TB-500 is a synthetic fraction of the protein thymosin beta-4, which is present in virtually all human and animal cells. The main purpose of this peptide is to promote healing. It also promotes creation of new blood and muscle cells. The healing effects of TB-500 have been observed in tendons, ligaments, muscle, skin, heart, and the eyes. Thymosin beta-4 is naturally produced in higher concentration where tissue has been damaged. This peptide is also a very potent anti-inflamatory agent.
Friedman, J., Roze, E., Abdenur, J. E., Chang, R., Gasperini, S., Saletti, V., Wali, G. M., Eiroa, H., Neville, B., Felice, A., Parascandalo, R., Zafeiriou, D. I., Arrabal-Fernandez, L., Dill, P., Eichler, F. S., Echenne, B., Gutierrez-Solana, L. G., Hoffmann, G. F., Hyland, K., Kusmierska, K., Tijssen, M. A., Lutz, T., Mazzuca, M., Penzien, J., Poll-The BT, Sykut-Cegielska, J., Szymanska, K., Thony, B., and Blau, N. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency: a treatable mimic of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:520-530. View abstract.
Tβ4 is not a thymus-specific peptide but also present in most tissue and all cells except red blood cells [35]. High amounts of Tβ4 were detected in human white blood cells, especially in neutrophils and in macrophages [34], expressed in developing mandible (embryonic day 12) [36] and hair follicles (HF) of mice [37]. In addition, the peptide is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids [34]. Although the mechanism(s) of action of exogenous Tβ4 on anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear, the high levels of Tβ4 present in human wound fluid (13 μg/mL) suggest its importance in wound healing or anti-inflammation [38]. However, the level of Tβ4 is variable (unchanged, decreased, and increased) in GCF or biopsied gingival tissue of periodontal patients [20, 21]. Based on the observations that Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects [11–14], the hypothesis is that Tβ4 regulates inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic bone disease, such as periodontitis.
If you want to obtain anything other than trivial amounts of milk from animals like dairy cattle, you have to stimulate oxytocin release because something like 80% of the milk is available only after ejection, and milk ejection requires oxytocin. Watch someone milk a cow, even with a machine, and what you'll see is that prior to milking, the teats and lower udder are washed gently - this tactile stimulation leads to oxytocin release and milk ejection.

Humans are social animals. Our individual prospects depend to a significant degree on the prospects of the group(s) to which we belong, and how well we get along with the group(s). Survival means being acutely sensitive to who is on our side and who is not. So it isn’t surprising that trust matters so much to how we go about protecting ourselves. And it isn’t surprising to find the instinct for trust rooted deep in the brain.
Monomeric β-thymosins, i.e. those of molecular weight similar to the peptides originally isolated from thymus by Goldstein, are found almost exclusively in cells of multicellular animals.[4] Known exceptions are monomeric thymosins found in a few single-celled organisms, significantly those currently regarded as the closest relatives of multicellular animals:[5] choanoflagellates [6] and filastereans.[7] Although found in very early-diverged animals such as sponges, monomeric thymosins are absent from arthropods and nematodes, which do nevertheless possess "β-thymosin repeat proteins" which are constructed from several end-to-end repeats of β-thymosin sequences.[8] Genomics has shown that tetrapods (land vertebrates) each express three monomeric β-thymosins, which are the animal species' equivalents (orthologues) of human β4, β10 and β15 thymosins, respectively. The human thymosins are encoded by the genes TMSB4X, TMSB10 and TMSB15A and TMSB15B. (In humans, the proteins encoded by the two TMSB15 genes are identical.) Bony fish in general express orthologues of these same three, plus an additional copy of the β4 orthologue.[9]
When looking at studies that investigate carbohydrates per se, one study in overweight women given 8mg/kg 5-HTP for 5 weeks noted that while placebo did not reduce carbohydrate ingested (calories were reduced in placebo, but carbohdyrate remained at 38% of voluntary calorie intake) that 5-HTP also retained 38% of intake as carbohydrates despite consuming less calories and carbohydrates in total.[9] A decrease in both carbohydrate and dietary fat has been noted with 750mg 5-HTP daily for 2 weeks in diabetics (with no dietary guidelines given), but appeared to be reduced to a similar degree as calories overall.[10] Only one study supports these anecdotes, where the reduction in calories seemed to be acounted mostly for by carbohydrates (75% of observed reduction) and then fats (25%).[10]
If you’re looking for hard proof that taking 5-HTP to lose weight works, we’ve got it: In a University of Rome study, obese women who took 5-HTP began eating between 1,000 to 2,000 fewer calories per day. And even as their caloric intake plummeted to a level that would leave many dieters irritable, serotonin was soothing these ladies — and not one reported hunger or diet crankiness. Further boosting spirits: The supplements quadrupled their weight loss, compared to folks given a placebo pill. “They ate a lot less than they normally would because it was easy for them,” Dr. Bhatia notes. Hearing about such an easy way to lose weight might be enough to inspire you to try the supplement for yourself. So, we went ahead and rounded up everything you need to know to get started.

