, ERK, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggested that Tβ4 activation might inhibit osteoclast differentiation via inhibition of the signaling cascades MAPK/NF-κB/NFATc1.
Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
A warning: unlike BPC-157, TB-500 is absolutely, 100% banned by WADA and most other global sporting organization both in-competition and out-of-competition. You should NOT use this if you are competing in any such sanctioned sport as it definitely falls under the banned category of “Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances and Mimetics (S2)”.
Ingroup bonding: Oxytocin can increase positive attitudes, such as bonding, toward individuals with similar characteristics, who then become classified as "in-group" members, whereas individuals who are dissimilar become classified as "out-group" members. Race can be used as an example of in-group and out-group tendencies because society often categorizes individuals into groups based on race (Caucasian, African American, Latino, etc.). One study that examined race and empathy found that participants receiving nasally administered oxytocin had stronger reactions to pictures of in-group members making pained faces than to pictures of out-group members with the same expression. This shows that oxytocin may be implicated in our ability to empathize with individuals of different races and could potentially translate into willingness to help individuals in pain or stressful situations. Moreover, individuals of one race may be more inclined to help individuals of the same race than individuals of another race when they are experiencing pain. Oxytocin has also been implicated in lying when lying would prove beneficial to other in-group members. In a study where such a relationship was examined, it was found that when individuals were administered oxytocin, rates of dishonesty in the participants' responses increased for their in-group members when a beneficial outcome for their group was expected. Both of these examples show the tendency of individuals to act in ways that benefit those considered to be members of their social group, or in-group.