Letdown reflex. In lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be ‘let down’ into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by compressing the areola and sucking at the nipple. Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
How would that work? Feldman thinks that these types of behaviors are intimately linked with oxytocin in a positive feedback loop. “Oxytocin can elicit loving behaviors, but giving and receiving these behaviors also promotes the release of oxytocin and leads to more of these behaviors,” she says. She thinks that talk therapy alone can boost the oxytocin system, but admits that in some cases it might help to jump-start the feedback loop by administering oxytocin. If Guastella’s results support his hypothesis, talk and hormone therapy together might be the best recipe for breaking down dysfunctional communication between partners, especially in cases where the behaviors have been learned in childhood.
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A study using an oral cavity spray of 5-HTP (via the plant source of Griffonia Simplicifolia) has noted that 7.68mg of 5-HTP via 30.72mg of Griffonia Simplicifolia extract taken five times daily (total daily dose of around 40mg) has confirmed an increase in urinary 5-HIAA (from 3.71+/-1.27mg/24 hours to 8.80+/-4.02mg/24 hours; a 137% increase) relative to baseline, confirming that 5-HTP can be absorbed sublingually.[3] Similar results have been noted elsewhere with this spray, although it should be noted that it is confounded with other herbs (detailed in the appetite subsection).[2]
Increasing trust and reducing fear. In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.[18] Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[19] There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however.
Oxytocin was also correlated with the longevity of a relationship. Couples with the highest levels were the ones still together six months later. They were also more attuned to each other than the low-oxytocin couples when Feldman asked them to talk about a shared positive experience. The high-oxytocin couples finished each other’s sentences, laughed together and touched each other more often. Feldman says it’s still not clear whether oxytocin was responsible for the stability of the couple’s bond six months later or if couples who weren’t as connected failed to trigger the oxytocin system.
The group had first identified the thymosin sulfoxide as an active factor in culture fluid of cells responding to treatment with a steroid hormone, suggesting that its formation might form part of the mechanism by which steroids exert anti-inflammatory effects. Extracellular thymosin β4 would be readily oxidised to the sulfoxide in vivo at sites of inflammation, by the respiratory burst.[21]
Young says that the oxytocin field would benefit from closer collaboration between basic and clinical researchers. If basic scientists can work out how oxytocin helps the brain to process social stimuli, then that might help in the design of stimuli — in the form of behavioural therapies — that could be given alongside the hormone to change behaviour, just as oxytocin and pup calls together affect virgin mice. “I think in the future these two branches need to have more communication,” Young says.
A warning: unlike BPC-157, TB-500 is absolutely, 100% banned by WADA and most other global sporting organization both in-competition and out-of-competition. You should NOT use this if you are competing in any such sanctioned sport as it definitely falls under the banned category of “Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances and Mimetics (S2)”.
Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.
Few forms of trust are more basic than that between a newborn and its mother. Scientists have discovered that this relationship is strengthened by the hormone oxytocin, released when the baby stares up at mom while breast feeding. Staring lovingly at your boyfriend or girlfriend can trigger their release of oxytocin too, as can warm physical contact like touching and hugging. (Levels increase during sex and peak at orgasm, which may help explain the age-old question “But will you love me in the morning, when your oxytocin levels have dropped?”) Oxytocin reduces stress in arguing couples, helps us recognize faces, even helps us look at a face (in fact, just a pair of eyes) and identify the mood that person is in. The stuff is magic.
5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
That view has led some clinicians to try oxytocin as a treatment for psychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder. But the early trials have had mixed results, and scientists are now seeking a deeper understanding of oxytocin and how it works in the brain. Researchers such as Froemke are showing that the hormone boosts neuronal signals in a way that could accentuate socially relevant input such as distress calls or possibly facial expressions. And clinical researchers are starting a wave of more ambitious trials to test whether oxytocin can help some types of autism.
