For those deficient in tryptophan, supplemental tryptophan and 5-HTP could be somewhat effective,[17] although a meta-analysis found barely statistically significant results (Odds Ratio of 1.3-13.2) from a statistically subpar collection of studies, and based on the inclusion criteria it set it had to expand its analysis to both 5-HTP and Tryptophan to get two studies to assess.[23]
Melanotans include melanotan I (afamelanotide) and melanotan II. Both melanotan I and II are widely abused to obtain a cosmetic tan. The melanotans are potent, non-selective melanocortin receptor agonists affecting MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. These receptors are responsible for many physiological systems including: pigmentation, energy, sexual function, immune system, inflammation and the cardiovascular system.
The molecule of this peptide is very big, so it isn’t able to completely fit within a receptor. Each area of the molecule has different functions. For instance, TB 500 is responsible for promoting majority of the useful effects, such as the healing, muscle cells, new blood and repair. In some scenarios, TB 500 could be used rather than the whole Thymosin Beta 4 protein. TB 500’s main ability is to regulate Actin, which is a cell-building protein. There are thousands of proteins found inside of cells, but actin makes up to 10 percent of the total amount of proteins, giving it a major role in the cell’s genetic makeup.
Moreover, Tβ4 concentration revealed wide variability, and it decreased in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as periodontal disease progressed [19]. In contrast, Tβ4 mRNA expression was 3.76 fold higher in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, compared with healthy individuals’ tissue obtained from public microarray data (GEO assession: GSE 23586) [20]. However, the Tβ4 mRNA level did not change in the periodontal-diseased gingival tissue (arbitrary units; 6.249) when compared with healthy tissue (arbitrary units; 6.242) (GEO assession: GSE 10334) [21]. Although Tβ4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, the precise role of Tβ4 in the inflammatory response remains unclear.
Members agreed that the relevant matters under Section 52E(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 included: (a) risks and benefits of the use of a substance; (b) the purpose for which a substance is to be used and the and extent of use; (c) the toxicity of a substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
Second, 5-HTP can cause serious drug interactions with many medications, especially those used to treat depression. Because antidepressants generally work by increasing serotonin in the brain, 5-HTP could combine with these medications to cause high concentrations of serotonin. Having too much serotonin can lead to serotonin syndrome, a serious condition characterized by dangerously high heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. 5-HTP can interact with other classes of drugs, like migraine and pain medications, that also affect serotonin concentrations.
I have bee suffering from severe symptoms of post concussion syndrome for several.months after a car accident. The use of TB500 has been the only trratment ease my symptoms and give me my life back. I ceased use last week after 3 weeks and had reoccuring concussion symptoms. As such? I recommenced injections as of last night. Have you read much about the impact of TB500 on brain injury as I’d love to know if more prolonged use would have a permanent impact/remedy for me? Thanks for your time and interest.
One study investigating romantic stress that looked at nondepressed youth who went through a recent breakup and were given 60mg of Griffonica Simplicifonia (12.8mg 5-HTP) twice a day for 6 weeks in an open-label study noted reductions in percieved romantic stress when measured at the 3 week mark with no further improvement at 6 weeks; there was no control nor placebo group in this study.[29]

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A number of factors can inhibit oxytocin release, among them acute stress. For example, oxytocin neurons are repressed by catecholamines, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to many types of stress, including fright. As a practical endocrine tip - don't wear a gorilla costume into a milking parlor full of cows or set off firecrackers around a mother nursing her baby.
Astrocytes constitute the largest population of cells in the central nervous system, constituting approximately 90% of human parenchymal cells. Astrocytes are highly responsive to injury, undergoing rapid hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Astrocytes act as physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration by forming glial scars along ischemic lesions and producing axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycans. Administration of MSCs significantly attenuates the glial scar in the ischemic boundary and reduces expression of inhibitory proteins, such as Nogo. Analysis of single-cell astrocytes isolated from the ischemic boundary by laser capture microdissection reveals that administration of MSCs dramatically down regulates neurocan, an axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycan. Coculture of MSCs with astrocytes also substantially reduces neurocan expression in astrocytes activated by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that injected MSCs reduce physical and biochemical barriers of astrocytes, which also contribute to axonal and neurite outgrowth.
My wife has suffered from debilitating leg cramps for years, usually nocturnal. We have spent much money and time trying to find a cure, including every type of magnesium supplement we could find. Nothing has worked. We’ve also tried MSM and DMSO. Sometimes the cramps are in her calves, sometimes her thighs, sometimes her back and even her toes. Sometimes several muscles cramp at once. She has a high tolerance for pain, but these cramps leave her sobbing. I have purchased TB-500 and received it today. Does your research offer any hope that this could help eliminate her muscle spasms?
Low oxytocin levels have been linked to autism and autistic spectrum disorders (e.g. Asperger syndrome) – a key element of these disorders being poor social functioning. Some scientists believe oxytocin could be used to treat these disorders. In addition, low oxytocin has been linked to depressive symptoms and it has been proposed as a treatment for depressive disorders. However, there is not enough evidence at present to support its use for any of these conditions.

