"Just that it is completely false that these particular substances and the program wasn't discussed through the highest levels of the club. We have been very firm in terms of our belief in what ASADA, the AFL and Essendon know and for them to remotely suggest that no one knew, to be really blunt, is completely wrong and in some ways offending the process we set up at Essendon Football Club. We were very strict in the protocols we set up."
Research in the early 1960s showed that in rats, administration of α-MSH caused sexual arousal, and work on this continued in many labs up through the 1980s, when scientists at University of Arizona began attempting to develop α-MSH and analogs as potential sunless tanning agents, and synthesized and tested several analogs, including melanotan-I and melanotan II.[6][9]
Jump up ^ Carlier MF, Hertzog M, Didry D, Renault L, Cantrelle FX, van Heijenoort C, Knossow M, Guittet E (September 2007). "Structure, function, and evolution of the beta-thymosin/WH2 (WASP-Homology2) actin-binding module". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1112: 67–75. Bibcode:2007NYASA1112...67C. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.037. PMID 17947587.
Conclusions:  Melanotan not a treatment or cure for anything.  Nor should it be considered a preventative treatment for skin cancer.  Despite this tanning peptide being known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and itself a guaranteed full proof UV shield.  However, it is a great way for those who don't tan easily to get sun-kissed all year long with minimal exposure to the sun.
20 patients (nine from the 5-HTP group and 11 from the Placebo group) completed the study. Brain tryptophan availability in diabetic patients was significantly reduced when compared to a group of healthy controls. Patients receiving 5-HTP significantly decreased their daily energy intake, by reducing carbohydrate and fat intake, and reduced their body weight.”
Melanotan II has reported toxicity effects from therapeutic and overdose exposures including: renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of pre-existing moles, rapid increase in the number of new moles associated with causing melanomas, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome, shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping and pain, dizziness and lethargy. XXXXXX alone has received 28 calls about melanotan II since 2006.
Thymosin Beta 4 is a peptide that was first found within the thymus gland. Since its discovery, other types of thymosin have been found in different tissues throughout test subjects. Thymosin Beta 4 is typically found in both types of muscles – skeletal (the muscles that are required to move) and smooth muscles (such as the heart). When damage occurs in a tissue, Thymosin Beta 4 is upregulated. Then when traumas take place, Thymosin Beta 4 is released in order to help the subject heal from the trauma. This peptide also helps to prevent adhesions from forming, which means there will be less scar tissue and potentially more flexibility. It has potent anti-inflammatory characteristics.
It should be noted that, anecdotally, 5-HTP is said to reduce cravings for carbohydrates in particular. The serotonergic (related to serotonin) system plays a role in macronutrient selection particular in obese persons with a craving for carbohydrates[13] and enhancing serotonergic transmission is known to reduce these cravings.[14] Beyond this, depressed serotonergic tranmission (hypothalamus) is also implicated in increased eating and reduced satiety in general.[15]
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
This anti-social effect of a social hormone brings some nuance to the story of oxytocin. In one study, researchers found that Dutch students given a snort of the hormone became more positive about fictional Dutch characters, but were more negative about characters with Arab or German names. The finding suggests that oxytocin's social bonding effects are targeted at whomever a person perceives as part of their in-group, the researchers reported in January 2011 in the journal PNAS.
Thymosin Beta 4 is a protein that is made up of 43 amino acids. The TMSB4X gene found in the test subject's body encodes the peptide. There have been a variety of clinical trials that have been performed using this peptide. In the research, it’s been found that the Thymosin Beta 4 may be used after a heart attack takes place in order to reactivate the cells in the cardiac progenitor, so that repair can be done to the damaged tissue in the heart.
Jump up ^ Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P, Schulte-Körne G, Strauch K, Remschmidt H (March 2010). "Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 153B (2): 629–39. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31032. PMID 19777562.
In the end, despite three years of intense scrutiny, the drug at the centre of the investigation remains poorly understood. In this regard, it could serve as a reflection of the whole ordeal. Everyone has an opinion, often voiced with authority and conviction. The reality is that much of this complex narrative continues to be a mystery. Many would have been well served by the humble words of the Socratic paradox – “I know that I know nothing”.
People are using 5-HTP for absolutely everything from sleep disorders to OCD symptoms. After asking people in mental health Facebook groups whether they used it and why, I was inundated with responses. Sach Tennant, from London, takes it for her PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). "I only take it when I feel low and it only takes one hour to feel calm," she told me. "This month I only needed one to feel better. I don't get the zombie antidepressant feeling – you still have your emotions. Sleep is good on it. I used to have an inner voice that was male and used to bully me during PMT time. Noises seemed too loud, even like somebody eating a bag of crisps. Topping up with 5-HTP has stopped all this."
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.

