In some studies that record appetite suppression with 5-HTP supplementation, nausea appears to also be reported at higher freqencies than placebo, although some interventions note this as the only relevant side effect. Short term studies tend to note that nausea persists throughout the study period while those expanding beyond three weeks note that reports of nausea tend to decline at this time point.
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Noteworthy: Many online sources sell an ineffective product. Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
Do not fall for the easier methods of using MT-2, injections is the only proper way of using this peptide. Many Internet suppliers will sell things like nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptide, oral pills and powders, they simply don't work, if they did no one would use injections, right? There are a some positive reports of nasal spray experience, however its not very cost effective as peptide molecules in this form are large and difficult to pass the nasal membrance, there is some effect, but its minor comparable to injection route where absorption rate is 100%. Similarly, pills of this type are also quite useless because enzymes within the stomach will render the peptide inert.
Unlike previous studies, the trial will include people with a wide range of symptoms — and one of its major aims is to uncover the set of factors that influence whether and how strongly people respond to oxytocin. Sikich will analyse many measures of cognition and social functioning, and collect blood samples to look for biomarkers — such as levels of oxytocin and the receptor it binds to — that are associated with a response. “Lin has really been trying to create conditions under which you could study the potential beneficial effects of oxytocin and really do this right,” says Carter.
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.
In a study measuring oxytocin serum levels in women before and after sexual stimulation, the author suggests it serves an important role in sexual arousal. This study found genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm. Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal could be in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract stimulation as confirmed in other mammals. Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal with no acute increase at orgasm. A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue".
My wife has suffered from debilitating leg cramps for years, usually nocturnal. We have spent much money and time trying to find a cure, including every type of magnesium supplement we could find. Nothing has worked. We’ve also tried MSM and DMSO. Sometimes the cramps are in her calves, sometimes her thighs, sometimes her back and even her toes. Sometimes several muscles cramp at once. She has a high tolerance for pain, but these cramps leave her sobbing. I have purchased TB-500 and received it today. Does your research offer any hope that this could help eliminate her muscle spasms?
FGF-2 and VEGF enhance angiogenesis in chronic wounds (Greenalgh, 1996; Kirchner et al., 2003). Thymosin β-4 increases angiogenesis, consistent with its ability to induce epicardial cells to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells of coronary vessels (Chapter 7). L-arginine enhances angiogenesis in chronic wounds by enhancing the production of endothelial nitric oxide and improving blood flow (Shi et al., 2003). L-arginine also plays a role in the formation of proline, which is essential for the structure of collagen molecules. ChrysalinTM, a synthetic peptide representing the portion of human thrombin that binds to the surface of endothelial cells, doubled the incidence of complete healing of diabetic foot ulcers in human patients (Fife et al., 2007). Another molecule used to treat peripheral artery disease, pentoxifylline, was reported to improve blood flow in chronic wounds by reducing blood viscosity (Falanga et al., 1999).
Double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU (red, A) and NeuN (green, B) to identify newborn neurons (yellow after merge, C) in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus from rats examined 35 days after TBI. Micrographs (D) show location of DiI injection in the CA3 region (indicated by white asterisk). In the CA3 region, axons projected from granule neurons in the dentate gyrus will take up injected DiI to their cell bodies. Co-localization (merge, H) of BrdU-positive nuclei (green, F) within retrogradely DiI labeled (red, E) granule cells were examined at 35 days after TBI. Scale bar = 25 μm (C, H). Scale bar = 50 μm (D).
5-HTP, along with other L-Tryptophan supplements, have been implicated in the flu-like, potentially fatal Eosinophilic Myalgia Syndrome. This syndrome was initially tied to impurities - Amino Acids called "Peak E" and "Peak X" - which were present in these products because of poor manufacturing processes by a single major supplier. Some people reject this idea and believe that the syndrome is caused by an excess of tryptophan itself (10, 11).