5-HTP works in the brain and central nervous system by increasing the production of the chemical serotonin. Serotonin can affect sleep, appetite, temperature, sexual behavior, and pain sensation. Since 5-HTP increases the synthesis of serotonin, it is used for several diseases where serotonin is believed to play an important role including depression, insomnia, obesity, and many other conditions.
Thymosin β4 has been tested in multicenter trials sponsored jointly by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc (Rockville, MD, USA) and Sigma Tau (Pomezia, Italy) in the United States and Europe in patients with bed sores, ulcers caused by venostasis, and Epidermolysis bullosa simplex and was found to accelerate bed sore and stasis ulcer repair by one month. It has also been tested in patients with chronic neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects and found to promote repair.
Neurovascular units within the central nervous system consist of endothelial cells, pericytes, neurons and glial cells, as well as growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that are close to the endothelium.72,73 Neurovascular units provide niches for neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult brain and, within these units, newly-generated immature neurons are closely associated with the remodeling vasculature. The generation of new vasculature facilitates several coupled neurorestorative processes including neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which improve functional recovery.74-76 The vascular production of stromal-derived factor 1 and angiopoietin 1 is involved in neurogenesis and promotes behavioral recovery after stroke.77 The disruption of this neurovascular coordination has been observed in a variety of brain conditions including infection, stroke and trauma.78 The injured brain promotes angiogenesis and neurogenesis,13,32,69,79-84 that may contribute to spontaneous functional recovery from injuries such as stroke and TBI. Neurorestorative agents that increase angiogenesis and neurogenesis have been shown to improve functional outcome following brain injury.19,33 Vascular endothelial cells within the neurovascular niche affect neurogenesis directly via contact with neural progenitor cells, while soluble factors from the vascular system that are released into the CNS enhance neurogenesis via paracrine signaling.85 Here, we demonstrate that Tβ4 treatment promotes both angiogenesis and neurogenesis in rats after TBI, suggesting that the neurovascular remodeling at least partially contributes to Tβ4-mediated improvement in functional recovery. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms in the neurovascular niches will be important for developing novel angiogenic and neurogenic therapies for brain injuries.
This mother-child bonding is the most glorified myth that is not re-thought as often as it should. Its apparant purpose is just to make a dangerously selfish mother (such frustrated mothers do exist a lot more than we read in the news) to think twice before harming her defenseless child which is oftentimes in her sole custody in our society. Acts of such mothers are branded as mental illness rather than plain cruelty. While most people (men and women alike) tend to protect, and not harm a child, the real bonding can happen beetween two independent, mature adults.
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.6
If you’re looking for hard proof that taking 5-HTP to lose weight works, we’ve got it: In a University of Rome study, obese women who took 5-HTP began eating between 1,000 to 2,000 fewer calories per day. And even as their caloric intake plummeted to a level that would leave many dieters irritable, serotonin was soothing these ladies — and not one reported hunger or diet crankiness. Further boosting spirits: The supplements quadrupled their weight loss, compared to folks given a placebo pill. “They ate a lot less than they normally would because it was easy for them,” Dr. Bhatia notes. Hearing about such an easy way to lose weight might be enough to inspire you to try the supplement for yourself. So, we went ahead and rounded up everything you need to know to get started.
Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.
×