While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in this primate taxon. Vargas-Pinilla et al. sequenced the coding regions of the OXT gene in other genera in new world primates and identified the following variants in addition to Leu8- and Pro8-OT: Ala8-OT, Thr8-OT, and Val3/Pro8-OT.[118] Ren et al. identified a variant further, Phe2-OT in howler monkeys.[119]
Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.

To further determine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation, expressions of proinflammatory or osteoclastogenic cytokines were measured by RT-PCR (Fig 4A). The TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 mRNA levels increased in the H2O2- stimulated PDLCs, and these increases were significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by treatment with the Tβ4 peptide. Since receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are two important osteoclastogenic factors, we next explored the effects of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL and OPG expressions in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide reduced H2O2-stimulated up-regulation of RANKL, with a reciprocal increase in OPG mRNA in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 4B).
This current literature is notable for its apparent irrelevancy to an AFL footballer. It begs the question; did Tβ4 make a difference to the Essendon players? The only honest answer is that we don’t know. Most of our understanding exists on a molecular and cellular level, without any significant appreciation of how Tβ4 influences applicable outcomes such as exercise performance, endurance, muscle strength, and time to recovery. Furthermore, as the majority of research has been performed on mice, rat and pig models, any results are not directly translatable to a human, let alone an elite athlete. This is a stark contrast to a supplement such as EPO, which has been investigated thoroughly.
Oxytocin production is controlled by a positive feedback mechanism. This mechanism allows the release of the oxytocin hormone when a trigger occurs. The hormone then causes an action in the body, such as the letdown of milk or the start of labor contractions, which signals more production of oxytocin. The feedback cycle continues until the action, such as childbirth or feeding the baby, is complete.
During clinic trials for its use as a tanning agent, melanotan II was found to be a potent stimulator of male erections. A new drug based on melanotan II, bremelanotide, was developed to take advantage of this property. It has been noted across several studies to increase rigidity and duration of male erection, as well as male sexual desire. It has also been shown to increase female sexual desire in patients with sexual arousal disorder.
The promise of repairing sun parched aging skin is alluring, especially if damage control may be attained by applying a substance that is abundant in our body. Thymosin beta 4 (Tb4), a molecule that accelerates wound healing in animals and cultured cells, "may be valuable in repairing skin damage caused by sun or even by the wear and tear of aging?" This hopeful message of Tb4's potential to restore damaged human skin was voiced at the 5th International Symposium on Aging Skin, in California (May 2001), by Dr. Allan Goldstein, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department at George Washington University and founder of RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals. RegeneRX is carrying out preclinical research on Tb4 as a wound healer, in collaboration with scientists at the National Institutes of Health.
But what about the three-month warning? Dr Rush, while an advocate for the supplement, sees it as a short-term solution, and not something to rely on long-term, for good reason. "Technically taking 5-HTP alone can deplete important brain chemicals such as dopamine and adrenaline. While 5-HTP is aimed at increasing the amount of serotonin in the body, dopamine and adrenaline are also important for positive mental health states. In order to prevent the depletion of important brain chemicals, taking 5-HTP would need to be balanced with amino acids that support the production of dopamine and adrenaline." That's L-Tyrosine, which you eat in soy, chicken and beef, and can also be found in health food shops as a supplement.
Oxytocin in a nine amino acid peptide that is synthesized in hypothalamic neurons and transported down axons of the posterior pituitary for secretion into blood. Oxytocin is also secreted within the brain and from a few other tissues, including the ovaries and testes. Oxytocin differs from antidiuretic hormone in two of the nine amino acids. Both hormones are packaged into granules and secreted along with carrier proteins called neurophysins.
The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
Research in the early 1960s showed that in rats, administration of α-MSH caused sexual arousal, and work on this continued in many labs up through the 1980s, when scientists at University of Arizona began attempting to develop α-MSH and analogs as potential sunless tanning agents, and synthesized and tested several analogs, including melanotan-I and melanotan II.[6][9]
Cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described in bipolar disorders… Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan; 5-HT) is possibly involved in these cognitive processes, more particularly in executive functions, learning, memory, and attention. The aim of this study was to investigate serotonergic vulnerability and its relation to cognitive functioning in healthy first-degree relatives of [bipolar disorders] patients…
Surgery: 5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Some drugs administered during surgery can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP before surgery might cause too much serotonin in the brain and can result in serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Tell patients to stop taking 5-HTP at least 2 weeks before surgery.
If the two things you can't live without are a dark, even tan and a fast-acting, long-lasting erection, then add Melanotan II to your holiday shopping list. This synthetic peptide hormone, which was developed by a research team at the University of Arizona during the late 1990s, darkens skin pigment and may stimulate erectile activity. And despite continued concern and controversy within the medical community regarding its use, it remains available for sale over the internet in a powdered form that can then be reconstituted for subcutaneous injections.
Other supplements are available which have appetite supressant and mood enhancing effects similar to 5-HTP. These type of ingredients are often included, in optimal pre-formulated dosages in fat burners. Phenylethylamine is also another ingredient with mood enhancing potential that is often found in fat burners in place of 5-HTP. 5-HTP can be found in some sleep supplements, though in Australia they are replaced by ingredients such as GABA and phenibut.
These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
Oxytocin is relatively safe when used at recommended doses. Potential side effects include: Central nervous system: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, seizures; Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, systemic venous return, cardiac output, and arrhythmias;Genitourinary: Impaired uterine blood flow, pelvic hematoma, tetanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage.

A warning: unlike BPC-157, TB-500 is absolutely, 100% banned by WADA and most other global sporting organization both in-competition and out-of-competition. You should NOT use this if you are competing in any such sanctioned sport as it definitely falls under the banned category of “Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances and Mimetics (S2)”.
Osteoclast differentiation was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and activity. After 5 days of culture, cells were stained for TRAP kit using a leukocyte acid phosphatase kit (Sigma Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA). Cells with three or more nuclei were counted as multinucleated mature osteoclasts. To measure TRAP activity, cells were fixed with 10% formalin for 10 min and 95% ethanol for 1 min, and then 100 μl of citrate buffer (50 mM, pH 4.6) containing 10 mM sodium tartrate and 5 mM p-nitrophenylphosphate (Sigma-Aldrich) was added to the wells containing fixed cells in the 48-well plates. After incubation for 1 h, enzyme reaction mixtures in the wells were transferred to new plates containing an equal volume of 0.1 N NaOH. Absorbance was measured at 410 nm using a microplate reader.

Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.