As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis [24], we examined whether H2O2 could down-regulate or up-regulate Tβ4 expression in PDLCs. As shown in Fig 1A and 1B, Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated by H2O2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Because maximal Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were achieved with 200 μM H2O2 within 48 hours in PDLCs, this concentration was used in subsequent experiments.
Melanotan 2 works by stimulating the release of the pigment melanin from the skin. Less UV exposure is necessary with Melanotan 2 compared to “normal tanning”, and the tan that occurs with tanning injections is deeper and longer lasting than an individual’s “normal tan”. Melanotan works best (has the most noticeable effects) on people with fair skin tones.
We think that the most important region is the nucleus accumbens, which is kind of up here. The nucleus accumbens is where we can measure a release of the neurotransmitter dopamine when humans or animals take drugs or are exposed to other rewarding stimuli, such as sex. Or gambling, for example, or monetary reward activates the nucleus accumbens as well.

The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
Sexual activity: The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of self-stimulated orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured five minutes after self arousal.[103] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[103]

Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide.


But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.

Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
I had tennis elbow on both arms for over 3 years now. Had one surgery on the R, countless PRPs, and a stem cell treatment on both but still to no avail. Pain on the L never eased up and I just had my 3rd PRP booster injections yesterday after having my stem cells 2 months ago. So can you tell me if BPC 157 or TB 500 better suits my situation. Many thanks!
To further determine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation, expressions of proinflammatory or osteoclastogenic cytokines were measured by RT-PCR (Fig 4A). The TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 mRNA levels increased in the H2O2- stimulated PDLCs, and these increases were significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by treatment with the Tβ4 peptide. Since receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are two important osteoclastogenic factors, we next explored the effects of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL and OPG expressions in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide reduced H2O2-stimulated up-regulation of RANKL, with a reciprocal increase in OPG mRNA in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 4B).
Like I said, it’s amazing stuff. And it shouldn’t come as a surprise that it affects that amazing part of your brain so intimately involved in keeping you safe…the amygdala. Remember, trust has a lot to do with survival among social animals who depend on each other for safety and protection. Show someone an untrustworthy face, and the amygdala is one of two areas that become more active than anywhere else in the brain.7 It is apparently programmed for reading trust just as it is for snakes or spiders.
Oxytocin in a nine amino acid peptide that is synthesized in hypothalamic neurons and transported down axons of the posterior pituitary for secretion into blood. Oxytocin is also secreted within the brain and from a few other tissues, including the ovaries and testes. Oxytocin differs from antidiuretic hormone in two of the nine amino acids. Both hormones are packaged into granules and secreted along with carrier proteins called neurophysins.
Growing up, Joe was plagued with a myriad of health issues such as gut problems, autoimmune issues, chronic fatigue, brain fog, insomnia, and general inflammation. Both conventional and alternative doctors weren’t able to help him, so he decided to fix himself. With lots of health questions and few satisfying answers, Joe decided to read every research paper he could get his hands on and conduct thousands of experiments on his own body in order to fix his health issues. Joe started SelfHacked in late 2013 when he successfully fixed all of his issues, and now it gets millions of readers a month looking to educate themselves about how they can improve their health. Joe is now a thriving author, speaker, and serial entrepreneur, founding SelfDecode & LabTestAnalyzer.
Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier. Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland. Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum and brainstem.

The first time Ditzen and her colleagues did this experiment they found that for both men and women oxytocin improved communication and lowered cortisol, a stress hormone. But in a recent study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Ditzen and her colleagues measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)—an enzyme tied specifically to social stress—and found that men and women responded differently. Women who got oxytocin showed a decrease in sAA whereas men showed an increase and reported feeling more intense emotions. Counterintuitively, these men were also better at communication during conflict: they smiled more, had more eye-contact and were more open about their feelings. These behaviors are essential for peaceful conflict resolution.
Members agreed that the relevant matters under Section 52E(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 included: (a) risks and benefits of the use of a substance; (b) the purpose for which a substance is to be used and the and extent of use; (c) the toxicity of a substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
When looking at studies that investigate carbohydrates per se, one study in overweight women given 8mg/kg 5-HTP for 5 weeks noted that while placebo did not reduce carbohydrate ingested (calories were reduced in placebo, but carbohdyrate remained at 38% of voluntary calorie intake) that 5-HTP also retained 38% of intake as carbohydrates despite consuming less calories and carbohydrates in total.[9] A decrease in both carbohydrate and dietary fat has been noted with 750mg 5-HTP daily for 2 weeks in diabetics (with no dietary guidelines given), but appeared to be reduced to a similar degree as calories overall.[10] Only one study supports these anecdotes, where the reduction in calories seemed to be acounted mostly for by carbohydrates (75% of observed reduction) and then fats (25%).[10]