It has been noted[25] that isolated supplementation of 5-HTP may deplete or reduce the bioactivity of catecholamines such as dopamine[44][45][46] (which extends to L-Tryptphan[45]) and that this relationship also acts in reverse, with supplemental L-Tyrosine possibly able to deplete 5-HTP[47][48] and Serotonin itself,[48] which extends to supplemental L-DOPA which may reduce all intermediate of serotonin synthesis[49][50][51] although L-DOPA may also deplete L-Tyrosine (as it is merely later in the same metabolic chain).[50] Due to excessive levels of either one depleting the other, some authors have suggested that combination therapy of 5-HTP and L-Tyrosine (the furthest back in the metabolic chain while still passing rate limiting enzymes) is a potentially useful avenue for anti-depressive effects.[52]
Plain sterile water is the most suitable diluent for TB-500. Alternatively it can be reconstituted with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) or sterile bacteriostatic water (0.9% sodium chloride). Plain sterile water should be readily available to buy without prescription in any local pharmacy. Alternatively it can also be purchased online. It is even available on ebay.
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.[1]
Jump up ^ Hicks C, Ramos L, Reekie T, Misagh GH, Narlawar R, Kassiou M, McGregor IS (June 2014). "Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 171 (11): 2868–87. doi:10.1111/bph.12613. PMC 4243861. PMID 24641248.
In regards to interventions, one study in treatment resistant depressed persons that combination therapy of 5-HTP with Carbidopa noted that 43 out of 99 (43.4%) patients improved with an average 200mg (variable 50-600mg) dosage of 5-HTP.[24] It has been noted[25] that since Cardidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that can prevent metabolism of monoamines including serotonin[26] that these results are unlikely to reflect monotherapy with 5-HTP, despite being within the 30-45% range sometimes seen with the placebo effect.[25][27]
It was also shown recently that delivery of Fgfs by release from peptide nanofibers, a gradual local delivery system, can increase neovascularization and reduce in-farct size in the ischemic rodent heart (Engel et al., 2006). Related to this, zebrafish have a natural ability to synthesize Fgfs after myocardial injury, a signal that appears to recruit Fgf receptor-expressing epicardial-derived cells toward regenerating muscle (Lepilina et al., 2006). Thus, what has been and what will be discovered about zebrafish heart regeneration is quite likely to illuminate possible strategies for enhancing regeneration in the mammalian heart (see Chapter 14.4).
Pull 1ml of water into the syringe and inject it into the vial with powder. You should never shake the vial when mixing. You should not inject the water directly into the powder with force, but rather let it gently slide down the inside of the vial. If it bubbles up, you should put the vial in the refrigerator and leave it there for about 15-30 minutes. The bubbles will be gone by then. You should then gently rotate the vial between your fingers until all of the powder has dissolved (it takes about 3-4 minutes).

First, dietary supplements are not regulated as drugs in the US, and the careful testing and quality control that are required of prescription drugs do not apply to supplements like 5-HTP. This is why serious adverse effects and major outbreaks, like the one associated with tryptophan, can occur. You can minimize this risk by using only USP-Verified supplements.
The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
Moreover, Tβ4 concentration revealed wide variability, and it decreased in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as periodontal disease progressed [19]. In contrast, Tβ4 mRNA expression was 3.76 fold higher in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, compared with healthy individuals’ tissue obtained from public microarray data (GEO assession: GSE 23586) [20]. However, the Tβ4 mRNA level did not change in the periodontal-diseased gingival tissue (arbitrary units; 6.249) when compared with healthy tissue (arbitrary units; 6.242) (GEO assession: GSE 10334) [21]. Although Tβ4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, the precise role of Tβ4 in the inflammatory response remains unclear.
TB-500 has been used extensively for race horses to prevent adhesions from forming, although it is not a prescription veterinary drug. It’s an injectable peptide with limited human use. Mostly, it’s limited to humans who like to experiment, although reports of human use of thymosin dates back as far as 1974 – when a young girl became the first person to receive injections of thymosin because she was diagnosed without a functioning thymus gland.
Myocardial infarction and heart failure are severe causes for death in humans. Extracellular nucleotides (ATP and ADP) released at the site of myocardial damage induce thrombosis, apoptosis and necrosis. ENTPD1 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, CD39) rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP. An in vivo myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury test in transgenic mice expressing human CD39 resulted in a decrease of the infarct size. The same transgene including the human CD39 cDNA driven by the murine MHC class I gene H-2Kb promoter was used for the generation of transgenic pigs via SCNT. Expression of human CD39 was detected on circulating blood cells and in myocardial tissue of the transgenic animals. After in vivo induction of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, a reduction of the myocardial injury analogous to the results in the transgenic mice was found (Wheeler et al., 2012).
