The combination of supplemental 5-HTP and a dopamine decarboxylase inhibitor is also thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular complications, as excess serum (but not neural) serotonin is associated with heart valve disease in rats.[56] Due to the accumulation of 5-HTP in neural tissue following the combination[54] it is plausible to assume a reduction in systemic serotonin; this has not been demonstrated yet, however.
The need to balance hunting pride and social obligations, and the necessity to reconnect with a family that depends on their provisioning were likely experienced by men throughout much of human evolutionary history. Oxytocin is found in all mammals and originated in the mother-infant bond, where it helps with childbirth, nursing and bonding. In some species, this existing hormonal mechanism could then be harnessed for novel contexts – for instance, men investing in pair-bonding and family provisioning, which is rare among mammals.

Oxytocin production is controlled by a positive feedback mechanism. This mechanism allows the release of the oxytocin hormone when a trigger occurs. The hormone then causes an action in the body, such as the letdown of milk or the start of labor contractions, which signals more production of oxytocin. The feedback cycle continues until the action, such as childbirth or feeding the baby, is complete.

Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of ROS and plays a key role in the progression of periodontal diseases [24]. Damage of tissues in inflammatory periodontal disease can be mediated by ROS resulting from the physiological activity of PMN during the phagocytosis of periodontopathic bacteria [27]. In addition, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as hypoxia induces a NOX4-dependent increase in H2O2 release in PDLCs [28]. Furthermore, ROS such as H2O2 are small, diffusible, and ubiquitous molecules, can affect human PDLCs and gingival fibroblasts cell injury indirectly by enhancing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, NO, PGE2, and ROS [29–31]. This ROS is known to stimulate osteoclast differentiation and participate in early signaling events associated with osteoclast activation for bone resorption [32]. Since LPS from P. gingivalis increases oxidative stress in PDLCs and contributes to periodontitis [28], human PDLCs treated with H2O2 may serve as an in vitro model relevant to periodontitis.
Members agreed that the relevant matters under Section 52E(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 included: (a) risks and benefits of the use of a substance; (b) the purpose for which a substance is to be used and the and extent of use; (c) the toxicity of a substance; (d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; (e) the potential for abuse of a substance; and (f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
Robert Love, a urologist in Dallas, understands why there is such back-channel demand for a product like Melanotan II. "People sometimes want to handle performance issues on their own, without a physician involved, either because they are embarrassed or because they may be uninsured or lack adequate insurance," he told Motherboard. "Handling things this way is not advisable. We have prescription drugs that address erectile dysfunction issues. And although this isn't my area, there are alternative ways of getting suntans—tanning beds, spray tans—though of course extended outdoor sun exposure should be avoided if possible."
Both the production of oxytocin and response to oxytocin are modulated by circulating levels of sex steroids. The burst of oxytocin released at birth seems to be triggered in part by cervical and vaginal stimulation by the fetus, but also because of abruptly declining concentrations of progesterone. Another well-studied effect of steroid hormones is the marked increase in synthesis of uterine (myometrial) oxytocin receptors late in gestation, resulting from increasing concentrations of circulating estrogen.

To untangle the ways different hormones together influence behavior in more naturalistic contexts, we worked with the Tsimane people in Bolivia. Traditional societies like the Tsimane are not living relics of the past, but their lifeways – small, tight-knit communities that produce their own food – can reveal the kinds of situations our hormone systems are well adapted to.
Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
The uterine-contracting properties of the principle that would later be named oxytocin were discovered by British pharmacologist Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1906,[125][46] and its milk ejection property was described by Ott and Scott in 1910[126] and by Schafer and Mackenzie in 1911.[127] In the 1920s, oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated from pituitary tissue and given their current names. The word oxytocin was coined from the term oxytocic, Greek ὀξύς, oxys, and τοκετός , toketos, meaning "quick birth".
Injection is the most effective way to administrate the peptide and results are seen the fastest and best. The nasal spray method is effective up to 30 – 40% because the nasal passages have poor absorption rate, you have to apply the nasal spray at least two to three times more than the injection. The injectable product of the Melanotan is very superior as compared to the nasal version. The nasal versions generally take four to five weeks for displaying the results appose to 10 days with the injection.
This is a great product, I have been having digestive problems after 13 major surgeries and suffering from Crohn's Disease my whole life. Currently I can only tolerate a liquid diet. Was very depressed, found this and started taking it and it has made a HUGE difference to my life. Only have very mild depression symptoms now, and sleep better at night. Bought the powder to get the dose right, looks like 100mg suits my 50 kg frame. Only bad thing is the packaging. The 10 grams of powder is lost in the large packet, very hard to get it out and measure the same dose every night. I purchased miniature measuring spoons from ebay and they make life much easier. Sort out the correct spoon for your dosage with the scales then off you go. Can be tricky getting it in and out of the bag, often get powder everywhere, but usually just lick it off. A pill container would work much better for this power.