Both the production of oxytocin and response to oxytocin are modulated by circulating levels of sex steroids. The burst of oxytocin released at birth seems to be triggered in part by cervical and vaginal stimulation by the fetus, but also because of abruptly declining concentrations of progesterone. Another well-studied effect of steroid hormones is the marked increase in synthesis of uterine (myometrial) oxytocin receptors late in gestation, resulting from increasing concentrations of circulating estrogen.
All of this becomes heavily ironic when you consider that the chemical in question – a hormone called oxytocin – is often billed as the “hormone of love”, and even marketed as “Liquid Trust”. As a new study shows, the reality is much more complicated. Describing oxytocin as the “hormone of love” is like describing a computer as a “writing tool” – it does other things too, some of which aren’t pleasant.

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Due to its molecular structure and low molecular weight, TB-500 is very versatile, mobile and possesses the ability to travel long distances through tissues. This means that when targeting injured areas (chronic or acute), TB-500 has the ability to circulate through the body and “find” those areas of injury in order to enhance the healing or growth process. Many users have also noted the added benefits of improved flexibility, reduced inflammation in tendons, re-growth of lost hair, and darkening of grayed hair.
In humans, 5-HTP is the nutrient precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin – widely known as the 'happy neurotransmitter' – meaning 5-HTP converts directly into serotonin in the brain. As well as being in our bodies, it's found naturally in the seeds of a woody shrub native to West Africa. By taking it as a supplement, in theory, you will end up with more serotonin in your brain. Serotonin deficiency is linked to depression, anxiety and a whole host of physical and mental ailments. Raising its levels seems to help brain cells send and receive chemical messages, which in turn boosts mood.
We had previously reported that successful hunters experienced a surge in testosterone that lasted from the moment they made a kill until their return home – a “winner effect,” rewarding them for their work. Testosterone reinforces the hunting activity and simultaneously helps with muscle regeneration afterwards - similar to the elated feeling we might have after doing sports or other exercise.
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
Outside the brain, oxytocin-containing cells have been identified in several diverse tissues, including in females in the corpus luteum[34][35] and the placenta;[36] in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig;[37] and in both sexes in the retina,[38] the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues.

In 2015 I found my self bed ridden for 8 weeks with an issue all the doctors I had been to we’re unable to diagnose. I discovered, after much research, that what I was suffering from was damaged facia in my left and right gluteus muscles, which left me unable to do anything. I was in excruciating pain and couldn’t do anything except lay in bed on my back. Then my husband found TB 500. Initially I was against using it but after deteriorating to the point of being bed ridden I broke down and ordered some. As soon as I received it my husband injected me in the gluteus muscle. Within 30 minutes I started getting relief from the TB-500, within 8 weeks I was out of bed and the pain was gone! It healed the damaged fascia covering the gluteus. If I had not done this I don’t know where I would be today. For me, TB-500 was a life saver and if I had to I would use it again. I have suffered no side affects then or now.
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.
Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier. Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland. Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum and brainstem.

Our research mainly focusses on this early social experiences that people have that can be positive or negative, and that can really shape our developing brain. There have been some very interesting studies, for example, with children that grew up in Romanian orphanages. And we know that that early start, where it's really deprived from social contact and physical contact, had a massive impact. So we see that oxytocin levels, for example, are much lower than we would expect in other kids.


Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43 amino acid protein (a peptide) that was originally identified in calf thymus, an organ that is central in the development of immunity. Tb4 was later found in all cells except red blood cells. It is highest in blood platelets that are the first to enter injured areas, in wound healing. Tb4 is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids.
^ Jump up to: a b Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky IF, Ross HE, Kawamata M, Onaka T, Yanagisawa T, Kimura T, Matzuk MM, Young LJ, Nishimori K (November 2005). "Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (44): 16096–101. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10216096T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505312102. PMC 1276060. PMID 16249339.
Good quality Griffonia Simplicifonia, however the pouch is a very inconvenient packaging choice! Why not use the small 25-50gm pill bottle type? I used to be a quality controller in food additives and it would be so perfect to take doses from and fairly cheap and easy to source. I can understand if this is a new product for your line however but you should invest in this for 5htp alone perhaps. Thank you though will be ordering more down the track!
Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
Loading is not absolutely necessary, it is only done to achieve results faster. Loading means taking doses more frequently to build up initial tan faster thus getting in tan maintenance mode sooner. Typical loading is done by taking 0.5mg once a day until desired skin tone is achieved. Loading dose can slightly vary from person to person, depending on skin type, bodyweight and other factors, but 0.5mg is pretty standard for most
Oxytocin affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic attraction and subsequent monogamous pair bonding. An oxytocin nasal spray caused men in a monogamous relationship, but not single men, to increase the distance between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter by 10 to 15 centimeters. The researchers suggested that oxytocin may help promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.[109] For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "bonding hormone". There is some evidence that oxytocin promotes ethnocentric behavior, incorporating the trust and empathy of in-groups with their suspicion and rejection of outsiders.[66] Furthermore, genetic differences in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been associated with maladaptive social traits such as aggressive behavior.[110]
In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland. These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens, a brain structure where oxytocin receptors are expressed.[31] The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be coordinated through its common release through these collaterals.[31] Oxytocin is also produced by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.[32] Depending on the species, oxytocin receptor-expressing cells are located in other areas, including the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use: if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking carbidopa or drugs/supplements with serotonergic activity including, but not limited to, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's Wort, antidepressants, pain killers, over-the-counter cough and cold medication containing dextromethorphan, anti-nausea medication and anti-migraine medication. Discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner if you show signs of weakness, oral ulcers, or abdominal pain accompanied by severe muscle pain. Do not use if you have scleroderma. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness. Some people may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness.
Despite this, Tβ4’s place on the banned-substances list is warranted. It reflects the possibility that the effects of the supplement may manifest as a tangible improvement in athletes. However, any time a journalist flippantly declares it “heals damaged tissue and speeds recovery”, it should be noted that such claims are a harmful distortion of the facts.
What we noticed was that all the rats that had received oxytocin straight into their brain immediately prior to being given alcohol, were up and moving about and seemed to be completely sober. Whereas all of the rats that had just been given the alcohol were, as we would predict from the dose that we were giving them, quite drunk. And so we thought, 'Wow, what's going on here?' It was almost as though the oxytocin was blocking the intoxicating effects of the alcohol.

Adam Guastella, a clinical psychologist at University of Sydney’s Brain and Mind Research Institute, and a pioneer in studies of how oxytocin can help people with autism, thinks the hormone can also help people in couple therapy by facilitating empathic communication. His research has shown that people who get oxytocin are more focused on positive emotion: they remember happy faces better than angry and neutral ones. Research by others has shown that oxytocin increases trust, generosity and our ability to identify emotion in facial expressions. It is perhaps by these mechanisms that the hormone improves communication.


Interestingly, there are numerous differences in the biology of teleosts and mammals, as well as specific differences in cardiomyocyte cellular structure and anatomy, all of which might contribute to regenerative variability. Unlike mammals, zebrafish can grow throughout most of adulthood, a phenomenon called “indeterminate growth” (Jordan, 1905). In fact, their growth can be affected markedly by changes in nutrition and population density (Goldsmith et al., 2006). It is thus possible that the capacity to replace cardiac tissue rapidly in teleosts has been retained in evolution as a function of the need for robust animal and cardiac growth. Indeed, a recent study has found that experimentally-induced adult cardiac growth in zebrafish is hyperplastic, and appears to rely on the same signals present or required during cardiac regeneration (Wills et al., 2008).
To prevent adverse effects, always consult your physician and pharmacist before taking any drug or supplement. Inform your doctor and pharmacist about all drugs you take, whether they are prescription, non-prescription, vitamins, supplements, or herbs. Be sure to read and understand the Drug Facts section of the product label before taking any medication, and never take more than what is specified by your doctor. Dietary supplements are drugs, so be sure to keep them out of sight and reach of children and pets.
In September 2007, the FDA issued a public notice advising consumers to stop using melanotan II as it was an unapproved drug with no safety or efficacy data for the advertised indications. Furthermore, the FDA issues a warning notice to a company owner that was illegally selling and marketing the product via a website. This led to subsequent indictment.

RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals is focusing on the commercialization of Tb4 “For the treatment of injured tissue and non-healing wounds, to enable more rapid repair and/or tissue regeneration.” Especially needy are diabetics who suffer from poor blood circulation and loss of sensation of pain that keeps their wounds unnoticed and unattended for days, leading to ulcers that may not heal. Other hard healing wounds are pressure ulcers in patients who are bed ridden and often receive skin grafts as treatment, or reconstructive surgery.
You can't purchase oxytocin spray at any retail outlet and as our experts made clear in the program, buying a product online gives you no guarantee of what is actually in the product - it could be oxytocin or it could be something else - nor is it proven that the spray will actually reach your brain. For these reasons, none of our experts recommend purchasing oxytocin spray.
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
According to recent research, this hormone “is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug.”4
The PDLCs were pre-treated with Wnt5a siRNA (30 nM) or Wnt5 peptide (500 ng/mL) for 2 hours, post-incubated with Tβ4 peptide (1 μg/mL) and 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E), and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2-treated group. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
I was in a bad accident 5 years ago and was feeling better until my Dr. gave me levaquin which damages your mitochondria, gut, tendons And ligaments. I was going to order BPC 157 but see where you think TB500 is stronger. Do you know if it shows up on an employee drug test as i get tested occasionally? Also, your thoughts on fragment 176-191, a friend of mine uses it and suggested it for me. I understand you’re not a Dr, but just looking for your personal opinion. Thank you
Hi..i had 3 major muscle tears(complete)..2 in shoulder and 1in bicep..they all needed surgery for reattachment.. ive done a 20 day round with 157 and believed it helped..im at 7 weeks post op and have about 5 month’s of recovery still to go.. thinking another round of 157..wondering if the TB500 might be a better option or stay with 157? As an athlete and top Spartan racer,im looking to speed up process by any %. Any thoughts/opinions or recommendations are greatly appreciated! Thanks for your help and this info :)

