But like most peptides on the market, TB-500 has limited long term studies involving human use. Although I haven’t personally used TB-500 (I can’t, since I compete in WADA sanctioned sports like triathlon and obstacle course racing), from what I’ve seen and heard from bodybuilders and athletes using the peptide, the primary side effect is a temporary sense of lethargy. Also, some people report getting a head rush when injecting TB-500, but report this head rush goes away a few minutes after injecting.
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the “love hormone,” because it is associated with good feelings and emotions. But its role in the body is much more complex than that. It is not a bliss or hug hormone, but it does appear to be connected to human emotions and the regulation of childbirth and breast-feeding.
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the “love hormone,” because it is associated with good feelings and emotions. But its role in the body is much more complex than that. It is not a bliss or hug hormone, but it does appear to be connected to human emotions and the regulation of childbirth and breast-feeding.
Uterine contractions. These are important for cervical dilation before birth and causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful uterine contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.16

Growing up, Joe was plagued with a myriad of health issues such as gut problems, autoimmune issues, chronic fatigue, brain fog, insomnia, and general inflammation. Both conventional and alternative doctors weren’t able to help him, so he decided to fix himself. With lots of health questions and few satisfying answers, Joe decided to read every research paper he could get his hands on and conduct thousands of experiments on his own body in order to fix his health issues. Joe started SelfHacked in late 2013 when he successfully fixed all of his issues, and now it gets millions of readers a month looking to educate themselves about how they can improve their health. Joe is now a thriving author, speaker, and serial entrepreneur, founding SelfDecode & LabTestAnalyzer.


The following medications and other supplements may interact with 5-HTP. Effects may include increasing or decreasing sleepiness and drowsiness, interfering with the effectiveness of the medications or supplements, and interfering with the condition that is being treated by the medication or supplement. These are lists of commonly used medications and supplements that have scientifically identified interactions with 5-HTP. People who take these or any other medications and supplements should consult with a physician before beginning to use 5-HTP.
What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
One way to clarify that question is to give individuals oxytocin rather than just measure naturally occurring levels. In experiments by couple therapist and researcher Beate Ditzen at the University of Zurich, couples each sprayed a liquid containing oxytocin up their noses (which ensures that the hormone reaches the brain). Ditzen then got them to talk with each other about an issue that both partners said often lead to disagreement or fighting, such as who did the housework or how they spent their free time. She observed how they communicated with each other during the discussion compared with couples who didn’t get the hormone.
I broke my neck this year at C6-C7 facets. Started taking TB-500 immediately following the accident. I don’t sit still well and was back in the gym almost immediately, simply to not go stir crazy and pump the blood anyway I could. 8 weeks later I was hitting bodyweight overhead squats for reps with the jerk, 0 pain and completely stable spine. I’m in my late 30s. I eat well, sleep well, and drink a lot of water. I doubt I would have been as well off, had I not taken the TB.
Naturalistic studies like ours can help unravel the evolutionary history and function of these hormones. Basically, the fact that hormone mechanisms have been tweaked during evolution suggests that the behaviors they promote have provided fitness benefits in the past. In this case, hunting and sharing meat must have increased men’s reproductive success.
The two main actions of oxytocin in the body are contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins, which increase the contractions further. Manufactured oxytocin is sometimes given to induce labour if it has not started naturally or it can be used to strengthen contractions to aid childbirth. In addition, manufactured oxytocin is often given to speed up delivery of the placenta and reduce the risk of heavy bleeding by contracting the uterus. During breastfeeding, oxytocin promotes the movement of milk into the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple. Oxytocin is also present in men, playing a role in sperm movement and production of testosterone by the testes.
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
Jump up ^ Carlier MF, Hertzog M, Didry D, Renault L, Cantrelle FX, van Heijenoort C, Knossow M, Guittet E (September 2007). "Structure, function, and evolution of the beta-thymosin/WH2 (WASP-Homology2) actin-binding module". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1112: 67–75. Bibcode:2007NYASA1112...67C. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.037. PMID 17947587.
MT 1 and MT 2 are synthetic analogues of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating peptide hormone Alpha-MSH. This hormone aids skin cells to produce greater quantities of Melanin. Therefore MT-1 and MT-2 mimic this hormone and encourage the production of more Melanin. Melanin is a dark pigment in the skin that can provide some protection from the UV rays of the sun.
Some differences in cardiac anatomy exist between mammals and teleosts. The zebrafish ventricle has a thin wall of compact muscle surrounding a much larger compartment of myofibers organized into elaborate trabeculae. It is intriguing that this structure is very similar to that of the embryonic mammalian ventricle prior to its septation and fusion of trabeculer myofibers into a thick, vascularized wall (Sedmera et al., 2000). That the mammalian heart has a more differentiated, contractile anatomy is apparent not only in gross cardiac structure, but also in cellular features. Teleost cardiomyocytes are 2–10 times smaller, mononucleated, have a greatly-reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum and lack the T-tubule system found in skeletal muscle and mammalian cardiac muscle (Farrell, 1992). One might speculate that the teleost heart is better designed for growth and regeneration, while the mammalian heart is better designed for sheer contractile force. Nevertheless, none of the mentioned differences between lower and higher vertebrate hearts preclude the idea that the mammalian heart could be stimulated to regenerate, especially if that regeneration is due to mobilization of a progenitor cell population.
To identify newborn neurons, double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU/NeuN (mature neuronal marker) was performed (Fig.1). TBI alone significantly increased the number of newborn neurons (NeuN/BrdU-colabeled cells) in the DG of injured hemisphere. Tβ4 treatment significantly further increased the number of newborn neurons compared to saline controls. These data suggest that Tβ4 administration initiated 24 hours after TBI promotes neurogenesis in rats.
It turns out oxytocin is responsible for a lot more than just love. New science has found that this amazing molecule also influences how sociable each of us is, allowing us to 'tune in' to the social information around us, perceiving it in much higher resolution. Scientists are now applying this new knowledge in the lab, and as reporter Dr Graham Phillips finds out, they're discovering oxytocin's great potential to treat social disorders, like drug addiction and alcoholism.
Hey mate, I’m getting a shoulder reconstrcution in about 2 weeks. Do you think that TB-500 and BPC-157 would help heal something as complex as this. Or do you think that stacking something like GHRP-6 and CJC-1295 would work better because this would assist in muscle growth and strength gains of surrounding muscles etc. Also if chose to use peptides when do you think I should start using them, I will be in a sling for 6weeks after surgery with only passive movements.
Secretion of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve endings is regulated by the electrical activity of the oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus. These cells generate action potentials that propagate down axons to the nerve endings in the pituitary; the endings contain large numbers of oxytocin-containing vesicles, which are released by exocytosis when the nerve terminals are depolarised.
Researchers often investigate the effects of hormones on behavior in laboratory experiments with student subjects. Some studies show that when you give people oxytocin they become more generous and trusting. In others that administer testosterone to men, the opposite happens. The strength of such studies is that they can demonstrate cause and effect – the behavior change only occurs in subjects receiving hormones, not in those who get a placebo. But this research has weaknesses as well: it often focuses on single hormones, ignoring their potential interactions, and behavior is measured with highly artificial tasks.

