Hey I have used Tb 500 alot and can tell you injecting it in your fat around your stomach or in your large muscles near the injury is fine. I would never inject it into a wounded area because of possiblity of making the area worse by infection or trama from the needle. Dosage is tough I would say for a 200 pound person you need at least 5mg twice a week. Mixing it with GH releasing peptides seems to make it stronger as well. It’s definitely worth the month just finding legit stuff can be tricky.
Due to its molecular structure and low molecular weight, TB-500 is very versatile, mobile and possesses the ability to travel long distances through tissues. This means that when targeting injured areas (chronic or acute), TB-500 has the ability to circulate through the body and “find” those areas of injury in order to enhance the healing or growth process. Many users have also noted the added benefits of improved flexibility, reduced inflammation in tendons, re-growth of lost hair, and darkening of grayed hair.

Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.[48] Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.[49]
Showa Denko, the source of up to 60% of all the tryptophan sold in the United States, had used an untested manufacturing process that reduced the amount of activated charcoal used to filter fermented raw tryptophan. Some reports suggest that purity may be a potential problem for 5-HTP as well. No cases of EMS resulting from 5-HTP use have been reported, however.
These proteins, which typically contain 2-4 repeats of the β-thymosin sequence, are found in all phyla of the animal kingdom, with the probable exception of sponges[21] The sole mammalian example, a dimer in mice, is synthesised by transcriptional read-through between two copies of the mouse β15 gene, each of which is also transcribed separately.[22] A uniquely multiple example is the protein thypedin of Hydra which has 27 repeats of a β-thymosin sequence.[23]

Children: 5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses of up to 5 mg/kg daily have been used safely for up to 3 years in infants and children up to 12 years-old. As with adults, there is also concern about the potential for eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in children, a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia).
For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.
In conclusion, this study is the first study to demonstrate that down-regulation of Tβ4 was observed in an in vitro model of H2O2-stimulated PDLCs. Tβ4 activation had anti-inflammatory effects via MAPK and NF-κB pathways in PDLCs and anti-osteoclastogenic effects via MAPK, NF-κB, and Wnt5a pathways in BMMs. These findings supported the fact that Tβ4 peptide could possibly be used in the development of a therapeutic drug for periodontitis and osteolytic disease.
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.
Letdown reflex in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by sucking at the nipple. Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
In reality, SSRIs and 5-HTP aren't so different. Both affect serotonin. SSRIs work by blocking serotonin from being reabsorbed by nerve cells so more serotonin is available to help brain cells work efficiently. As a doctor would later tell me, 5-HTP, on the other hand, "provides your body with the tools to make more serotonin, as opposed to antidepressants, which are just working with the serotonin that you have already."
The hormone does not act alone. In 2013, neuroscientist Robert Malenka at Stanford University in California and his colleagues showed that oxytocin works together with the neurotransmitter serotonin to reduce the excitability of neurons in the nucleus accumbens9, a brain region involved in reward. This process seems to support the preference of mice to return to environments where they had rewarding social interactions with other animals. “Oxytocin is part of a system,” Carter says, “and it's not the only molecule that matters, but it's one that in some way is regulatory over a large number of other systems.”
The product can be of unknown quality and subject to contamination and stability concerns with use of multi-dose vials. There is no experience with the product other than through unregulated channels. There are health risks from the substance itself and its route of administration – documented in medical literature, case reports as well as reports from NSW PIC.
During the 2000s, the Melanotan II peptide and the metabolite derived from it, the erectile dysfunction-focused Bremelanotide (also known as PT-141), were patented and then licensed to biotechnology companies hoping to develop them into profitable prescription drugs. However, these companies also offer the peptides for direct sale to researchers. These transactions occupy a legal gray area, since the peptides are banned for human use outside clinical trials. While they can be purchased from various websites specializing in research chemicals, the purchaser usually has to affirm prior to final sale that the peptide "will not be used for human consumption" and is being acquired for "research purposes only."
Serotonin appears to be associated with panic attacks. Although studies that have used tryptophan depletion techniques in humans do not necessarily induce a panic attack[34][35][36] it appears it may sensitize the body by an increase in neurovegetative panic symptoms and increased anxiety[37] which suggests that serotonin is protective against panic attacks, at least acutely.[38][39] A study in 24 unmedicated panic disorder patients and normal participants given 200mg 5-HTP prior to a 35% CO2 test (used to induce a panic attack-like response) noted that the test was able to induce panic attack in both panic disorder patients and normal persons and that 200mg 5-HTP was protective in both conditions but to a greater degree in persons suffering from panic disorders.[40] This has been replicated with cholecystokinin-4 induced panic attack with 200mg 5-HTP in otherwise healthy persons.[41]
Although research has shown that good communication predicts relationship success, successful communication in couples therapy won’t ensure that partners stay together. The goal is to help the two people understand each other’s point of view and come to a mutual decision, even if it’s to break up. “If people are not connected at all, then oxytocin is not going to force that connection,” Guastella says.
I had tennis elbow on both arms for over 3 years now. Had one surgery on the R, countless PRPs, and a stem cell treatment on both but still to no avail. Pain on the L never eased up and I just had my 3rd PRP booster injections yesterday after having my stem cells 2 months ago. So can you tell me if BPC 157 or TB 500 better suits my situation. Many thanks!

