On the most basic level, a peptide is essentially a small protein. Billions of unique peptides exist, all with different effects and functions in the body. Physiological examples include insulin, oxytocin, and casein, the main protein in milk. Thus, to taunt Essendon supporters for the use of “peptides” is rather non-specific. A much more intelligent insult would be to focus on the administration of thymosin beta-4.
Thymosin β4 was initially perceived as a thymic hormone. However this changed when it was discovered that it forms a 1:1 complex with G (globular) actin, and is present at high concentration in a wide range of mammalian cell types.[11] When appropriate, G-actin monomers polymerize to form F (filamentous) actin, which, together with other proteins that bind to actin, comprise cellular microfilaments. Formation by G-actin of the complex with β-thymosin (= "sequestration") opposes this.
Robert Love, a urologist in Dallas, understands why there is such back-channel demand for a product like Melanotan II. "People sometimes want to handle performance issues on their own, without a physician involved, either because they are embarrassed or because they may be uninsured or lack adequate insurance," he told Motherboard. "Handling things this way is not advisable. We have prescription drugs that address erectile dysfunction issues. And although this isn't my area, there are alternative ways of getting suntans—tanning beds, spray tans—though of course extended outdoor sun exposure should be avoided if possible."
5-HTP is decarboxylated to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase with the help of vitamin B6.[40] This reaction occurs both in nervous tissue and in the liver.[41] 5-HTP crosses the blood–brain barrier,[42] while 5-HT does not. Excess 5-HTP, especially when administered with vitamin B6, is thought to be metabolized and excreted.[43][44]

To investigate the effect of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-induced signaling cascades, the activation states of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) as well as NF-κB p65 were examined in PDLCs. H2O2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK(s) and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (Fig 5A). Treatment of cells with Tβ4 peptide blocked H2O2-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of ERK and JNK (Fig 5B).


The soluble form of Ac-SDKP peptide, derived from thymosin beta-4, has been described as a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and as a stimulator of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo (Koutrafouri et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2004). This peptide has been selectively bound to acrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels via thiol groups from cysteine residues (Song et al., 2014). Unfortunately, the immobilization process was poorly characterized and the effect of hydrogels on EC function was not tested in vitro. In a mouse model of chronic myocardial infarction, hydrogels with immobilized Ac-SDKP did not show improved regeneration potential. Yet, Ac-SDKP-HA hydrogels with entrapped stem cell homing factor SDF-1 showed a significant increase of myocardial regeneration and recovery of heart function, as compared to groups with only one or none of these factors, suggesting a potentially interesting synergistic effect.
“The study was double-blinded and was for two consecutive 6-wk periods. No diet was prescribed during the first period, a 5040-kJ/d diet was recommended for the second. Significant weight loss was observed in 5-HTP-treated patients during both periods. A reduction in carbohydrate intake and a consistent presence of early satiety were also found. These findings together with the good tolerance observed suggest that 5-HTP may be safely used to treat obesity.”

Jump up ^ Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P, Schulte-Körne G, Strauch K, Remschmidt H (March 2010). "Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 153B (2): 629–39. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31032. PMID 19777562.

Silencing of the Tβ4 or Wnt5a gene was achieved by transfecting cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cells were transfected with Tβ4 or Wnt5a siRNAs (30 nM) for 24 hours using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were transfected with Silencer negative control siRNA using the same protocol.
There is one glaring problem, however: the supplements come with a disclaimer that recommends not taking them for more than three months. Most of the information out there on 5-HTP is anecdotal, and most of them are stories of it helping people, rather than hard facts about its scientific properties. I approached neurologists, psychologists and experimental doctors about 5-HTP, and many responses were strange. Not many people were willing to speak about it, saying they weren't qualified or hadn't read the relevant material, but there isn't much material to speak of. The main source of legitimate scientific evidence came from the University of Maryland Medical Center website, who stated that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. But all the studies that support that statement were done in the 1980s and 1990s. I wanted to know if 5-HTP was a realistic alternative to SSRIs. Could I stay on 5-HTP forever, basking in its natural glory?
I’m curious to know where you got your reconstitution calculation from; you recommend putting approx 3 cc’s in a 5 mg TB-500 which ‘almost fills’ the vial. I have been doing a ton of research on TB-500 and finding contradictory recommendations on how to reconstitute. Because the dosing for TB-500 is higher than what I’m used to with GHRH & GHRP – I felt a lower reconstitution mixture would reduce the amount I needed to take (but now I’m wondering if I’ve been over dosing based on your formula). Would really appreciate knowing how you arrived at filling an insulin syringe ‘three times’ equal to 3 cc’s – just want to make sure i’m dosing correctly
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.6
To determine the effects of Tβ4 peptide and H2O2 on cytotoxicity, its cell viability was evaluated. A 48-h exposure to 0.1–5 μg/mL Tβ4 peptide did not affect H2O2-mediated cell viabilities (Fig 2A). In order to examine whether Tβ4 peptide suppressed ROS-induced inflammatory mediators, the ability of Tβ4 peptide on production of NO and PGE2, and expressions of COX-2 and iNOS were measured by RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Pretreatment with Tβ4 peptide dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2 and iNOS, and NO and PGE2 production (Fig 2B–2E).