Ultimately, this lack of literature on the drug best serves to illustrate the recklessness of Stephen Dank in committing to something so experimental in nature. Perhaps he was privy to anecdotal evidence the rest of us weren’t. The drug has been used by amateur athletes and bodybuilders, and reportedly in the equine industry. Nevertheless, any benefits are unsubstantiated, which lends to an exasperation shared by supporters as to why Dank would risk so much for a substance that potentially offers no advantage at all. As a supporter, I would have much preferred a drug that allowed us to hit a target inside 50.
Doctors have noticed cancer patients have a higher amount of Thymosin in the affected tissues than other people. So in the early stages of research, doctors assumed that this meant Thymosin may cause cancer. After more research was conducted, it was discovered that the main action of Thymosin Beta 4 was to produce new white blood cells – so its presence in the body in the areas affected by cancer was likely not a cause of the cancer, but instead, a matter of “showing up” in the body where cancer lived to help the body mount an immune system response.
The idea that oxytocin is central to social cognition made it an attractive candidate for treating psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. People with this condition, who often have problems with social interaction and communication, may not process social stimuli appropriately — and scientists theorized that oxytocin might reverse some of the symptoms. Beginning in 2010, results emerged that seemed to support this theory: researchers found that single puffs of oxytocin could temporarily improve measures of empathy and social cooperation in people with autism spectrum disorder.
Thymosin β4 has been tested in multicenter trials sponsored jointly by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc (Rockville, MD, USA) and Sigma Tau (Pomezia, Italy) in the United States and Europe in patients with bed sores, ulcers caused by venostasis, and Epidermolysis bullosa simplex and was found to accelerate bed sore and stasis ulcer repair by one month. It has also been tested in patients with chronic neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects and found to promote repair.
Formulated Supplementary Sports Foods: The edible products sold on this site are not suitable for children under 15 years of age or pregnant women: Should only be used under medical or dietetic supervision. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. The food is not a sole source of nutrition and should be consumed in conjunction with a nutritious diet; and the food should be used in conjunction with an appropriate physical training or exercise program.
Conclusions:  Melanotan not a treatment or cure for anything.  Nor should it be considered a preventative treatment for skin cancer.  Despite this tanning peptide being known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and itself a guaranteed full proof UV shield.  However, it is a great way for those who don't tan easily to get sun-kissed all year long with minimal exposure to the sun.
Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.
Cells were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for indicated times (A). Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide (0.1–5 μg/mL) for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 60 minutes (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
“This is a very ancient molecule,” says Sue Carter, a neuroscientist at Indiana University in Bloomington, whose lab pioneered many of the early studies of oxytocin in voles. “It has been used and reused for many purposes across the evolution of modern animals, and almost everybody who's tried to look at an effect of oxytocin on anything like social behaviour has found something.”

Thymosin β4 was initially perceived as a thymic hormone. However this changed when it was discovered that it forms a 1:1 complex with G (globular) actin, and is present at high concentration in a wide range of mammalian cell types.[11] When appropriate, G-actin monomers polymerize to form F (filamentous) actin, which, together with other proteins that bind to actin, comprise cellular microfilaments. Formation by G-actin of the complex with β-thymosin (= "sequestration") opposes this.

I have taken BPC-157 in conjunction with TB-500 after reading about someone’s experience. I used the BPC-157 at an injury/inflammation site in my shoulder. I have a pain that came out of nowhere and has prevented me from doing bench presses mainly, and shoulder presses. I also got pain when I did external rotation of my shoulder. The BPC-157 gave me good results at 250 mcg twice daily intramuscularly. The pain is not completely gone but it has definitely lessened in severity. I don’t get any pain with a reverse grip press so I have been doing those with light weight and I can now do shoulder presses. BPC-157 really blew me away on how quickly it improved my gut status. For me it only took 4 days of orally dosing with 250 mcg. So I did both the oral and intramuscular daily for a month. Two weeks into the BPC-157 I ordered TB-500 and did 1mg per week subq in my thigh because I didn’t know about injecting intramuscularly at the injury site.