I was just diagnosed with achilles tendonosis in both of my achilles. I am an avid lifter as well as city leagues for football and basketball, I live in Montana so I hike a lot and participate In obstacle course races. My achilles have ground me to a halt over the last 3 months months. I have been referred to a surgeon for a Tenex procedure on both achilles. I am only 32 the last thing I want is have both of my achilles cut into. I’m looking at the TB-500 and BPC-157 to hopefully avoid surgery. I have done my research but am getting conflicting numbers as far as dosing. I am roughly 240 pounds and 6’5 could u recommend a dosage and cycle? Also I was wondering where the most effective injection site would be? Do I need it directly into the achilles itself or is local good enough?

She recruited 31 men* and asked them to sniff either an oxytocin nasal spray or another spray with the same ingredients minus oxytocin – a placebo. A few weeks later, the sprays were swapped so that the men who took oxytocin now took the placebo, and vice versa. At the time, neither the scientists nor the volunteers knew which was which – that was only revealed after the experiment was over.

Kim found that when Americans who carry a particular version of the OXTR gene are more likely to turn to their friends for support when they are distressed. But Koreans react to social stress in a different way – for them, it’s less socially acceptable to turn to friends for support during tough times. And distressed Koreans who carry the same version of OXTR are less likely to seek support from their friends.
I broke my neck this year at C6-C7 facets. Started taking TB-500 immediately following the accident. I don’t sit still well and was back in the gym almost immediately, simply to not go stir crazy and pump the blood anyway I could. 8 weeks later I was hitting bodyweight overhead squats for reps with the jerk, 0 pain and completely stable spine. I’m in my late 30s. I eat well, sleep well, and drink a lot of water. I doubt I would have been as well off, had I not taken the TB.
It turns out oxytocin is responsible for a lot more than just love. New science has found that this amazing molecule also influences how sociable each of us is, allowing us to 'tune in' to the social information around us, perceiving it in much higher resolution. Scientists are now applying this new knowledge in the lab, and as reporter Dr Graham Phillips finds out, they're discovering oxytocin's great potential to treat social disorders, like drug addiction and alcoholism.
We have evaluated the efficacy of early Tβ4 treatment on spatial learning and sensorimotor functional recovery in rats after TBI induced by unilateral CCI.34 In brief, TBI rats received Tβ4 at a dose of either 6 or 30 mg/kg (RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD) or a vehicle control (saline) administered i.p. starting at 6 hours after injury and then at 24 and 48 hours. Spatial learning was performed during the last five days (31-35 days post injury) using the modified Morris water maze (MWM) test, which is extremely sensitive to the hippocampal injury.35-37 Tβ4-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning when compared to the saline-treated TBI rats. Tβ4 treatment also significantly reduced the swim latency to reach the hidden platform by rats post TBI compared to saline treatment. Using the modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) test, our data show that significantly improved scores were observed after TBI in the Tβ4-treated group compared to the saline-treated group. Our data also show that Tβ4 reduced the incidence of both right forelimb and hindlimb footfaults in TBI rats.34 Histological data show that early Tβ4 treatment reduced cortical lesion volume by 20% and 30% for 6 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, respectively, and reduced hippocampal cell loss. These findings suggest that TB4 provides neuroprotection even when the treatment was initiated 6 hours post injury. In addition, 6-hour Tβ4 treatment promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus,38 which may contribute to improvement in spatial learning.
Expanding upon the possible anti-panic effects of 5-HTP, one study using 2mg/kg 5-HTP to children (3.2-10.6 years of age) at bedtime for 20 days noted that 5-HTP was asssociated with beneficial response (more than 50% reduction in night terror frequency) of 93.5% of children relative to 28.6% in placebo.[42] Oddly, 6 months after the initial supplementation period the 5-HTP group still reported less sleep terrors (83.9% reporting improvement).[42]
Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78(6):676-683. View abstract.
You can't purchase oxytocin spray at any retail outlet and as our experts made clear in the program, buying a product online gives you no guarantee of what is actually in the product - it could be oxytocin or it could be something else - nor is it proven that the spray will actually reach your brain. For these reasons, none of our experts recommend purchasing oxytocin spray.
How would that work? Feldman thinks that these types of behaviors are intimately linked with oxytocin in a positive feedback loop. “Oxytocin can elicit loving behaviors, but giving and receiving these behaviors also promotes the release of oxytocin and leads to more of these behaviors,” she says. She thinks that talk therapy alone can boost the oxytocin system, but admits that in some cases it might help to jump-start the feedback loop by administering oxytocin. If Guastella’s results support his hypothesis, talk and hormone therapy together might be the best recipe for breaking down dysfunctional communication between partners, especially in cases where the behaviors have been learned in childhood.

