There are several layers in the skin; the outer epidermis and beneath it the dermis and the subcutaneous layer. Cells in the epidermis include keratinocytes, its major cell type, that move continuously from the lower basal layer where they are formed by cell division. Other cells in the epidermis are the melanocytes that synthesize pigment and transfer it to the keratinocytes, giving our skin its color, and a wide variety of immune cells that maintain immune surveillance and secrete substances called cytokines, like interleukin 1 and 2, which are active in inflammation. The dermis contains connective tissue, mainly collagen, blood vessels, various types of immune white cells and fibroblasts.
Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17) as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2 in PDLCs. Wnt5a inhibition by Wnt5a siRNA enhanced the effects of Tβ4 on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic cytokines as well as helping osteoclastic differentiation whereas Wnt5a activation by Wnt5a peptide reversed it.
Mouse BMMs were cultured with M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL) or CM collected from PDLCs for 5 days (A) and 60 minutes (B). The mRNAs expression was determined by PCR analysis (A). The phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK), and activation of NF-κB were determined by Western blot analysis (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
Cells were incubated for 48 hours with the indicated times with 200 μM H2O2 (A) and the indicated concentrations of H2O2 (B) for 48 hours. The mRNA and protein expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I would take the recommended dosage and see how you feel. Only you can tell whether it's working or not.
Showa Denko, the source of up to 60% of all the tryptophan sold in the United States, had used an untested manufacturing process that reduced the amount of activated charcoal used to filter fermented raw tryptophan. Some reports suggest that purity may be a potential problem for 5-HTP as well. No cases of EMS resulting from 5-HTP use have been reported, however.
In women, oxytocin is responsible for signaling contractions of the womb during labor. The hormone stimulates the uterine muscles to contract, so labor begins. It also increases the production of prostaglandins, which move labor along and increases the contractions even more. Because of this effect, synthetic oxytocin (pitocin) is sometimes used to induce a woman to start labor if she cannot start naturally, or it can be given to make contractions stronger if a woman's labor is slowing.
In 1999 researchers in Glasgow University found that an oxidised derivative of thymosin β4 (the sulfoxide, in which an oxygen atom is added to the methionine near the N-terminus) exerted several potentially anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophil leucocytes. It promoted their dispersion from a focus, inhibited their response to a small peptide (F-Met-Leu-Phe) which attracts them to sites of bacterial infection and lowered their adhesion to endothelial cells. (Adhesion to endothelial cells of blood vessel walls is pre-requisite for these cells to leave the bloodstream and invade infected tissue). A possible anti-inflammatory role for the β4 sulfoxide was supported by the group's finding that it counteracted artificially-induced inflammation in mice.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A, B). The mRNAs expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. This data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
Serotonin influences sleep and sleep-wake cycles in many ways, and scientists continue to make discoveries about how this important neurochemical affects our sleeping and waking lives. One important way serotonin affects sleep and bio time is through its relationship with the “sleep hormone” melatonin. Melatonin is made from serotonin in the presence of darkness. (Remember, melatonin production in the body is triggered by darkness and suppressed by exposure to natural and artificial light.) Healthy serotonin levels are essential for maintaining healthy melatonin levels—and both serotonin and melatonin are critical to sleep and a well-functioning bio clock. With its ability to increase serotonin, 5-HTP supports a neurochemical process that can enable high-quality sleep and keep the body’s bio clock in sync.
In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland. These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens, a brain structure where oxytocin receptors are expressed.[31] The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be coordinated through its common release through these collaterals.[31] Oxytocin is also produced by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.[32] Depending on the species, oxytocin receptor-expressing cells are located in other areas, including the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Loading is not absolutely necessary, it is only done to achieve results faster. Loading means taking doses more frequently to build up initial tan faster thus getting in tan maintenance mode sooner. Typical loading is done by taking 0.5mg once a day until desired skin tone is achieved. Loading dose can slightly vary from person to person, depending on skin type, bodyweight and other factors, but 0.5mg is pretty standard for most
In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people and generosity.123 Oxytocin first became of interest to researchers when they discovered that breastfeeding women are calmer when exercising and experiencing stress than moms who were bottle-feeding. It is just one part of the important, complex neurochemical system in our bodies that helps us adapt to emotional situations.