During clinic trials for its use as a tanning agent, melanotan II was found to be a potent stimulator of male erections. A new drug based on melanotan II, bremelanotide, was developed to take advantage of this property. It has been noted across several studies to increase rigidity and duration of male erection, as well as male sexual desire. It has also been shown to increase female sexual desire in patients with sexual arousal disorder.
Although Tβ4 contains only 43 amino acids, it appears to have a wide range of regenerative activities and specific sites on the molecule have been shown to mediate these effects (Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015; Sosne, Qiu, Goldstein, & Wheater, 2010). Both chemically synthesized and recombinant forms have shown efficacy for dermal healing in preclinical models and in human patients (Ehrlich & Hazard, 2012; Kim & Kwon, 2014, 2015; Malinda et al., 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Philp et al., 2006; Ti et al., 2015; Treadwell et al., 2012). A dimeric form has been found to accelerate the rate of dermal healing in an animal model more rapidly than that of the parent molecule (Xu et al., 2013). Tβ4 has also shown repair and regenerative activity in a number of other injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, a model of multiple sclerosis, ischemic limbs, and cardiac damage due to ischemia (Bock-Marquette, Saxena, White, Dimaio, & Srivastava, 2004; Cheng, Kuang, Zhang, Ju, & Wang, 2014; Dube, Bollini, Smart, & Riley, 2012; Morris, Chopp, Zhang, Lu, & Zhang, 2010; Morris et al., 2014; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Postrach et al., 2014; Smart et al., 2007; Sopko et al., 2011; Ti et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2012; Wei, Kim, Li, Wu, & Gupta, 2014; Xiong, Mahmood, Meng, et al., 2011; Zhang, Zhang, Morris, et al., 2009; Zuo et al., 2013). The processes and pathways for Tβ4-mediated repair are similar in these various tissues and support the observed promotion of dermal healing.
Angiogenesis is an essential step in the repair process that occurs after injury. In this study, we investigated whether the angiogenic thymic peptide thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) enhanced wound healing in a rat full thickness wound model. Addition of Tbeta4 topically or intraperitoneally increased reepithelialization by 42% over saline controls at 4 d and by as much as 61% at 7 d post-wounding. Treated wounds also contracted at least 11% more than controls by day 7. Increased collagen deposition and angiogenesis were observed in the treated wounds. We also found that Tbeta4 stimulated keratinocyte migration in the Boyden chamber assay. After 4-5 h, migration was stimulated 2-3-fold over migration with medium alone when as little as 10 pg of Tbeta4 was added to the assay. These results suggest that Tbeta4 is a potent wound healing factor with multiple activities that may be useful in the clinic.
She recruited 31 men* and asked them to sniff either an oxytocin nasal spray or another spray with the same ingredients minus oxytocin – a placebo. A few weeks later, the sprays were swapped so that the men who took oxytocin now took the placebo, and vice versa. At the time, neither the scientists nor the volunteers knew which was which – that was only revealed after the experiment was over.
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
Maternal behavior: Female rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior. By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior toward foreign lambs upon cerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise. Oxytocin is involved in the initiation of maternal behavior, not its maintenance; for example, it is higher in mothers after they interact with unfamiliar children rather than their own.
Reconstituting tanning peptide is a part of the process required for use of the product and will require full attention to get proper results. 1 or 2ml sterile water is usually used, diluting with more water will improve dosing accuracy. Lovemelanotan peptide calculator is ideal tool for anyone just starting out and not sure how to reconstitute or dose the product properly.
Thymosin beta 4, developed by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals as a pharmaceutical for the healing of wounds, is a synthetic version of the natural peptide. As Dr. Allan Goldstein emphasizes, “Tb4 represents a new class of wound healing compounds. It is not a growth factor or cytokine, but rather exhibits a number of physiological properties which include the ability to sequester and regulate actin, its potent chemotactic properties. . . and its capability to downregulate a number of inflammatory cytokines that are present in chronic wounds.” When a wound heals there are many growth factors produced in the area so that additional factors, such as those currently on the market for wound healing, may help but are not necessarily lacking. Tb4 treatment, however, adds a new dimension to wound repair by providing cells with actin as needed, for cell migration, replication and differentiation.