Melanotan 2 works by stimulating the release of the pigment melanin from the skin. Less UV exposure is necessary with Melanotan 2 compared to “normal tanning”, and the tan that occurs with tanning injections is deeper and longer lasting than an individual’s “normal tan”. Melanotan works best (has the most noticeable effects) on people with fair skin tones.

Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury. This large number of pleiotropic effects results from Tβ4’s many interactions with cellular signaling pathways, particularly indirect regulation of cellular motility and movement via the SRF–MRTF–G-actin transcriptional pathway. Variation in effects and effect sizes in animal models may potentially be due to variable distribution of Tβ4. Preclinical studies of PK/PD relationships and a reliable pharmacodynamic biomarker would facilitate clinical development of Tβ4.
Wow I wonder if it will help those of us with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome – a collagen disorder that causes ligament laxity and makes those with it prone to easy subluxations and early onset arthritis. I have so many injuries from my daily life due to this disorder. I know this won’t fix my faulty collagen since that is encoded in my genes but perhaps it would help with the symptoms – a bunch of torn ligaments and worn out joints. Thanks for sharing!
Addiction vulnerability: Concentrations of endogenous oxytocin can impact the effects of various drugs and one's susceptibility to substance use disorders. Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, can impact development of dependence. The status of the endogenous oxytocin system might enhance or reduce susceptibility to addiction through its interaction with these systems. Individual differences in the endogenous oxytocin system based on genetic predisposition, gender and environmental influences, may therefore affect addiction vulnerability.[72] Oxytocin may be related to the place conditioning behaviors observed in habitual drug abusers.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours, post-incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours, and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Mouse BMMs were cultured with CM in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL), as described in Materials and methods. After 5 days, cells were fixed and stained for TRAP as a marker of osteoclasts (A), and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) was scored (B). TRAP osteoclast activity was assayed using the TRAP cytochemical stain technique (C). * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
Horvath, G. A., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. G., Salvarinova-Zivkovic, R., Lillquist, Y. P., Connolly, M., Hyland, K., Blau, N., Rupar, T., and Waters, P. J. Autosomal recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency without hyperphenylalaninemia: evidence of a phenotypic continuum between dominant and recessive forms. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(1):127-131. View abstract.