Cells on the surface of the skin are constantly being replaced by regeneration from below. The repair of a wound is a scaling up of this normal process, with additional complex interactions among cells, formation of new blood vessels, collagen, more extensive cell division and cell migration, as well as strict control of inflammatory cells and the cytokines they release to resolve the inflammation.

Thymosin beta 4, developed by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals as a pharmaceutical for the healing of wounds, is a synthetic version of the natural peptide. As Dr. Allan Goldstein emphasizes, “Tb4 represents a new class of wound healing compounds. It is not a growth factor or cytokine, but rather exhibits a number of physiological properties which include the ability to sequester and regulate actin, its potent chemotactic properties. . . and its capability to downregulate a number of inflammatory cytokines that are present in chronic wounds.” When a wound heals there are many growth factors produced in the area so that additional factors, such as those currently on the market for wound healing, may help but are not necessarily lacking. Tb4 treatment, however, adds a new dimension to wound repair by providing cells with actin as needed, for cell migration, replication and differentiation.


To determine the direct effect of Tβ4 peptide on osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were directly exposed to Tβ4 peptide. Direct treatment with Tβ4 peptide also reduced the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells and TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 7A and 7B). Since Tβ4 downregulated H2O2-induced various cytokines expression, the indirect effect of Tβ4 on osteoclast formation through PDLC cells using co-culture system were investigated. After addition of Tβ4 peptide to the BMMs-PDLCs co-culture, the number of osteoclast and TRAP activity were also significantly decreased (Fig 7C and 7D).
Oxytocin is a versatile actor, whose resume includes all sorts of jobs in sex, reproduction, social behaviour and emotions.  It can increase trust among people and make them more cooperative (this works in meerkats, too). It can increase the social skills of autistic people. It’s released during orgasm. It affects lactating breasts, contracting wombs and the behaviour of sheep mothers towards their newly born lambs. The list goes on: drug addiction, generosity, depression, empathy, learning, memory.
These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
Exogenous Tβ4 can function like a hormone on cells in terms of its ability to modulate their biological behavior. Since one of the primary roles of Tβ4 in cells is the sequestration of actin monomers, and the protein is not secreted, previously indicated that it was unlikely that Tβ4 could have a hormonal function [42]. However, other studies have shown that the intracellular level of Tβ4 or its mRNA can be significantly and rapidly altered by external stimuli and that change in the level of Tβ4 often are correlated with cell differentiation [18, 43]. In the present study, exogenous Tβ4 peptide activate intracellular Tβ4, which results suggested that exogenous Tβ4 spontaneously enter the cytoplasm through rapid internalization, and acts their functions same as endogenous one [8, 18].
Touting their discovery as “a great step forward in weight loss history,” the panel were quick to offer up their hard earned cash to back the entrepreneurial pair. “We were shocked. The most we were hoping for was some advice…we weren’t even sure that we would manage to get any investors,” explained Samantha. After outstanding offers from each panel member, the sisters burst into tears.
A: 5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is sold as a dietary supplement for "anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches and other conditions." Because dietary supplements (e.g., 5-HTP) have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. However, 5-HTP does interact with prescription antidepressants, taking them together can lead to serotonin syndrome which is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. 5-HTP has not been proven safe or effective for the treatment of depression or bipolar disorder. There are many prescription medications that have been proven safe and effective for these conditions. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. Laura Cable, Pharm.D., BCPS
Trust is increased by oxytocin.[95][96][97] Disclosure of emotional events is a sign of trust in humans. When recounting a negative event, humans who receive intranasal oxytocin share more emotional details and stories with more emotional significance.[96] Humans also find faces more trustworthy after receiving intranasal oxytocin. In a study, participants who received intranasal oxytocin viewed photographs of human faces with neutral expressions and found them to be more trustworthy than those who did not receive oxytocin.[95] This may be because oxytocin reduces the fear of social betrayal in humans.[98] Even after experiencing social alienation by being excluded from a conversation, humans who received oxytocin scored higher in trust on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.[97] Moreover, in a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk aversion.[99] When there is a reason to be distrustful, such as experiencing betrayal, differing reactions are associated with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) differences. Those with the CT haplotype experience a stronger reaction, in the form of anger, to betrayal.[100]