The promise of repairing sun parched aging skin is alluring, especially if damage control may be attained by applying a substance that is abundant in our body. Thymosin beta 4 (Tb4), a molecule that accelerates wound healing in animals and cultured cells, "may be valuable in repairing skin damage caused by sun or even by the wear and tear of aging?" This hopeful message of Tb4's potential to restore damaged human skin was voiced at the 5th International Symposium on Aging Skin, in California (May 2001), by Dr. Allan Goldstein, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department at George Washington University and founder of RegeneRX Biopharmaceuticals. RegeneRX is carrying out preclinical research on Tb4 as a wound healer, in collaboration with scientists at the National Institutes of Health.
Bone loss associated with inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease, and osteoporosis, and elevated osteoclast activity leads to bone destruction . The most common osteolytic disease, periodontitis, is a multi-factorial irreversible and cumulative condition, initiated and propagated by bacteria and host factors . Destruction of peridontal tissue is mediated via the expression of various tissue-destructive enzymes or inflammatory mediators such as interleukins-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-8, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) . Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are critical for homeostatic control of osteoclast activity, suggesting that they have vital roles in the progression of bone loss in periodontitis [3, 4]. Therefore, resolution of inflammation and blocking osteoclast differentiation might be a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of osteolytic inflammatory disease, such as periodontitis .
Social behavior and wound healing: Oxytocin is also thought to modulate inflammation by decreasing certain cytokines. Thus, the increased release in oxytocin following positive social interactions has the potential to improve wound healing. A study by Marazziti and colleagues used heterosexual couples to investigate this possibility. They found increases in plasma oxytocin following a social interaction were correlated with faster wound healing. They hypothesized this was due to oxytocin reducing inflammation, thus allowing the wound to heal more quickly. This study provides preliminary evidence that positive social interactions may directly influence aspects of health. According to a study published in 2014, silencing of oxytocin receptor interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of female mice resulted in loss of social interest in male mice during the sexually receptive phase of the estrous cycle. Oxytocin evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security when in the company of the mate. This suggests oxytocin may be important for the inhibition of the brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear, and anxiety, thus allowing orgasm to occur. Research has also demonstrated that oxytocin can decrease anxiety and protect against stress, particularly in combination with social support. It is found, that endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward.
The full-length Tβ4 polypeptide has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation . It is also reported that only the 4-AA, amino-terminal peptide of Tβ4, known as Ac-SDKP, can block inflammation . In this study, we used a synthetically human peptide produced copy of a naturally occurring, highly conserved 43-amino acid (MW = 4964 Da) water soluble acidic peptide, originally isolated from bovine thymus tissue . This peptide is produced by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis in accordance with the current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations (21 CFR 210 and 211) of the FDA . An effective healer, Tβ4 can be administered topically on the surface of cells and systemically, through injection [9–11]. In this study, Tβ4 activation by Tβ4 peptide inhibited H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2, expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and mRNA expression of TNF- α, IL-1β, -6, -8, and -17 in cultured PDLCs. These findings suggested that Tβ4 activation possessed anti-inflammatory activity in PDLCs. These results were consistent with previous in vivo and in vitro studies [9–15]. MAPK is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase consisting of three-enzyme modules; its targets, inducing ERK, JNK and p38 kinases, are important in cellular signal transduction pathways and exert an anti-inflammatory response [48, 49]. NF-κB is a major transcription factor involved in the release of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response, and the degradation and phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα are necessary to release NF-κB from the cytoplasmic NF-κB/Iκ-Bα complex and allow its subsequent translocation to the nucleus of the cell . In this study, Tβ4 peptide down-regulated the H2O2-triggered activation of the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB in PDLCs. These results suggested that the ERK and JNK MAPKs and the NF-κB pathway may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation in PDLCs. Consistent with our findings, Tβ4 treatment decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human corneal epithelial cells .
