Increasing trust and reducing fear. In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed “the highest level of trust” twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.11 Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).12 There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however.
Oxytocin is not only correlated with the preferences of individuals to associate with members of their own group, but it is also evident during conflicts between members of different groups. During conflict, individuals receiving nasally administered oxytocin demonstrate more frequent defense-motivated responses toward in-group members than out-group members. Further, oxytocin was correlated with participant desire to protect vulnerable in-group members, despite that individual's attachment to the conflict. Similarly, it has been demonstrated that when oxytocin is administered, individuals alter their subjective preferences in order to align with in-group ideals over out-group ideals. These studies demonstrate that oxytocin is associated with intergroup dynamics. Further, oxytocin influences the responses of individuals in a particular group to those of another group. The in-group bias is evident in smaller groups; however, it can also be extended to groups as large as one's entire country leading toward a tendency of strong national zeal. A study done in the Netherlands showed that oxytocin increased the in-group favoritism of their nation while decreasing acceptance of members of other ethnicities and foreigners. People also show more affection for their country's flag while remaining indifferent to other cultural objects when exposed to oxytocin. It has thus been hypothesized that this hormone may be a factor in xenophobic tendencies secondary to this effect. Thus, oxytocin appears to affect individuals at an international level where the in-group becomes a specific "home" country and the out-group grows to include all other countries.
Hi Ben. Have a groin problem which I have had for years and it just won’t go away it’s not a hernia or osteitis pubis I had an MRI and the specialist said they wouldn’t operate. I can still play sport but I’m just less agile and slower than normal and it takes a few days for the groin pain to go away after sport. Would tb500 help to heal it or would bpc157 or something else be better? Thanks :)
It would have been interesting if Bartz had asked about *both* parents’ parenting styles. (Spoken by a guy writing a book on fathers.) It would have been easy enough; just add another question. Any differences between perceptions of mothers and fathers might have been illuminating. But, as in so much family research, fathers were once again ignored or excluded. (As if fathers don’t have parenting styles…)
The 10mg powder takes up about 5% of the bag it comes it, meaning you get a greater volume of the powder on your hand than in the spoon your using to find the powder at the bottom of the package. Since dosages are really small, I imagine most of the powder will be wasted. Also the 5-htp powder doesn't seem to dissolve or mix with liquids making it difficult to take. Other than the terrible packaging, the powder itself seems to be of good quality. Recommend it be repackaged in a bag 1/10th of the size, or alternatively, buy the capsules.
These proteins, which typically contain 2-4 repeats of the β-thymosin sequence, are found in all phyla of the animal kingdom, with the probable exception of sponges The sole mammalian example, a dimer in mice, is synthesised by transcriptional read-through between two copies of the mouse β15 gene, each of which is also transcribed separately. A uniquely multiple example is the protein thypedin of Hydra which has 27 repeats of a β-thymosin sequence.
I’m always interested in learning about better supplements for my health. I’ve heard a lot of good things about peptides, but this was the first time I’ve read about TB-500 in particular. It sounds like it can have a major impact on helping you recover from injuries, which is a huge deal in today’s world. I may need to look into it some more before actually buying it, but thank you so much for taking the time to explain it!
This sounds very promising and I have a question I’m sure you haven’t heard before. It’s regarding healing. I’m about 230 and avid lifter as well as running occasionally. But I’ve had severe injuries to my l3-s1 for years a d yes I’ve tried some stuff before as far as lifting. But when I was 2 I had encephalitis. I survived it back in 74 which most didn’t however the treatment had left me with migraines and seizures as a child and was told my adult teeth would be very weak when they grew in. So I’m 44 and most of my teeth have broken and I’ve been looking for alternatives to implants. You said both the products mentioned in this article would improve healing and I’ve heard stem cells are capable of regrowing teeth. Would this work for me and how or where would I inject it or maybe do a oral form and let it sit in my mouth for a bit? Never really thought about this but I’ve tried so many clinical trials and been turned down each time. Any info would be greatly appreciated thank you in advance.
Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein thymosin β4. They are found almost exclusively in multicellular animals. Thymosin β4 was originally obtained from the thymus in company with several other small proteins which although named collectively "thymosins" are now known to be structurally and genetically unrelated and present in many different animal tissues.
According to recent research, this hormone “is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug.”4
A: While it is possible there is an interaction, it most likely is not severe or life-threatening. Keep in mind that the "T" in HTP stands for tryptophane, which is an essential amino acid that your body processes routinely. The most common interaction involved with 5-HTP is with antidepressants or other medications that are intended to affect brain chemistry, as 5-HTP is converted into serotonin, an important brain chemical that helps regulate mood.
About ten years ago, psychology studies started to show that single doses of oxytocin, delivered through an intranasal spray, could promote various aspects of social behaviour in healthy adults. People who inhaled oxytocin before playing an investment game were more willing to entrust their money to a stranger than were placebo-treated players10. A dose of the hormone also increased the amount of time that people spent gazing at the eye region of faces11, and improved their ability to infer the emotional state of others from subtle expressions12.
Although Tβ4 contains only 43 amino acids, it appears to have a wide range of regenerative activities and specific sites on the molecule have been shown to mediate these effects (Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015; Sosne, Qiu, Goldstein, & Wheater, 2010). Both chemically synthesized and recombinant forms have shown efficacy for dermal healing in preclinical models and in human patients (Ehrlich & Hazard, 2012; Kim & Kwon, 2014, 2015; Malinda et al., 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Philp et al., 2006; Ti et al., 2015; Treadwell et al., 2012). A dimeric form has been found to accelerate the rate of dermal healing in an animal model more rapidly than that of the parent molecule (Xu et al., 2013). Tβ4 has also shown repair and regenerative activity in a number of other injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, a model of multiple sclerosis, ischemic limbs, and cardiac damage due to ischemia (Bock-Marquette, Saxena, White, Dimaio, & Srivastava, 2004; Cheng, Kuang, Zhang, Ju, & Wang, 2014; Dube, Bollini, Smart, & Riley, 2012; Morris, Chopp, Zhang, Lu, & Zhang, 2010; Morris et al., 2014; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Postrach et al., 2014; Smart et al., 2007; Sopko et al., 2011; Ti et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2012; Wei, Kim, Li, Wu, & Gupta, 2014; Xiong, Mahmood, Meng, et al., 2011; Zhang, Zhang, Morris, et al., 2009; Zuo et al., 2013). The processes and pathways for Tβ4-mediated repair are similar in these various tissues and support the observed promotion of dermal healing.
Tβ4 is a multifunctional regenerative small peptide containing 43-amino acids, and it is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells.21 Tβ4 has pro-survival and pro-angiogenic properties, protects tissue against damage, and promotes tissue regeneration.22,23 It also plays a key role in corneal, epidermal and cardiac wound healing.21 Tβ4 participates in axonal path-finding, neurite formation, cell proliferation, and neuronal survival.24-26 Our previous studies show that Tβ4 reduces inflammation and stimulates remyelination and improves functional recovery in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and stroke.25,27 In summary, these pleiotropic properties make Tβ4 an ideal candidate for treatment of TBI.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine (CYIQNCPLG). The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.
Research shows that co-administration with carbidopa greatly increases plasma 5-HTP levels. However, several studies have reported that 5-HTP is effective even without a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (e.g. carbidopa).[unreliable medical source?] Other studies have indicated the risk of a scleroderma-like condition resulting from the combination of 5-HTP and carbidopa.