What we noticed was that all the rats that had received oxytocin straight into their brain immediately prior to being given alcohol, were up and moving about and seemed to be completely sober. Whereas all of the rats that had just been given the alcohol were, as we would predict from the dose that we were giving them, quite drunk. And so we thought, 'Wow, what's going on here?' It was almost as though the oxytocin was blocking the intoxicating effects of the alcohol.


Wonderful column. My expertise is the psychology of risk perception, and I have done some reading on oxytocin and trust (not the kind you want to boost in a bar with Liquid Trust – you can the stuff with pheromones – to boost THAT kind of trust). It turns out there is a high concentration of oxytocin receptors on the amygdala, the area of the brain where fear starts. As oxytocin levels go up, the ability of the amygdala to be warry and more mistrustful goes down. I describe this in Ch. 3 of How Risky Is It, Really? Why Our Fears Don’t Always Match the Facts. A few graphs of which are below. I wonder whether the influence of oxytocin on the amygdala might be connected with the finding of the study you write about.

The reality is that people are always going to self-medicate. Boots, Amazon and H&B all sell 5-HTP, and in theory you could keep buying it and taking it for as long as you like. But it's important to know the facts. It shouldn't be used in conjunction with an SSRI, for example. In that situation, if the body is preventing serotonin breakdown while also getting extra serotonin, which leads to seriously unhealthy levels of serotonin activity.
Although Tβ4 contains only 43 amino acids, it appears to have a wide range of regenerative activities and specific sites on the molecule have been shown to mediate these effects (Goldstein & Kleinman, 2015; Sosne, Qiu, Goldstein, & Wheater, 2010). Both chemically synthesized and recombinant forms have shown efficacy for dermal healing in preclinical models and in human patients (Ehrlich & Hazard, 2012; Kim & Kwon, 2014, 2015; Malinda et al., 1999; Philp, Badamchian, et al., 2003; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Philp et al., 2006; Ti et al., 2015; Treadwell et al., 2012). A dimeric form has been found to accelerate the rate of dermal healing in an animal model more rapidly than that of the parent molecule (Xu et al., 2013). Tβ4 has also shown repair and regenerative activity in a number of other injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, a model of multiple sclerosis, ischemic limbs, and cardiac damage due to ischemia (Bock-Marquette, Saxena, White, Dimaio, & Srivastava, 2004; Cheng, Kuang, Zhang, Ju, & Wang, 2014; Dube, Bollini, Smart, & Riley, 2012; Morris, Chopp, Zhang, Lu, & Zhang, 2010; Morris et al., 2014; Philp & Kleinman, 2010; Postrach et al., 2014; Smart et al., 2007; Sopko et al., 2011; Ti et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2012; Wei, Kim, Li, Wu, & Gupta, 2014; Xiong, Mahmood, Meng, et al., 2011; Zhang, Zhang, Morris, et al., 2009; Zuo et al., 2013). The processes and pathways for Tβ4-mediated repair are similar in these various tissues and support the observed promotion of dermal healing.