So far, few studies have definitively linked autism to problems in oxytocin signalling. Some of the clearest evidence emerged in February, from a team led by neurogeneticist Daniel Geschwind of the University of California, Los Angeles. The group showed that mice that lacked a working copy of the Cntnap2 gene — which has been implicated in a small subset of human autism cases — had fewer oxytocin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus and socialized less with other mice than did control mice15. After receiving doses of oxytocin every day for two weeks, the mice behaved normally again. “Until this, there was no evidence that there was a subtype of autism that had to do with oxytocin deficits,” Geschwind says.
I’m always interested in learning about better supplements for my health. I’ve heard a lot of good things about peptides, but this was the first time I’ve read about TB-500 in particular. It sounds like it can have a major impact on helping you recover from injuries, which is a huge deal in today’s world. I may need to look into it some more before actually buying it, but thank you so much for taking the time to explain it!
In 19 obese females given either placebo or 8mg/kg (weight not actually given, only BMI between 30-40 for women) daily for 5 weeks without any concurrent dietary recommendations, 5-HTP treatment was associated with a decrease in appetite and food intake (resulting in weight loss) without significantly affecting mood state.[9] This study noted that food intake was reduced from an average of 2,903kcal to 1,819kcal (62% of baseline) while placebo only reduced calories to 80%, and the 0.5kg weight loss in placebo was outperformed by a near 1.5kg loss in 5-HTP. These weight loss effects have been noted with 750mg 5-HTP over 2 weeks in overweight diabetics[10] and over 12 weeks in obese persons given 900mg 5-HTP daily (58% of baseline intake); this latter study had a 6 week trial without a diet (in which significant weight loss was only noted at week 6) followed up by coadministration with a diet where weight loss proceeded to reach an additional 3.3kg over the subsequent 6 weeks;[11] this latter study is duplicated in Medline.[12]

James Bates* who recently started taking it for panic attacks, said, "A friend who had anxiety recommended 5-HTP to me. I used to take beta-blockers and Valium but the doctors have got funny about giving them to me. I needed an alternative and didn't fancy getting back on Prozac. I've only been taking the supplements for a month but so far, it's helped a lot. I've only had two panic attacks, whereas usually I'd have four or five."
A critical step in wound healing is angiogenesis. New vessels are needed to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cells involved in repair, to remove toxic materials and debris of dead cells and generate optimal conditions for new tissue formation. Another important step is the directional migration of cells into the injured area, joining up to repair the wound. This requires an attractant that will direct the cells to the wound and propel them to the site. These critical steps in wound healing are regulated by beta 4, as seen in the following experiments.
In addition to angiogenesis and neurogenesis, cell- and pharmacologically based therapies substantially remodel white matter in the ischemic brain. Treatment of experimental stroke with MCSs, rhEPO, or sildenafil significantly increases axonal density encapsulating the ischemic lesion. Dynamic changes of white matter structure along the ischemic boundary have been imaged in living animals by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements. Data from these MRI indices demonstrate that administration of rhEPO or sildenafil augments axonal remodeling and angiogenesis and that both of them are spatially and temporally correlated. Administration of MSCs, rhEPO, and thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) dramatically increases the number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, the striatum, and the V/SVZ of the ischemic hemisphere and mature oligodendrocytes in the ischemic boundary adjacent to myelinated axons. These findings suggest that cell- and pharmacologically based therapies promote generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the ischemic brain that migrate to target axons, where they extend their processes myelinating the axons.