TB-500 is a synthetic fraction of the protein thymosin beta-4, which is present in virtually all human and animal cells. The main purpose of this peptide is to promote healing. It also promotes creation of new blood and muscle cells. The healing effects of TB-500 have been observed in tendons, ligaments, muscle, skin, heart, and the eyes. Thymosin beta-4 is naturally produced in higher concentration where tissue has been damaged. This peptide is also a very potent anti-inflamatory agent.
Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Tβ4 is known to be involved in various cellular responses, including antiinflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. Emerging evidence suggests that Tβ4 is expressed in the liver; however, its biological roles are poorly understood. Herein, we introduce liver fibrogenesis and recent findings regarding the function of Tβ4 in various tissues and discuss the potential role of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis with a special focus on the effects of exogenous and endogenous Tβ4. Recent studies have revealed that activated HSCs express Tβ4 in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with the exogenous Tβ4 peptide inhibits the proliferation and migration of activated HSCs and reduces liver fibrosis, indicating it has an antifibrotic action. Meanwhile, the endogenously expressed Tβ4 in activated HSCs is shown to promote HSCs activation. Although the role of Tβ4 has not been elucidated, it is apparent that Tβ4 is associated with HSC activation. Therefore, understanding the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis may provide a novel treatment for patients.
My physiotherapist suggested BCP-157. We injected this into the palm for a few weeks 3x week. We then worked up a 50/50 mix of BCP and TB500. I’ve upped my injections ( 5-7 injections) into the surrounding areas of the protruding nodes in my palm. The results have been significant. Into week 6 of a 3x injection program, and the chords are opening up (reacting to the ‘rematrixing’ of the cells). The TB seems to disperse the liquid throughout my palm. My ‘clutched palm’ is reduced and flexibility is restored. We’re going to stick with this for another couple of months.

Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone and dynorphin, for example, that act locally. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make vasopressin. These are large neuroendocrine neurons which are excitable and can generate action potentials.[124]

While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in this primate taxon. Vargas-Pinilla et al. sequenced the coding regions of the OXT gene in other genera in new world primates and identified the following variants in addition to Leu8- and Pro8-OT: Ala8-OT, Thr8-OT, and Val3/Pro8-OT.[118] Ren et al. identified a variant further, Phe2-OT in howler monkeys.[119]
Differences among groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance combined with the Bonferroni test. The relative intensities of mRNA and protein bands were assayed using Quantity-One software (Bio-Rad Co., Hercules, CA, USA); results were normalized to the mRNA and protein levels of beta-actin. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05.

