Melanotan II is a synthetic hormone that speeds up the production of melanin, the pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and gives skin its colour. It was originally developed as a potential treatment for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but this research ceased in 2003. In technical terms, Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Today, there are numbers of sellers on the internet of unlicensed and untested powders sold as Melanotan II.
This mother-child bonding is the most glorified myth that is not re-thought as often as it should. Its apparant purpose is just to make a dangerously selfish mother (such frustrated mothers do exist a lot more than we read in the news) to think twice before harming her defenseless child which is oftentimes in her sole custody in our society. Acts of such mothers are branded as mental illness rather than plain cruelty. While most people (men and women alike) tend to protect, and not harm a child, the real bonding can happen beetween two independent, mature adults.
In 19 obese females given either placebo or 8mg/kg (weight not actually given, only BMI between 30-40 for women) daily for 5 weeks without any concurrent dietary recommendations, 5-HTP treatment was associated with a decrease in appetite and food intake (resulting in weight loss) without significantly affecting mood state.[9] This study noted that food intake was reduced from an average of 2,903kcal to 1,819kcal (62% of baseline) while placebo only reduced calories to 80%, and the 0.5kg weight loss in placebo was outperformed by a near 1.5kg loss in 5-HTP. These weight loss effects have been noted with 750mg 5-HTP over 2 weeks in overweight diabetics[10] and over 12 weeks in obese persons given 900mg 5-HTP daily (58% of baseline intake); this latter study had a 6 week trial without a diet (in which significant weight loss was only noted at week 6) followed up by coadministration with a diet where weight loss proceeded to reach an additional 3.3kg over the subsequent 6 weeks;[11] this latter study is duplicated in Medline.[12]
“The study was double-blinded and was for two consecutive 6-wk periods. No diet was prescribed during the first period, a 5040-kJ/d diet was recommended for the second. Significant weight loss was observed in 5-HTP-treated patients during both periods. A reduction in carbohydrate intake and a consistent presence of early satiety were also found. These findings together with the good tolerance observed suggest that 5-HTP may be safely used to treat obesity.”
Cells were incubated for 48 hours with the indicated times with 200 μM H2O2 (A) and the indicated concentrations of H2O2 (B) for 48 hours. The mRNA and protein expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a highly conserved, naturally occurring, water-soluble regenerative peptide that is found in all tissues and in all cell types, except red blood cells (Goldstein, Hannappel, Sosne, & Kleinman, 2012; Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015). It is also found in the blood and in other body fluids, including tears, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and wound fluids (Badamchian et al., 2007; Huang, Wang, Barnes, & Elmets, 2006; Mohring, Kellmann, Jurgens, & Schrader, 2005). Both platelets and leukocytes release Tβ4 into the wound fluid such that the final concentration is 13 μg/mL (Fromm, Gunne, Bergman, et al., 1996; Hannappel & van Kampen, 1987).
5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
Although maternal bonding may not always be hardwired — after all, human females can adopt babies and take care of them — oxytocin released during pregnancy "does seem to have a role in motivation and feelings of connectedness to a baby," Young said. Studies also show that interacting with a baby causes the infant's own oxytocin levels to increase, he added. 
It bears understanding that this type of peptide is not a treatment or cure for anything, nor should it be considered a preventative measure to skin cancer. While this tanning peptide is known to protect the skin through the natural tanning process, it is not in and of itself a foolproof UV shield, however it is an excellent way for those who don't tan otherwise to get rich golden tans without as much exposure to the sun.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay (A). Protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by RT-PCR (B) and Western blot analysis (C), respectively. The production of NO (D) and PGE2 (E) were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Data replicated the quantifications of cytotoxicity, NO, and PGE2 with the standard deviation of at least three experiments (n = 4). The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.