A: While it is possible there is an interaction, it most likely is not severe or life-threatening. Keep in mind that the "T" in HTP stands for tryptophane, which is an essential amino acid that your body processes routinely. The most common interaction involved with 5-HTP is with antidepressants or other medications that are intended to affect brain chemistry, as 5-HTP is converted into serotonin, an important brain chemical that helps regulate mood.
Although Tβ4 contains only 43 amino acids, it appears to have a wide range of regenerative activities and specific sites on the molecule have been shown to mediate these effects (Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015; Sosne, Qiu, Goldstein, & Wheater, 2010). Both chemically synthesized and recombinant forms have shown efficacy for dermal healing in preclinical models and in human patients (Ehrlich & Hazard, 2012; Kim & Kwon, 2014, 2015; Malinda et al., 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Philp et al., 2006; Ti et al., 2015; Treadwell et al., 2012). A dimeric form has been found to accelerate the rate of dermal healing in an animal model more rapidly than that of the parent molecule (Xu et al., 2013). Tβ4 has also shown repair and regenerative activity in a number of other injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, a model of multiple sclerosis, ischemic limbs, and cardiac damage due to ischemia (Bock-Marquette, Saxena, White, Dimaio, & Srivastava, 2004; Cheng, Kuang, Zhang, Ju, & Wang, 2014; Dube, Bollini, Smart, & Riley, 2012; Morris, Chopp, Zhang, Lu, & Zhang, 2010; Morris et al., 2014; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Postrach et al., 2014; Smart et al., 2007; Sopko et al., 2011; Ti et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2012; Wei, Kim, Li, Wu, & Gupta, 2014; Xiong, Mahmood, Meng, et al., 2011; Zhang, Zhang, Morris, et al., 2009; Zuo et al., 2013). The processes and pathways for Tβ4-mediated repair are similar in these various tissues and support the observed promotion of dermal healing.

Eventually I found Dr Kristaps Paddock, a naturopathic doctor and 5-HTP expert from Maryland in the US. He said one benefit 5-HTP has over SSRIs is that it kicks in quickly for those with anxiety and depression. "Serotonin has a short metabolic half-life, so it metabolises very, very fast. It goes into the body and out at a great speed, unlike SSRIs, which take a while to take effect so a sufferer wouldn't be feeling good during that time, and in fact may be feeling more suicidal. SSRIs also then have to be weaned off slowly, whereas you can stop taking 5-HTP instantly." Another bonus, of course, is that it's natural rather than synthetic. "If you're seriously considering the supplement, you have to weigh the positives and negatives against each other. The toxicity with 5-HTP is lower than that of SSRIs, since it's natural. Also because it's metabolised much quicker, it'd get out of your system more quickly if there were any problems. On the other hand, the research basis for 5-HTP is dramatically lower, so it's important to think of that."
I have bee suffering from severe symptoms of post concussion syndrome for several.months after a car accident. The use of TB500 has been the only trratment ease my symptoms and give me my life back. I ceased use last week after 3 weeks and had reoccuring concussion symptoms. As such? I recommenced injections as of last night. Have you read much about the impact of TB500 on brain injury as I’d love to know if more prolonged use would have a permanent impact/remedy for me? Thanks for your time and interest.
Some work has pointed to a potential dark side to oxytocin. Carter's group found that a single low dose of the hormone given to baby prairie voles improved their pair bonding as adults, but that higher doses interfered with that behaviour — possibly because oxytocin started to activate other receptors16. And human studies have suggested that in certain contexts, a puff of oxytocin can cause people to be more aggressive in defending themselves against outsiders or competitors17. In patients with a psychiatric condition known as borderline personality disorder, a single dose of oxytocin has been found to hinder trust and cooperation18.

5-HTP increases a chemical in the brain. This chemical is called serotonin. Some medications used for depression also increase serotonin. Taking 5-HTP with these medications used for depression might cause there to be too much serotonin. This could cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.

Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.
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