The reason for the difference is the density of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Life pair bonders, like prairie voles or, indeed, ourselves, have a high density of receptors in the reward centre of the brain. Non-pair bonders, like meadow voles, certainly enjoy sex, but their lower density of receptors means it doesn't matter so much who the partner is. So it's not the oxytocin itself making sex enjoyable. What it's doing is influencing our mating behaviour.
About three months after quitting, I did have a major relapse, which was falling back into old habits for about two weeks. And the whole time I knew what was happening, I knew how dangerous it was, but I couldn't stop myself. I felt like I couldn't connect to anyone without drinking. I couldn't talk to my friends, I couldn't be open and honest with anybody in my life without already having had a few drinks. It was a really disconnected, really unpleasant feeling. That's what I couldn't sit with and I couldn't cope with that feeling, so I went back to drinking.
Cells that line blood vessels (endothelial cells), taken from human umbilical chord veins, were grown in culture and the layer of cells subjected to a scratch wound. Cultures were then treated with Tb4 or kept in growth medium without Tb4. When examined four hours later, Tb4 treatment attracted cells to migrate into the wound and accelerated their movement, showing it is a chemoattractant. Cell migration was four to six times faster in the presence of Tb4 compared to the migration of untreated cells. Tb4 also hastened wound closure and increased the production of enzymes, called metalloproteases, that could pave the way for angiogenesis by breaking down barrier membranes and facilitating the invasion of new cells to the needy area, to form new vessels. Other experiments showed Tb4 acts in vivo. When endothelial cells were implanted under the skin in a gel supplemented with Tb4, the cells formed vessel-like structures containing red blood cells, indicating the ability to stimulate angiogenesis in the animals.
5-HTP is necessary for the proper functioning of your body. It is decarboxylated in the brain and liver to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Serotonin is involved in the communication between nearly all of our 40 million brain cells, and is also found in large quantities in the cells of the gut, and in blood platelets. Because of its widespread distribution through the cells of the body, Serotonin is believed to have a large number of psychological and physiological effects. It has been used to treat conditions as diverse as obesity, depression, fibromyalgia, insomnia, and headaches, with varying success.
Can a supplement proven to fight blue moods also help stimulate weight loss? “Yes it can!” say experts who are now prescribing a natural compound called 5-HTP. According to top integrative health expert Tasneem Bhatia, MD, author of What Doctors Eat ($15.99, Amazon), “5-HTP is converted directly to serotonin, and serotonin makes you feel good, feel happy, feel full — and when you feel that way, you’re going to eat less.” In fact, Dr. Bhatia adds that while most appetite suppressants only target physical hunger, this one also “works to reduce ‘emotional hunger’ and stress-related urges to eat.” Dr. Oz said he left impressed after consulting with a panel of 5-HTP experts, including American Board of Obesity Medicine alum Denise E. Bruner, MD. He said the supplements may even be “a secret weapon for hunger!”

Tβ4 is a multifunctional regenerative small peptide containing 43-amino acids, and it is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.21 Tβ4 has pro-survival and pro-angiogenic properties, protects tissue against damage, and promotes tissue regeneration.22,23 It also plays a key role in corneal, epidermal and cardiac wound healing.21 Tβ4 participates in axonal path-finding, neurite formation, cell proliferation, and neuronal survival.24-26 Our previous studies show that Tβ4 reduces inflammation and stimulates remyelination and improves functional recovery in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and stroke.25,27 In summary, these pleiotropic properties make Tβ4 an ideal candidate for treatment of TBI.
Pull 1ml of water into the syringe and inject it into the vial with powder. You should never shake the vial when mixing. You should not inject the water directly into the powder with force, but rather let it gently slide down the inside of the vial. If it bubbles up, you should put the vial in the refrigerator and leave it there for about 15-30 minutes. The bubbles will be gone by then. You should then gently rotate the vial between your fingers until all of the powder has dissolved (it takes about 3-4 minutes).
The matters under subsection 52E (1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 considered relevant by the delegate included: (a) the risks and benefits of the use of the substance; (b) the purposes for which a substance is to be used and the extent of use of a substance; (c) the toxicity of the substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
5-HTP increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin might lead to too much serotonin and cause side effects including heart problems, shivering and anxiety. Other herbs and supplements that increase serotonin levels include Hawaiian baby woodrose, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and St. John's wort.