In December 2010, the delegate made a delegate only decision to include afamelanotide (also known as melanotan I) with a cross-reference to melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) for inclusion into the current Poisons Standard. It was noted that afamelanotide should not be confused with a similar substance commonly known as Melanotan-II, which is a cyclic lactam synthetic analogue of α-MSH. It was noted that melanotan-II was under investigation for treating sexual dysfunction, although this has been abandoned due to side effects associated with the immune and cardiovascular systems. Its metabolite, bremelanotide, is under investigation for treating haemorrhagic shock.
In regards to interventions, one study in treatment resistant depressed persons that combination therapy of 5-HTP with Carbidopa noted that 43 out of 99 (43.4%) patients improved with an average 200mg (variable 50-600mg) dosage of 5-HTP.[24] It has been noted[25] that since Cardidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that can prevent metabolism of monoamines including serotonin[26] that these results are unlikely to reflect monotherapy with 5-HTP, despite being within the 30-45% range sometimes seen with the placebo effect.[25][27]
TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
The soluble form of Ac-SDKP peptide, derived from thymosin beta-4, has been described as a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and as a stimulator of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo (Koutrafouri et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2004). This peptide has been selectively bound to acrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels via thiol groups from cysteine residues (Song et al., 2014). Unfortunately, the immobilization process was poorly characterized and the effect of hydrogels on EC function was not tested in vitro. In a mouse model of chronic myocardial infarction, hydrogels with immobilized Ac-SDKP did not show improved regeneration potential. Yet, Ac-SDKP-HA hydrogels with entrapped stem cell homing factor SDF-1 showed a significant increase of myocardial regeneration and recovery of heart function, as compared to groups with only one or none of these factors, suggesting a potentially interesting synergistic effect.
Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.
But what about the three-month warning? Dr Rush, while an advocate for the supplement, sees it as a short-term solution, and not something to rely on long-term, for good reason. "Technically taking 5-HTP alone can deplete important brain chemicals such as dopamine and adrenaline. While 5-HTP is aimed at increasing the amount of serotonin in the body, dopamine and adrenaline are also important for positive mental health states. In order to prevent the depletion of important brain chemicals, taking 5-HTP would need to be balanced with amino acids that support the production of dopamine and adrenaline." That's L-Tyrosine, which you eat in soy, chicken and beef, and can also be found in health food shops as a supplement.

The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[31] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.[citation needed]


The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
In September 2007, the FDA issued a public notice advising consumers to stop using melanotan II as it was an unapproved drug with no safety or efficacy data for the advertised indications. Furthermore, the FDA issues a warning notice to a company owner that was illegally selling and marketing the product via a website. This led to subsequent indictment.
TBI patients frequently suffer from long-term deficits in cognitive and motor performance. No single animal model can adequately mimic all aspects of human TBI owing to the heterogeneity of clinical TBI.11 Some features of cognitive and motor function in humans have been successfully demonstrated in experimental brain trauma models.28-30 The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model is one of the most widely used TBI models. The CCI-TBI model has many clinically relevant features in that CCI causes not only cortical damage but also selective neuronal death in the hippocampus in rodents, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction and spatial learning and memory deficits, respectively.18,31-33
When practicing deep breathing, focus on a calmer state of mind as you distract yourself from overwhelming thoughts and sensations. Sit in a quiet area and practice the following: Take a slow, deep breath through your nose, allowing both your stomach and chest to rise. Once your stomach is fully expanded, breathe out through your mouth, just as slowly as when you were breathing in.
The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (cysteine - tyrosine - phenylalanine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - arginine - glycine), also a nonapeptide with a sulfur bridge, whose sequence differs from oxytocin by 2 amino acids. A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article. Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955.
Thymosin β4 (TMSB4X, Tβ4) is the most abundant G-actin binding peptide of the cytosol and is a potent proangiogenic factor. The role of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) and serum response factor (SRF) for this function was examined in experimentally induced prolonged ischemic myocardium areas of transgenic pigs ubiquitously and constitutively overexpressing Tβ4 driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Upon induction of a reversible loss of cardiomyocyte function which is amenable to therapeutic neovascularization, transgenic pigs did not experience a significant loss of perfusion nor myocardial function at rest or under rapid pacing. Functional vascular regeneration by induced capillary growth and maturation was found in the transgenic pigs (Hinkel et al., 2014).

A: 5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is sold as a dietary supplement for "anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches and other conditions." Because dietary supplements (e.g., 5-HTP) have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. However, 5-HTP does interact with prescription antidepressants, taking them together can lead to serotonin syndrome which is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. 5-HTP has not been proven safe or effective for the treatment of depression or bipolar disorder. There are many prescription medications that have been proven safe and effective for these conditions. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. Laura Cable, Pharm.D., BCPS


I was in a bad accident 5 years ago and was feeling better until my Dr. gave me levaquin which damages your mitochondria, gut, tendons And ligaments. I was going to order BPC 157 but see where you think TB500 is stronger. Do you know if it shows up on an employee drug test as i get tested occasionally? Also, your thoughts on fragment 176-191, a friend of mine uses it and suggested it for me. I understand you’re not a Dr, but just looking for your personal opinion. Thank you
Young says that the oxytocin field would benefit from closer collaboration between basic and clinical researchers. If basic scientists can work out how oxytocin helps the brain to process social stimuli, then that might help in the design of stimuli — in the form of behavioural therapies — that could be given alongside the hormone to change behaviour, just as oxytocin and pup calls together affect virgin mice. “I think in the future these two branches need to have more communication,” Young says.

Obesity. Early research suggests that taking 5-HTP might help reduce appetite, caloric intake, and weight in obese people. Other research suggests that using a specific mouth spray containing 5-HTP and other extracts (5-HTP-Nat Exts, Medestea Biotech S.p.a., Torino, Italy) for 4 weeks increases weight loss by about 41% in overweight postmenopausal women.
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