PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994), FGF-2 (Inadomi et al., 2004), IGF I and II (Zhao et al., 1995), TGF-β (Greenalgh, 1996), and L-arginine (Shi et al., 2003) enhance fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen in chronic wounds. Thymosin β4 accelerates wound repair in both young and old diabetic mice by significantly increasing wound contraction and collagen deposition. A synthetic peptide that duplicated the actin-binding domain of thymosin β4 promoted wound repair in aged mice to a degree comparable to that of the whole molecule (Philp et al., 2003). In rats with wound healing impaired by mitomycin C, the formation of granulation tissue (angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation) was significantly advanced by hydrogel sheets composed of alginate, chitin/chitosan, and fucoidin (Murakami et al., 2010).

Six hours later, the mice were returned to cages with the aggressive mice. The mice that were missing their oxytocin receptors didn't appear to remember the aggressive mice and show any fear. Conversely, when mice with increased numbers of oxytocin receptors were reintroduced to the aggressive mice, they showed an intense fear reaction and avoided the aggressive mice.
The promise of repairing sun parched aging skin is alluring, especially if damage control may be attained by applying a substance that is abundant in our body. Thymosin beta 4 (Tb4), a molecule that accelerates wound healing in animals and cultured cells, "may be valuable in repairing skin damage caused by sun or even by the wear and tear of aging?" This hopeful message of Tb4's potential to restore damaged human skin was voiced at the 5th International Symposium on Aging Skin, in California (May 2001), by Dr. Allan Goldstein, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department at George Washington University and founder of RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals. RegeneRX is carrying out preclinical research on Tb4 as a wound healer, in collaboration with scientists at the National Institutes of Health.

Melanotan II first captured the public's imagination when the mainstream media briefly touted it as a Viagra-like panacea for middle-aged men. Norman Levine, a dermatologist who led the team that developed the drug, had first conducted experiments in which he darkened the pigments of frogs by injecting them with a hormone called Alpha MSH. After Melanotan II was modified for human use and put through clinical trials, Levine reported that "one very astute observer who took this drug told us that he was developing spontaneous erections."
There have been some side effects reported while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: nausea, appetite loss, drowsiness and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine can be taken when injecting until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to inject Melanotan before bed, this is also beneficial to combat any drowsiness.
PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994), FGF-2 (Inadomi et al., 2004), IGF I and II (Zhao et al., 1995), TGF-β (Greenalgh, 1996), and L-arginine (Shi et al., 2003) enhance fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen in chronic wounds. Thymosin β4 accelerates wound repair in both young and old diabetic mice by significantly increasing wound contraction and collagen deposition. A synthetic peptide that duplicated the actin-binding domain of thymosin β4 promoted wound repair in aged mice to a degree comparable to that of the whole molecule (Philp et al., 2003). In rats with wound healing impaired by mitomycin C, the formation of granulation tissue (angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation) was significantly advanced by hydrogel sheets composed of alginate, chitin/chitosan, and fucoidin (Murakami et al., 2010).

In addition to angiogenesis and neurogenesis, cell- and pharmacologically based therapies substantially remodel white matter in the ischemic brain. Treatment of experimental stroke with MCSs, rhEPO, or sildenafil significantly increases axonal density encapsulating the ischemic lesion. Dynamic changes of white matter structure along the ischemic boundary have been imaged in living animals by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements. Data from these MRI indices demonstrate that administration of rhEPO or sildenafil augments axonal remodeling and angiogenesis and that both of them are spatially and temporally correlated. Administration of MSCs, rhEPO, and thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) dramatically increases the number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, the striatum, and the V/SVZ of the ischemic hemisphere and mature oligodendrocytes in the ischemic boundary adjacent to myelinated axons. These findings suggest that cell- and pharmacologically based therapies promote generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the ischemic brain that migrate to target axons, where they extend their processes myelinating the axons.
Tβ4 is a multifunctional regenerative small peptide containing 43-amino acids, and it is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.21 Tβ4 has pro-survival and pro-angiogenic properties, protects tissue against damage, and promotes tissue regeneration.22,23 It also plays a key role in corneal, epidermal and cardiac wound healing.21 Tβ4 participates in axonal path-finding, neurite formation, cell proliferation, and neuronal survival.24-26 Our previous studies show that Tβ4 reduces inflammation and stimulates remyelination and improves functional recovery in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and stroke.25,27 In summary, these pleiotropic properties make Tβ4 an ideal candidate for treatment of TBI.
It has been reported that deficiencies in the amino acid tryptophan (precursor to 5-HTP) are correlated with depression, as evidence by serum tryptophan in depressed persons.[16][17] Decreased levels of tryptophan in the body can come from various means but are most likely caused by a diet lacking in the amino acid as substrate, or by upregulation of enzymes (most notably indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase(TDO)) that degrade tryptophan or direct it to paths that are not serotonin synthesis causing a relative deficiency.[18][19] These enzymes can be upregulated in states of chronic inflammation[18][20] and injection of some pro-inflammatory cytokines has been implicated in depression[21] and increasing the kyurenine:tryptophan ratio, which is indicative of IDO activity being increased.[22] The activity of tryptophan hydroxylase can also be further downregulated in cases of Magnesium or vitamin B6 deficiency, stress, or excessive tryptophan levels.[7]

TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.

Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.

Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
If the two things you can't live without are a dark, even tan and a fast-acting, long-lasting erection, then add Melanotan II to your holiday shopping list. This synthetic peptide hormone, which was developed by a research team at the University of Arizona during the late 1990s, darkens skin pigment and may stimulate erectile activity. And despite continued concern and controversy within the medical community regarding its use, it remains available for sale over the internet in a powdered form that can then be reconstituted for subcutaneous injections.

Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a highly conserved, naturally occurring, water-soluble regenerative peptide that is found in all tissues and in all cell types, except red blood cells (Goldstein, Hannappel, Sosne, & Kleinman, 2012; Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015). It is also found in the blood and in other body fluids, including tears, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and wound fluids (Badamchian et al., 2007; Huang, Wang, Barnes, & Elmets, 2006; Mohring, Kellmann, Jurgens, & Schrader, 2005). Both platelets and leukocytes release Tβ4 into the wound fluid such that the final concentration is 13 μg/mL (Fromm, Gunne, Bergman, et al., 1996; Hannappel & van Kampen, 1987).
Differences among groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance combined with the Bonferroni test. The relative intensities of mRNA and protein bands were assayed using Quantity-One software (Bio-Rad Co., Hercules, CA, USA); results were normalized to the mRNA and protein levels of beta-actin. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Jump up ^ Xu J, Jian B, Chu R, Lu Z, Li Q, Dunlop J, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, McGonigle P, Levy RJ, Liang B (December 2002). "Serotonin mechanisms in heart valve disease II: the 5-HT2 receptor and its signaling pathway in aortic valve interstitial cells". The American Journal of Pathology. 161 (6): 2209–18. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64497-5. PMC 1850896. PMID 12466135.
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