What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now
The idea that oxytocin is central to social cognition made it an attractive candidate for treating psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. People with this condition, who often have problems with social interaction and communication, may not process social stimuli appropriately — and scientists theorized that oxytocin might reverse some of the symptoms. Beginning in 2010, results emerged that seemed to support this theory: researchers found that single puffs of oxytocin could temporarily improve measures of empathy and social cooperation in people with autism spectrum disorder.
Robert Love, a urologist in Dallas, understands why there is such back-channel demand for a product like Melanotan II. "People sometimes want to handle performance issues on their own, without a physician involved, either because they are embarrassed or because they may be uninsured or lack adequate insurance," he told Motherboard. "Handling things this way is not advisable. We have prescription drugs that address erectile dysfunction issues. And although this isn't my area, there are alternative ways of getting suntans—tanning beds, spray tans—though of course extended outdoor sun exposure should be avoided if possible."
5-HTP is an easy way to lose weight on just about any diet, so you can choose any plan that appeals to you — or even no plan at all! But if you’re looking for a quick approach proven to work, use guidelines created by the University of Rome researchers. They allotted folks 1,200 calories a day, about half from carbs and the rest a mix of lean protein and fat. That means at most sittings, you’ll want to start with 200 calories of carbs, including both starchy carbs and carbs from produce (such as a bowl of cereal with fruit, or pasta with veggies). Add about 120 calories of protein (such as some Greek yogurt, egg whites or a few ounces of lean meat). Finish with 80 calories of fat, such as 10 almonds or 2 tsp. olive oil. An easy formula for fast weight loss if we've ever heard one!

People are using 5-HTP for absolutely everything from sleep disorders to OCD symptoms. After asking people in mental health Facebook groups whether they used it and why, I was inundated with responses. Sach Tennant, from London, takes it for her PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). "I only take it when I feel low and it only takes one hour to feel calm," she told me. "This month I only needed one to feel better. I don't get the zombie antidepressant feeling – you still have your emotions. Sleep is good on it. I used to have an inner voice that was male and used to bully me during PMT time. Noises seemed too loud, even like somebody eating a bag of crisps. Topping up with 5-HTP has stopped all this."

Toxicity effects of melanotan II from therapeutic and overdose exposures include renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of pre-existing moles, rapid increase in the number of new moles, associated with causing melanomas, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome, shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping and pain, dizziness and lethargy.


The diverse activities related to tissue repair may depend on interactions with receptors quite distinct from actin and possessing extracellular ligand-binding domains. Such multi-tasking by, or "partner promiscuity" of, proteins has been referred to as protein moonlighting.[14] Proteins such as thymosins which lack stable folded structure in aqueous solution, are known as intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). Because IUPs acquire specific folded structures only on binding to their partner proteins, they offer special possibilities for interaction with multiple partners.[15] A candidate extracellular receptor of high affinity for thymosin β4 is the β subunit of cell surface-located ATP synthase, which would allow extracellular thymosin to signal via a purinergic receptor.[16]
Half the group of burned volunteers got a whiff of Eau de Oxytocin, half got a sniff of Eau de Placebo. Those who sniffed the oxytocin were more trusting and ready to invest with an anonymous trustee a second time than were the placebo-exposed subjects. And when they were asked “Do you want to try this again?” the oxytocin-treated volunteers responded more quickly than the volunteers who hadn’t gotten the nose full of Trust Spray.6
The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm in both men and women.[5][6] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[5] Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm. [7] A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediantly after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted that these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue."[8]
The polyherbal formula described for acute wounds promoted both angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in a streptozotocin diabetic rat model (Gupta et al., 2008). Dressings impregnated with copper oxide applied to wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the upregulation of the pro-angiogenic factors placental growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF, leading to increased angiogenesis and faster wound closure (Borkow et al., 2010). High-throughput screening of medicinal plants known to be beneficial for blood circulation identified a material named SBD.4a from the plant Angelica sinensis as having angiogenic properties on a par with PDGF-BB (Zhao et al., 2006).
Children: 5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses of up to 5 mg/kg daily have been used safely for up to 3 years in infants and children up to 12 years-old. As with adults, there is also concern about the potential for eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in children, a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia).
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