The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.
Oxytocin is typically remembered for the effect it has on prosocial behaviors, such as its role in facilitating trust and attachment between individuals. Consequently, oxytocin is often referred to as the “love hormone".[73][qualify evidence] However, oxytocin has a more complex role than solely enhancing prosocial behaviors. There is consensus that oxytocin modulates fear and anxiety; that is, it does not directly elicit fear or anxiety.[74] Two dominant theories explain the role of oxytocin in fear and anxiety. One theory states that oxytocin increases approach/avoidance to certain social stimuli and the second theory states that oxytocin increases the salience of certain social stimuli, causing the animal or human to pay closer attention to socially relevant stimuli.[75]
Although research has shown that good communication predicts relationship success, successful communication in couples therapy won’t ensure that partners stay together. The goal is to help the two people understand each other’s point of view and come to a mutual decision, even if it’s to break up. “If people are not connected at all, then oxytocin is not going to force that connection,” Guastella says.

It would have been interesting if Bartz had asked about *both* parents’ parenting styles. (Spoken by a guy writing a book on fathers.) It would have been easy enough; just add another question. Any differences between perceptions of mothers and fathers might have been illuminating. But, as in so much family research, fathers were once again ignored or excluded. (As if fathers don’t have parenting styles…)
The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[31] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.[citation needed]

Sexual activity has been found to stimulate the release of oxytocin, and it appears to have a role in erection and orgasm. The reason for this is not fully understood, but, in women, it may be that the increased uterine motility may help sperm to reach their destination. Some have proposed a correlation between the concentration of oxytocin and the intensity of orgasm.


As shown in Figure 1, thymic hormones also modulate the production of hypothalamus pituitary hormones and neuropeptides. Initial experiments revealed that neonatal thymectomy promotes a decrease in the number of secretory granules in acidophic cells of the adenopituitary [44]. In the same vein, athymic nude mice display low levels of various pituitary hormones, such as PRL, GH, LH and FSH [45]. With regard to thymic peptides, thymosin beta-4, when perfused intraventricularly, stimulates LH and LHRH secretion [46]. Similar results were obtained with another thymic peptide, thymulin, in perfused or fragmented pituitary preparations [47]. The administration of thymopoietin (another chemically-defined thymic hormone) in children with Hodgkin’s disease increased GH and cortisol serum levels [48]. Moreover, thymopentin (the synthetic biologically active peptide of thymopoietin) enhances in vitro the production of ACTH and beta-endorphin [49]. In addition, thymulin exhibits an in vitro stimulatory effect on perfused rat pituitaries, enhancing PRL, GH, TSH and LH release [50]. Using short-term cultures of pituitary fragments, an increase in ACTH secretion occurs after in vitro thymulin addition, with no changes in GH levels and significant reductions in PRL release [47]. A further thymosin peptide was recently isolated with the task in stimulating IL-6 release from rat glioma cells [51]. By contrast, thymosin alpha-1 is apparently able to down regulate TSH, ACTH and PRL secretion in vivo with no modifications on GH levels [52]. These inhibitory effects seem to occur through hypothalamic pathways. Indeed, the production of the corresponding releasing hormones by hypothalamic neurones decreased after in vitro addition of thymosin alpha-1 in medial basal hypothalamic fragments [52].
Growth factors play an important role is enhancing structural repair of chronic wounds (Robson, 1997). KGF-2 (Robson et al., 2001), TGF-β (Robson et al., 1995), PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994; Kiritsy et al., 1995; Smiell et al., 1999), β-NGF (Muangman et al., 2004) have been shown to enhance re-epithelialization (Greenalgh, 1996 for review). The KGF-1 gene has been shown to improve cutaneous wound healing in a septic rat model when delivered in a plasmid (Lin et al., 2006). The PDGF-B gene carried in a plasmid mixed with a bovine collagen gel was reported to accelerate closure of patient diabetic ulcers (Mulder et al., 2009; Blume et al., 2011). KGF-2, PDGF-BB and FGF-L are commercially available as RepiferminTM, RegranexTM, and Trafermin to treat human chronic wounds. Data for the effects of PDGF-BB on back wounds of diabetic mice and for the effects of KGF-2 on chronic venous ulcers in patients is tabulated in Tables 10.3 and 10.4. Thymosin β4 accelerated keratinocyte migration in the wounds of old diabetic mice (Philp et al., 2003).

5-HTP has been shown in scientific studies to promote relaxation and alleviate stress and anxiety. The relaxation and anti-anxiety properties of 5-HTP appear to come from its ability to elevate levels of serotonin. Research has demonstrated that 5-HTP may reduce the risks of panic attacks and symptoms of panic, as well as anxiety and emotional stress. Research also indicates 5-HTP may be effective in helping to alleviate depression.
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