Melanotan II can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.

Kim found that when Americans who carry a particular version of the OXTR gene are more likely to turn to their friends for support when they are distressed. But Koreans react to social stress in a different way – for them, it’s less socially acceptable to turn to friends for support during tough times. And distressed Koreans who carry the same version of OXTR are less likely to seek support from their friends.

Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.
The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.1718 The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin’s effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.19 Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm.20 A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted that these changes “may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue.”21
I’ve tried researching this on my own but haven’t been able to find much. I have Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis & my endocrinologist says I barely have any thyroid left. Would TB-500 help regenerate new thyroid growth & if so where would I inject it?? I plan on taking this along with the BPC-157 (orally) for gut inflammation to see if it can repair leaky gut & digestive issues. Thoughts?
Hi question is this, I have a 9 year old german shepard..his back end is all of a sudden weak, where he will fall over,like he can’t hold himself up, I can see extreme weaknes inhis hide quarter.The vet has taken many x-rays and blood work, but all comes back perfect.Do you think this pepetide would help my dog?..he is 101 pounds, extremely strong, Walking is his issue, he can run like the wind, then he can fall over.Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Silencing of the Tβ4 or Wnt5a gene was achieved by transfecting cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cells were transfected with Tβ4 or Wnt5a siRNAs (30 nM) for 24 hours using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were transfected with Silencer negative control siRNA using the same protocol.
Melanotan II first captured the public's imagination when the mainstream media briefly touted it as a Viagra-like panacea for middle-aged men. Norman Levine, a dermatologist who led the team that developed the drug, had first conducted experiments in which he darkened the pigments of frogs by injecting them with a hormone called Alpha MSH. After Melanotan II was modified for human use and put through clinical trials, Levine reported that "one very astute observer who took this drug told us that he was developing spontaneous erections."
Ive been struggling with my left brachialis and so after listening to a podcast in which you mentioned BPC-157 I tried it out. I was hoping for a miracle cure, which I did not get. However, I believe it certainly helped a lot. I am considering a second round. But the peptide rabbit hole is certainly interesting and I am most keen to try some others. But I would like to see if you have some advise for me on another topic. After having listened to your podcast with Dr Gains I thought that either you or Dr Gains may be able to at least point me in the right direction. My wife suffers from a condition called Pelvic Vein Congestion which causes her a lot of pain. From what I understand, she has a seemingly unnatural mass of veins around her uterus which may also suffer from a “valve” type problem in which blood can potentially run in the opposite direction and pool in locations which causes pain. She has been to doctors which offer invasive solutions with unattractive success rates. I have been searching for other cures, but the only thing that I found (supplement with Diosmin and Hisperidan) had some psychological effects. Any thoughts?
There is also a positive feedback involved in the milk-ejection reflex. When a baby sucks at the breast of its mother, the stimulation leads to oxytocin secretion into the blood, which then causes milk to be let down into the breast. Oxytocin is also released into the brain to help stimulate further oxytocin secretion. These processes are self-limiting; production of the hormone is stopped after the baby is delivered or when the baby stops feeding.
Skin damage and aging are induced to a large extent by free radicals from the sun and environmental pollutants and from oxidants produced during infection and inflammation. Lipid peroxidation of membranes and increased inflammatory substances, such as thromboxanes and leukotriens, add insult to injury. While skin damage accumulates with age, repair processes slow down. Thus, any boost by a molecule that would reduce free radicals and accelerate molecular events in healing has the potential to hasten skin repair. Tb4 has such healing qualities.
In mammals, many mysteries remain. Oxytocin is difficult to measure reliably in the brain, making it hard to know exactly where, when and how much is normally released; nor do scientists understand precisely how it works to alter behaviour. “What we need to start thinking about is the more fundamental role that oxytocin plays in the brain,” Young says. The determination to find out has been strengthened by a growing move in neuroscience to characterize circuits that are important in brain operations. “That's the level that's critical for understanding how the brain is regulating behaviour,” says Thomas Insel, director of the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, who has studied oxytocin in voles.