These results were in agreement with previous studies that showed Wnt5a expression can be induced in activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) after inflammatory stimulation [58, 59]. In addition, we found that the effects of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17), the expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), osteoclastogenic cytokines (cathepsin-K, calcitonin receptor or Calcr, NFATc1, and RANK), and osteoclastic differentiation, were reversed by exogenous treatment with Wnt5a siRNA but enhanced by rh-Wnt5a, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenetic effects of Tβ4 activation were involved the Wnt5a-dependent signaling pathway. Similar to our results, Wnt5a knock-down markedly reduced cytokine/chemokine production induced by TNF in HDPCs [60].
A: 5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is sold as a dietary supplement for "anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches and other conditions." Because dietary supplements (e.g., 5-HTP) have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. However, 5-HTP does interact with prescription antidepressants, taking them together can lead to serotonin syndrome which is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Also, because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, or safety. 5-HTP has not been proven safe or effective for the treatment of depression or bipolar disorder. There are many prescription medications that have been proven safe and effective for these conditions. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider. Laura Cable, Pharm.D., BCPS

“This is a very ancient molecule,” says Sue Carter, a neuroscientist at Indiana University in Bloomington, whose lab pioneered many of the early studies of oxytocin in voles. “It has been used and reused for many purposes across the evolution of modern animals, and almost everybody who's tried to look at an effect of oxytocin on anything like social behaviour has found something.”


To investigate the effect of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-induced signaling cascades, the activation states of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) as well as NF-κB p65 were examined in PDLCs. H2O2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK MAPK(s) and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (Fig 5A). Treatment of cells with Tβ4 peptide blocked H2O2-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of ERK and JNK (Fig 5B).
Cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described in bipolar disorders… Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan; 5-HT) is possibly involved in these cognitive processes, more particularly in executive functions, learning, memory, and attention. The aim of this study was to investigate serotonergic vulnerability and its relation to cognitive functioning in healthy first-degree relatives of [bipolar disorders] patients…
It has been shown that oxytocin differentially affects males and females. Females who are administered oxytocin are overall faster in responding to socially relevant stimuli than males who received oxytocin.[75][86] Additionally, after the administration of oxytocin, females show increased amygdala activity in response to threatening scenes; however, males do not show increased amygdala activation. This phenomenon can be explained by looking at the role of gonadal hormones, specifically estrogen, which modulate the enhanced threat processing seen in females. Estrogen has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus and promote receptor binding in the amygdala.[86]
To identify newborn neurons, double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU/NeuN (mature neuronal marker) was performed (Fig.1). TBI alone significantly increased the number of newborn neurons (NeuN/BrdU-colabeled cells) in the DG of injured hemisphere. Tβ4 treatment significantly further increased the number of newborn neurons compared to saline controls. These data suggest that Tβ4 administration initiated 24 hours after TBI promotes neurogenesis in rats.
But returning hunters also need to share meat with their families and friends; this is where oxytocin comes into play. It can help overcome the potentially negative social effects of testosterone. Men who were absent for longer seem to need more oxytocin to reconnect with their families; it seems that absence does indeed make the heart grow fonder, via an oxytocin blast.
However, as I’ve said elsewhere, depression is kind of like a check engine light on car, it’s a quiet ambiguous sign that something is not working somewhere in your neurobiology. There is literally dozens (perhaps hundreds) of different ways to attempt to treat depression. Amongst the vast number of options for treating depression, there is a couple of low hanging fruits; things you would want to start with before moving onto more radical options, like…