“People got quite excited,” recalls clinical neuroscientist Evdokia Anagnostou, who co-directs the Autism Research Centre at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital in Toronto, Canada. But Anagnostou says that some preliminary steps were skipped over as researchers rushed to test oxytocin as a psychiatric drug. “To be honest, if we had done it properly, we wouldn't have done it the way we did. It went a little bit too fast,” she says. Because oxytocin had cleared the early, standard steps of drug development decades earlier, some researchers did not systematically test a range of doses to see whether they had differing psychological effects.
5-HTP helps the body to produce more serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood and sleep-wake cycles. Healthy levels of serotonin contribute to a positive mood and outlook and also promote restful sleep. Serotonin also plays an important role in many other of the body’s functions, including digestion, appetite, and pain perception.
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.
Despite this, Tβ4’s place on the banned-substances list is warranted. It reflects the possibility that the effects of the supplement may manifest as a tangible improvement in athletes. However, any time a journalist flippantly declares it “heals damaged tissue and speeds recovery”, it should be noted that such claims are a harmful distortion of the facts.
The promise of repairing sun parched aging skin is alluring, especially if damage control may be attained by applying a substance that is abundant in our body. Thymosin beta 4 (Tb4), a molecule that accelerates wound healing in animals and cultured cells, "may be valuable in repairing skin damage caused by sun or even by the wear and tear of aging?" This hopeful message of Tb4's potential to restore damaged human skin was voiced at the 5th International Symposium on Aging Skin, in California (May 2001), by Dr. Allan Goldstein, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department at George Washington University and founder of RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals. RegeneRX is carrying out preclinical research on Tb4 as a wound healer, in collaboration with scientists at the National Institutes of Health.
In addition, in the Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled single- and multiple-dose Phase 1 clinical trial, the safety and pharmacokinetics of the intravenous administration of TB-4 was evaluated. From this, intravenous administration of TB-4 appears to be safe and well-tolerated by all subjects with no dose limiting toxicity or serious adverse events reported.
Double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU (red, A) and NeuN (green, B) to identify newborn neurons (yellow after merge, C) in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus from rats examined 35 days after TBI. Micrographs (D) show location of DiI injection in the CA3 region (indicated by white asterisk). In the CA3 region, axons projected from granule neurons in the dentate gyrus will take up injected DiI to their cell bodies. Co-localization (merge, H) of BrdU-positive nuclei (green, F) within retrogradely DiI labeled (red, E) granule cells were examined at 35 days after TBI. Scale bar = 25 μm (C, H). Scale bar = 50 μm (D).
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.
When practicing deep breathing, focus on a calmer state of mind as you distract yourself from overwhelming thoughts and sensations. Sit in a quiet area and practice the following: Take a slow, deep breath through your nose, allowing both your stomach and chest to rise. Once your stomach is fully expanded, breathe out through your mouth, just as slowly as when you were breathing in.
Cells on the surface of the skin are constantly being replaced by regeneration from below. The repair of a wound is a scaling up of this normal process, with additional complex interactions among cells, formation of new blood vessels, collagen, more extensive cell division and cell migration, as well as strict control of inflammatory cells and the cytokines they release to resolve the inflammation.
You must be over 18 years of age to order or purchase from our website. You may not purchase this peptide for anyone who is under 18 years of age.Products are not drugs and have not been approved by the FDA to prevent, treat or cure any medical condition, ailment or disease. The purchaser is fully aware of the health hazards associated with these products and agrees that they are experienced in their handling.

Despite these many roles, oxytocin is often reduced to a misleading label. While “hormone of love” may be great for catchy headlines and compelling marketing slogans, they are ultimately misleading. Jennifer Bartz from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine has found that oxytocin can have completely opposite effects on the way people behave, depending on how they view their relationships to other people.
For depression: Most commonly, 150-800 mg daily is taken for 2-6 weeks. These doses are sometimes divided up and administered as 50 mg to 100 mg three times a day. Sometimes the dose starts out low and steadily increases every 1-2 weeks until a target dose is reached. Less commonly, higher doses are used. In one study, the dose is steadily increased up to 3 grams per day.
For depression: Most commonly, 150-800 mg daily is taken for 2-6 weeks. These doses are sometimes divided up and administered as 50 mg to 100 mg three times a day. Sometimes the dose starts out low and steadily increases every 1-2 weeks until a target dose is reached. Less commonly, higher doses are used. In one study, the dose is steadily increased up to 3 grams per day.
According to recent research, this hormone “is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug.”4
A warning: unlike BPC-157, TB-500 is absolutely, 100% banned by WADA and most other global sporting organization both in-competition and out-of-competition. You should NOT use this if you are competing in any such sanctioned sport as it definitely falls under the banned category of “Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances and Mimetics (S2)”.
Low oxytocin levels have been linked to autism and autistic spectrum disorders (e.g. Asperger syndrome) – a key element of these disorders being poor social functioning. Some scientists believe oxytocin could be used to treat these disorders. In addition, low oxytocin has been linked to depressive symptoms and it has been proposed as a treatment for depressive disorders. However, there is not enough evidence at present to support its use for any of these conditions.

What to know about hormonal imbalances While it is natural to experience hormonal imbalances at certain times in life, such as puberty, menopause, and pregnancy, some hormonal changes are related to underlying medical conditions. This article looks at the causes and symptoms of hormonal imbalances in men and women, as well as treatment and home remedies. Read now
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.6

5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) is a chemical by-product of the protein building block L-tryptophan. It is also produced commercially from the seeds of an African plant known as Griffonia simplicifolia 5-HTP is used for sleep disorders such as insomnia, depression, anxiety, migraine and tension-type headaches, fibromyalgia, obesity, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), seizure disorder, and Parkinson's disease..
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