Thymosin β4 (TMSB4X, Tβ4) is the most abundant G-actin binding peptide of the cytosol and is a potent proangiogenic factor. The role of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) and serum response factor (SRF) for this function was examined in experimentally induced prolonged ischemic myocardium areas of transgenic pigs ubiquitously and constitutively overexpressing Tβ4 driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Upon induction of a reversible loss of cardiomyocyte function which is amenable to therapeutic neovascularization, transgenic pigs did not experience a significant loss of perfusion nor myocardial function at rest or under rapid pacing. Functional vascular regeneration by induced capillary growth and maturation was found in the transgenic pigs (Hinkel et al., 2014).
I found this to be an excellent supplement for myself, which overcomes the rate limiting step when the body converts tryptophan to 5-HTP. I am sleeping much better and handling life's normal stresses better. If you haven't already, become familiar with how/why the body converts L-Tryptophan > 5-HTP > Serotonin > Melatonin. Very interesting! Thank you Bulk Nutrients for making this available.
Pull 1ml of water into the syringe and inject it into the vial with powder. You should never shake the vial when mixing. You should not inject the water directly into the powder with force, but rather let it gently slide down the inside of the vial. If it bubbles up, you should put the vial in the refrigerator and leave it there for about 15-30 minutes. The bubbles will be gone by then. You should then gently rotate the vial between your fingers until all of the powder has dissolved (it takes about 3-4 minutes).

How would that work? Feldman thinks that these types of behaviors are intimately linked with oxytocin in a positive feedback loop. “Oxytocin can elicit loving behaviors, but giving and receiving these behaviors also promotes the release of oxytocin and leads to more of these behaviors,” she says. She thinks that talk therapy alone can boost the oxytocin system, but admits that in some cases it might help to jump-start the feedback loop by administering oxytocin. If Guastella’s results support his hypothesis, talk and hormone therapy together might be the best recipe for breaking down dysfunctional communication between partners, especially in cases where the behaviors have been learned in childhood.

One way to clarify that question is to give individuals oxytocin rather than just measure naturally occurring levels. In experiments by couple therapist and researcher Beate Ditzen at the University of Zurich, couples each sprayed a liquid containing oxytocin up their noses (which ensures that the hormone reaches the brain). Ditzen then got them to talk with each other about an issue that both partners said often lead to disagreement or fighting, such as who did the housework or how they spent their free time. She observed how they communicated with each other during the discussion compared with couples who didn’t get the hormone.
James Bates* who recently started taking it for panic attacks, said, "A friend who had anxiety recommended 5-HTP to me. I used to take beta-blockers and Valium but the doctors have got funny about giving them to me. I needed an alternative and didn't fancy getting back on Prozac. I've only been taking the supplements for a month but so far, it's helped a lot. I've only had two panic attacks, whereas usually I'd have four or five."
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-C). Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot analysis (A). The production of NO (B) and PGE2 (C) were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Data replicated the quantifications of NO and PGE2 with the standard deviation of at least three experiments (n = 4). The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
Nature has been very clever in a way. Without oxytocin, you know, babies are what they really are - I probably shouldn't say this on TV - but noisy, smelly animals that don't actually do anything useful. And, um, that's what oxytocin does. It gives them a special salience, a special beauty and allows us to bond with these defenceless little animals.
Cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described in bipolar disorders… Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan; 5-HT) is possibly involved in these cognitive processes, more particularly in executive functions, learning, memory, and attention. The aim of this study was to investigate serotonergic vulnerability and its relation to cognitive functioning in healthy first-degree relatives of [bipolar disorders] patients…
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Jump up ^ Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Faliva M, Bucci M, Perna S (March 2012). "Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration". Eating and Weight Disorders. 17 (1): e22–8. doi:10.3275/8165. PMID 22142813.