Kim found that when Americans who carry a particular version of the OXTR gene are more likely to turn to their friends for support when they are distressed. But Koreans react to social stress in a different way – for them, it’s less socially acceptable to turn to friends for support during tough times. And distressed Koreans who carry the same version of OXTR are less likely to seek support from their friends.
Some work has pointed to a potential dark side to oxytocin. Carter's group found that a single low dose of the hormone given to baby prairie voles improved their pair bonding as adults, but that higher doses interfered with that behaviour — possibly because oxytocin started to activate other receptors16. And human studies have suggested that in certain contexts, a puff of oxytocin can cause people to be more aggressive in defending themselves against outsiders or competitors17. In patients with a psychiatric condition known as borderline personality disorder, a single dose of oxytocin has been found to hinder trust and cooperation18.
“Further analysis by gender revealed that females in the 5-HTP group had a significantly lower panic rate and intensity of cognitive symptoms whereas, in males, the effect of 5-HTP was limited to lowering the intensity of somatic panic symptoms. Thus, an increased availability of 5-HT may have a gender-dependent protective effect in CCK-4-induced panic.”
Three groups of mice were individually placed in cages with aggressive mice and experienced social defeat, a stressful experience for them. One group was missing its oxytocin receptors, essentially the plug by which the hormone accesses brain cells. The lack of receptors means oxytocin couldn't enter the mice's brain cells. The second group had an increased number of receptors so their brain cells were flooded with the hormone. The third control group had a normal number of receptors.
Do I have to diet? Studies show that 5-HTP enhances weight loss even if you continue eating your normal foods. Without a diet, you stand to lose about a pound a week; many folks eventually drop 15 pounds or more without dieting. Of course, taking 5-HTP to lose weight works by lowering caloric intake — and the more calories you cut, the more you’ll lose. So if you want to maximize results, try tweaking your diet at the two-week mark, when 5-HTP will have fully kicked in, diminishing hunger and carb cravings. Below, we’ve got a version of the diet used in one university study that helped 5-HTP takers lose several times more weight than folks getting a placebo.
Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking: In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80%, but had no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants into which role they would be placed.[89] Serious methodological questions have arisen, however, with regard to the role of oxytocin in trust and generosity.[90] Empathy in healthy males has been shown to be increased after intranasal oxytocin[88][91] This is most likely due to the effect of oxytocin in enhancing eye gaze.[92] There is some discussion about which aspect of empathy oxytocin might alter – for example, cognitive vs. emotional empathy.[93] While studying wild chimpanzees, it was noted that after a chimpanzee shared food with a non-kin related chimpanzee, the subjects' levels of oxytocin increased, as measured through their urine. In comparison to other cooperative activities between chimpanzees that were monitored including grooming, food sharing generated higher levels of oxytocin. This comparatively higher level of oxytocin after food sharing parallels the increased level of oxytocin in nursing mothers, sharing nutrients with their kin.[94]
The cornea is the outer thin layer of epithelial cells protecting the eye. After wounding, timely resurfacing of the cornea with new cells is critical, to prevent loss of normal function and loss of vision. Corneal epithelial healing occurs in stages, with cells migrating, dividing and differentiating. Therapies for corneal injury are limited. Therefore, the recent finding that Tb4 promotes corneal wound repair in animal models offers hope for a therapeutic product that will improve the clinical outcome of patients with injured corneas.

Some differences in cardiac anatomy exist between mammals and teleosts. The zebrafish ventricle has a thin wall of compact muscle surrounding a much larger compartment of myofibers organized into elaborate trabeculae. It is intriguing that this structure is very similar to that of the embryonic mammalian ventricle prior to its septation and fusion of trabeculer myofibers into a thick, vascularized wall (Sedmera et al., 2000). That the mammalian heart has a more differentiated, contractile anatomy is apparent not only in gross cardiac structure, but also in cellular features. Teleost cardiomyocytes are 2–10 times smaller, mononucleated, have a greatly-reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum and lack the T-tubule system found in skeletal muscle and mammalian cardiac muscle (Farrell, 1992). One might speculate that the teleost heart is better designed for growth and regeneration, while the mammalian heart is better designed for sheer contractile force. Nevertheless, none of the mentioned differences between lower and higher vertebrate hearts preclude the idea that the mammalian heart could be stimulated to regenerate, especially if that regeneration is due to mobilization of a progenitor cell population.


Children: 5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses of up to 5 mg/kg daily have been used safely for up to 3 years in infants and children up to 12 years-old. As with adults, there is also concern about the potential for eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in children, a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia).
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