In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people and generosity.123 Oxytocin first became of interest to researchers when they discovered that breastfeeding women are calmer when exercising and experiencing stress than moms who were bottle-feeding. It is just one part of the important, complex neurochemical system in our bodies that helps us adapt to emotional situations.

The short half-life (<2h)[16] of 5-HTP may inherently limit the therapeutic potential of 5-HTP,[17] as the systemic 5-HTP exposure levels will fluctuate substantially, even with relatively frequent dosing. Such exposure fluctuations are usually associated with increased adverse event burden, resulting from Cmax drug spikes, and decreased clinical efficacy resulting from sub-therapeutic exposure for large parts of the day. It has been proposed that 5-HTP dosage forms achieving prolonged delivery would be more effective,[17] as is generally the situation with short-acting active pharmaceutical ingredients.[18]


Skin is the largest organ of the body, which makes up 16% of total body weight. It is also the largest organ that provides immune protection and plays a role in inflammation. Composed of specialized epithelial and connective tissue cells, skin is our major interface with the environment, a shield from the outside world and a means of interacting with it. As such, the skin is subjected to insults and injuries: burns from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation that elicit inflammatory reactions, damage from environmental pollutants and wear and tear that comes with aging.
“Ultimately you’re body is going to down-regulate the enzymes needed to convert the tyrosine/l-phenylalanine into dopamine and norepinephrine; this also counts for 5 -htp being converted into serotonin. As far as I’m aware when simply supplementing amino acids to improve neurotransmitter prevalence in the brain, tolerance will build very rapidly within a one week to two week period (from personal experience). Not saying it’s not viable to help out with mood when used sparingly, just saying there’s most likely better ways for continued treatment.”

The studies that have been conducted have determined that this peptide is potent and that it occurs totally naturally. It does help to repair wounds using its anti-inflammatory characteristics. Unlike with growth factors and other repair factors, this peptide increases the migration of endothelial and keratinocyte. It also does not conjoin to extracellular matrixes and is noted as having a molecular weight that is very low, which enables it to travel far distances within tissues.
It should be noted that, anecdotally, 5-HTP is said to reduce cravings for carbohydrates in particular. The serotonergic (related to serotonin) system plays a role in macronutrient selection particular in obese persons with a craving for carbohydrates[13] and enhancing serotonergic transmission is known to reduce these cravings.[14] Beyond this, depressed serotonergic tranmission (hypothalamus) is also implicated in increased eating and reduced satiety in general.[15]

Delayed Tβ4 treatment increases vascular density in the injured cortex, ipsilateral dentate gyrus, and CA3 region 35 days after TBI. Arrows show vWF-stained vascular structure. TBI alone (B) significantly increases the vascular density in the injured cortex compared to sham controls (A, P < 0.05). Tβ4 treatment (C) further enhances angiogenesis after TBI compared to the saline-treated groups (P < 0.05). The density of vWF-stained vasculature in different regions is shown in (D). Scale bar = 25 μm (C). Data represent mean + SD. *P < 0.05 vs Sham group. #P < 0.05 vs Saline group. N (rats/group) = 6 (Sham); 9 (Saline); and 10 (Tβ4).
Thymosin beta(4), a small ubiquitous protein containing 43 aa, has structure/function activity via its actin-binding domain and numerous biological affects on cells. Since it is the major actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells and is found essentially in all cells and body fluids, thymosin beta(4) has the potential for significant roles in tissue development, maintenance, repair, and pathology. Several active sites with unique functions have been identified, including the amino-terminal site containing 4 aa (Ac-SDKP) that generally blocks inflammation and reduces fibrosis. Another active site at the amino terminus contains 15 aa, including Ac-SDKP, and promotes cell survival and blocks apoptosis, while a short sequence containing LKKTETQ, the central actin-binding domain (aa 17-23) plus 1 additional amino acid (Q), promotes angiogenesis, wound healing, and cell migration. Several additional biological activities have been identified but not yet localized in the molecule, including its antimicrobial activity, the induction of various genes (including laminin-5, MMPs, TGF beta, zyxin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, and angiogenesis-related proteins), and the ability to activate ILK/PINCH/Akt, and other signaling molecules important in both apoptosis and inflammatory pathways. This review details these important physiologically and pathologically active sites and their potential therapeutic uses.
Melanotan II non-selectively mimics the action of melanocortin peptides. These are natural hormones involved with pigmentation, energy homeostasis, sexual functioning, the immune system, inflammation, and the cardiovascular system. Much like melanotan I (afamelanotide), melanotan II stimulates the production of eumelanin, causing the skin to go darker (tanning).

The main functionality of TB500 hinges on the ability to upregulate cell building proteins such as actin, which is a protein that forms (together with myosin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells, and is also involved in motion and metabolism in many other types of cells.. Upregulation of actin allows TB500 to promote healing, cell growth, cell migration and cell proliferation. This not only helps build new blood vessel pathways but also upregulates the type of “good” inflammation that is directly correlated with faster wound healing.


Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.
Three groups of mice were individually placed in cages with aggressive mice and experienced social defeat, a stressful experience for them. One group was missing its oxytocin receptors, essentially the plug by which the hormone accesses brain cells. The lack of receptors means oxytocin couldn't enter the mice's brain cells. The second group had an increased number of receptors so their brain cells were flooded with the hormone. The third control group had a normal number of receptors.
Doctors have noticed cancer patients have a higher amount of Thymosin in the affected tissues than other people. So in the early stages of research, doctors assumed that this meant Thymosin may cause cancer. After more research was conducted, it was discovered that the main action of Thymosin Beta 4 was to produce new white blood cells – so its presence in the body in the areas affected by cancer was likely not a cause of the cancer, but instead, a matter of “showing up” in the body where cancer lived to help the body mount an immune system response.
I am not sure if my original question posted…I was wondering if I could use TB-500 to regenerate thyroid tissue? My endocrinologist said that my Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis has almost completely destroyed my thyroid. If yes, then where do I inject?? Additionally, I was wonder if the BPC-157 would have any benefits on thyroid as I plan to take orally for leaky gut/digestive issues.
Milk ejection reflex/Letdown reflex: in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into subareolar sinuses, from where it can be excreted via the nipple.[47] Suckling by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
Potential side effects of 5-HTP include heartburn, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, sexual problems, vivid dreams or nightmares, and muscle problems.[19] Because 5-HTP has not been thoroughly studied in a clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. According to the US National Institute of Health TOXNET, 5-HTP has not been associated with serotonin syndrome or any serious adverse events in humans.[20] Across multiple studies, 5-HTP also been reported to not cause any noticeable hematological or cardiovascular changes.[21] 5-HTP also has not been associated with eosinophilia.[22]
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