It was also shown recently that delivery of Fgfs by release from peptide nanofibers, a gradual local delivery system, can increase neovascularization and reduce in-farct size in the ischemic rodent heart (Engel et al., 2006). Related to this, zebrafish have a natural ability to synthesize Fgfs after myocardial injury, a signal that appears to recruit Fgf receptor-expressing epicardial-derived cells toward regenerating muscle (Lepilina et al., 2006). Thus, what has been and what will be discovered about zebrafish heart regeneration is quite likely to illuminate possible strategies for enhancing regeneration in the mammalian heart (see Chapter 14.4).
Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.
Thymosin beta 4 accelerated skin wound healing in a rat model of a full thickness wound where the epithelial layer was destroyed. When Tb4 was applied topically to the wound or injected into the animal, epithelial layer restoration in the wound was increased 42% by day four and 61% by day seven, after treatment, compared to untreated. Furthermore, Tb4 stimulated collagen deposition in the wound and angiogenesis. Tb4 accelerated keratinocyte migration, resulting in the wound contracting by more than 11%, compared to untreated wounds, to close the skin gap in the wound. An analysis of skin sections (histological observations) showed that the Tb4 treated wounds healed faster than the untreated. Proof of accelerated cell migration was also seen in vitro, where Tb4 increased keratinocyte migration two to three fold, within four to five hours after treatment, compared to untreated keratinocytes.
The first dosage should be fairly small, as little as 0.3mg in order to gauge the reaction of the user's body. With increased dose first time user will deel warming ensation, flush in face and mild nausea, if these side effects occure dosage can be taken before going to bed, so any unpleasant effects take place while user is asleep. With regular use these side effects disapper and product can be taken at any tome of the day.
Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17) as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2 in PDLCs. Wnt5a inhibition by Wnt5a siRNA enhanced the effects of Tβ4 on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic cytokines as well as helping osteoclastic differentiation whereas Wnt5a activation by Wnt5a peptide reversed it.
As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis , we examined whether H2O2 could down-regulate or up-regulate Tβ4 expression in PDLCs. As shown in Fig 1A and 1B, Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated by H2O2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Because maximal Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were achieved with 200 μM H2O2 within 48 hours in PDLCs, this concentration was used in subsequent experiments.
In 20 persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal taking 5-HTP (5mg) alongside Glutamine (150mg) and D-Phenylalanine (300mg) and some minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium, it was noted that after 40 days of nutritional therapy (in a hospital setting) that all withdrawal symptoms assessed via SCL-90-R except for anxiety noted a greater reduction with nutritional support relative to placebo.
The product can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
MT 1 and MT 2 are synthetic analogues of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating peptide hormone Alpha-MSH. This hormone aids skin cells to produce greater quantities of Melanin. Therefore MT-1 and MT-2 mimic this hormone and encourage the production of more Melanin. Melanin is a dark pigment in the skin that can provide some protection from the UV rays of the sun.
For depression: Most commonly, 150-800 mg daily is taken for 2-6 weeks. These doses are sometimes divided up and administered as 50 mg to 100 mg three times a day. Sometimes the dose starts out low and steadily increases every 1-2 weeks until a target dose is reached. Less commonly, higher doses are used. In one study, the dose is steadily increased up to 3 grams per day.
5-HTP has been linked in very rare instances to a condition known as EMS, or eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, which combines extreme muscle tenderness with abnormalities in the blood. A contaminant that was found in some tryptophan supplements in the late 1980s, and was linked to a small number of EMS cases, was also found in some 5-HTP supplements. It’s important to talk with your doctor before you begin taking 5-HTP or any other supplement, and to make sure you’re getting your supplements from a reliable provider.