Outside the brain, oxytocin-containing cells have been identified in several diverse tissues, including in females in the corpus luteum[34][35] and the placenta;[36] in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig;[37] and in both sexes in the retina,[38] the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues.
How not surprising on one level that a hormone involved in the formation of primary bonds, those that can have serious impacts on your survival, would be discerning. After all, if you had a mother who was dangerous, abusive, etc., how counter productive would it be for you to bond so tightly to her that you were all over her all the time, increasing your chances of pissing her off and killing you. And, how beneficial for you to be more bonded to a mother figure who was good to you, and provided you with nurture.
A study published last year in Biological Psychiatry was the first to assess whether people with variations in their oxytocin-receptor gene have a harder time maintaining romantic relationships than those who don’t. Hasse Walum, a graduate student at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and his colleagues took advantage of Swedish twin studies that included thousands of participants, their genetic information and their answers to questions about how affectionate they were with their romantic partners. They found that women with a specific variation weren’t as close to their partners as women without it: they kissed their partners less and didn’t desire physical proximity as often. These women were also more likely to report having had a marital crisis. Although researchers don’t know exactly how this variation affects the oxytocin system, it may result in a lower number of oxytocin receptors in the brain. People with fewer receptors would be less sensitive to the hormone’s effects.

Hi Jesse, while I cant make specific sarms recommendations as it would be teetering on giving medical advice, I have a ton of resources on this on BenGreenfieldFitness.com that you can easily search through. There is also a lot of invaluable discussion on sarms going on in the comments sections of these articles. The Kion Community is also a great place to ask a question like this: https://Facebook.com/groups/GetKion
The combination of supplemental 5-HTP and a dopamine decarboxylase inhibitor is also thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular complications, as excess serum (but not neural) serotonin is associated with heart valve disease in rats.[56] Due to the accumulation of 5-HTP in neural tissue following the combination[54] it is plausible to assume a reduction in systemic serotonin; this has not been demonstrated yet, however.
These proteins became of interest in neurobiology with the finding that in the nudibranch (sea slug) Hermissenda crassicornis, the protein Csp24 (conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein-24), with 4 repeats, is involved in simple forms of learning: both one-trial enhancement of the excitability of sensory neurons in the conditioned stimulus pathway,[25] and in multi-trial Pavlovian conditioning.[26] The phosphorylation of Csp24, in common with post-translational modifications of a number of cytoskeleton-related proteins may contribute to actin-filament dynamics underlying structural remodeling of responsive cells.[26]
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“Ultimately you’re body is going to down-regulate the enzymes needed to convert the tyrosine/l-phenylalanine into dopamine and norepinephrine; this also counts for 5 -htp being converted into serotonin. As far as I’m aware when simply supplementing amino acids to improve neurotransmitter prevalence in the brain, tolerance will build very rapidly within a one week to two week period (from personal experience). Not saying it’s not viable to help out with mood when used sparingly, just saying there’s most likely better ways for continued treatment.”
There have been encouraging results for the use of Tβ4 as a topical gel to treat venous stasis ulcers, a type of wound that develops on the lower leg of patients with chronic vascular disease. Two other reports indicated that Tβ4, formulated in eye-drops, may enhance corneal wound healing in diabetic patients, and improve ocular discomfort. These are the most advanced trials to date. As of yet, despite promising animal models, there has been no significant study exploring the efficacy of intravenous Tβ4 injections in treating ischemic heart injury.
Letdown reflex in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by sucking at the nipple. Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
Though it may be unlikely to form part of any official psychiatric programme in the UK, Phil Cowen, Professor of Psychopharmacology at Oxford University, admitted that there are various groups for whom it could be helpful. "About half of people with severe depression never see a doctor anyway, so it's reasonable to think it's fine for them to treat themselves with something like a supplement. Perhaps if you had mild symptoms, a smaller dose would be helpful. I'd also prefer to prescribe things like exercise or computer-based CBT if it's that stage, though. But depression and anxiety is very different between people, that's important to keep in mind. No treatment is the same for anyone."
Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
You can browse Drugs A-Z for a specific prescription or over-the-counter drug or look up drugs based on your specific condition. This information is for educational purposes only, and not meant to provide medical advice, treatment, or diagnosis. Remember to always consult your physician or health care provider before starting, stopping, or altering a treatment or health care regimen.
TBI patients frequently suffer from long-term deficits in cognitive and motor performance. No single animal model can adequately mimic all aspects of human TBI owing to the heterogeneity of clinical TBI.11 Some features of cognitive and motor function in humans have been successfully demonstrated in experimental brain trauma models.28-30 The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model is one of the most widely used TBI models. The CCI-TBI model has many clinically relevant features in that CCI causes not only cortical damage but also selective neuronal death in the hippocampus in rodents, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction and spatial learning and memory deficits, respectively.18,31-33
For depression: Most commonly, 150-800 mg daily is taken for 2-6 weeks. These doses are sometimes divided up and administered as 50 mg to 100 mg three times a day. Sometimes the dose starts out low and steadily increases every 1-2 weeks until a target dose is reached. Less commonly, higher doses are used. In one study, the dose is steadily increased up to 3 grams per day.
Oxytocin is a versatile actor, whose resume includes all sorts of jobs in sex, reproduction, social behaviour and emotions.  It can increase trust among people and make them more cooperative (this works in meerkats, too). It can increase the social skills of autistic people. It’s released during orgasm. It affects lactating breasts, contracting wombs and the behaviour of sheep mothers towards their newly born lambs. The list goes on: drug addiction, generosity, depression, empathy, learning, memory.
It’s a compound that the body needs in order to make serotonin, which is our main “happiness hormone.” Per Dr. Oz, 5-HTP floods the brain with serotonin and helps minimize stress, sadness, anger, and anxiety. “5-HTP targets specific emotions that drive us to overeat,” Dr. Bhatia explains. And as she already mentioned, 5-HTP also reduces physical hunger pangs and emotional cravings. Ideally, the body makes its own 5-HTP from the amino acid tryptophan, found in foods like turkey and bananas. (Why not just eat more turkey or take a tryptophan supplement? If you struggle with mood or weight, it can be a sign that your body has trouble converting tryptophan to 5-HTP.) Besides making it yourself, the only other way to get 5-HTP is from a supplement. One we like is the BRI 5-HTP Supplement ($16 for 120 capules, Amazon).

Robert Love, a urologist in Dallas, understands why there is such back-channel demand for a product like Melanotan II. "People sometimes want to handle performance issues on their own, without a physician involved, either because they are embarrassed or because they may be uninsured or lack adequate insurance," he told Motherboard. "Handling things this way is not advisable. We have prescription drugs that address erectile dysfunction issues. And although this isn't my area, there are alternative ways of getting suntans—tanning beds, spray tans—though of course extended outdoor sun exposure should be avoided if possible."
Research in the early 1960s showed that in rats, administration of α-MSH caused sexual arousal, and work on this continued in many labs up through the 1980s, when scientists at University of Arizona began attempting to develop α-MSH and analogs as potential sunless tanning agents, and synthesized and tested several analogs, including melanotan-I and melanotan II.[6][9]
Skin is the largest organ of the body, which makes up 16% of total body weight. It is also the largest organ that provides immune protection and plays a role in inflammation. Composed of specialized epithelial and connective tissue cells, skin is our major interface with the environment, a shield from the outside world and a means of interacting with it. As such, the skin is subjected to insults and injuries: burns from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation that elicit inflammatory reactions, damage from environmental pollutants and wear and tear that comes with aging.
“Further analysis by gender revealed that females in the 5-HTP group had a significantly lower panic rate and intensity of cognitive symptoms whereas, in males, the effect of 5-HTP was limited to lowering the intensity of somatic panic symptoms. Thus, an increased availability of 5-HT may have a gender-dependent protective effect in CCK-4-induced panic.”
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