Jump up ^ Venkatesh B, Si-Hoe SL, Murphy D, Brenner S (November 1997). "Transgenic rats reveal functional conservation of regulatory controls between the Fugu isotocin and rat oxytocin genes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (23): 12462–6. Bibcode:1997PNAS...9412462V. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.23.12462. PMC 25001. PMID 9356472.
In some studies that record appetite suppression with 5-HTP supplementation, nausea appears to also be reported at higher freqencies than placebo,[9] although some interventions note this as the only relevant side effect.[10] Short term studies tend to note that nausea persists throughout the study period[10] while those expanding beyond three weeks note that reports of nausea tend to decline at this time point.[9]
But returning hunters also need to share meat with their families and friends; this is where oxytocin comes into play. It can help overcome the potentially negative social effects of testosterone. Men who were absent for longer seem to need more oxytocin to reconnect with their families; it seems that absence does indeed make the heart grow fonder, via an oxytocin blast.

As shown in Figure 1, thymic hormones also modulate the production of hypothalamus pituitary hormones and neuropeptides. Initial experiments revealed that neonatal thymectomy promotes a decrease in the number of secretory granules in acidophic cells of the adenopituitary [44]. In the same vein, athymic nude mice display low levels of various pituitary hormones, such as PRL, GH, LH and FSH [45]. With regard to thymic peptides, thymosin beta-4, when perfused intraventricularly, stimulates LH and LHRH secretion [46]. Similar results were obtained with another thymic peptide, thymulin, in perfused or fragmented pituitary preparations [47]. The administration of thymopoietin (another chemically-defined thymic hormone) in children with Hodgkin’s disease increased GH and cortisol serum levels [48]. Moreover, thymopentin (the synthetic biologically active peptide of thymopoietin) enhances in vitro the production of ACTH and beta-endorphin [49]. In addition, thymulin exhibits an in vitro stimulatory effect on perfused rat pituitaries, enhancing PRL, GH, TSH and LH release [50]. Using short-term cultures of pituitary fragments, an increase in ACTH secretion occurs after in vitro thymulin addition, with no changes in GH levels and significant reductions in PRL release [47]. A further thymosin peptide was recently isolated with the task in stimulating IL-6 release from rat glioma cells [51]. By contrast, thymosin alpha-1 is apparently able to down regulate TSH, ACTH and PRL secretion in vivo with no modifications on GH levels [52]. These inhibitory effects seem to occur through hypothalamic pathways. Indeed, the production of the corresponding releasing hormones by hypothalamic neurones decreased after in vitro addition of thymosin alpha-1 in medial basal hypothalamic fragments [52].
But this isn’t the only study to show the subtle side of oxytocin. Just three months ago, I wrote about research from Heejung Kim at the University of California, which showed how oxytocin’s effects vary across different cultures. To fulfil its many roles, oxytocin has to dock at a protein called the ‘oxytocin receptor’, encoded by a gene called OXTR.
I bought 200mg "double strength" tablets off Amazon. Immediately after taking them, I felt slightly better. After a week of taking one of these with my breakfast, I could easily get through a working day without being too panicked to concentrate on a screen. I still woke up with 'the fear' but it was lessened. Better yet, there seemed to be no notable side effects. I started recommending it to all my friends with mild depression or anxiety. I was in love.
Advice & Tips: 5-HTP is a serotonin precursor. Serotonin is well-known as a hormone that affects one's mood in a positive way, but it is probably less-well known that it increases intestinal motility. It has worked magic for my symptoms. I am completely regular now, and the majority of my days are good days, whereas before I began taking it the majority of my days were bad days that began with symptoms of constipation and intestinal pain or discomfort. For me, at least, this is not a prescription. I began taking 5-HTP after my fiancee'--who had already been taking it to help her mood and, primarily, her difficulty sleeping through the night--learned it can be helpful when taken for gastrointestinal motility, and I began taking it myself shortly after that (and felt its effects almost immediately). Although not entirely unexpected, my slightly enhanced good moods are a nice side benefit of taking the supplement. I do get some very mild undesirable side effects, especially during mid-day when I take twice my morning and evening dose of 100 mg. Sometimes my face feels hot and flushes fairly noticeably--and this may be intensified with eating--but those symptoms subside within probably 30 minutes or less.
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[13] In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.
My wife has suffered from debilitating leg cramps for years, usually nocturnal. We have spent much money and time trying to find a cure, including every type of magnesium supplement we could find. Nothing has worked. We’ve also tried MSM and DMSO. Sometimes the cramps are in her calves, sometimes her thighs, sometimes her back and even her toes. Sometimes several muscles cramp at once. She has a high tolerance for pain, but these cramps leave her sobbing. I have purchased TB-500 and received it today. Does your research offer any hope that this could help eliminate her muscle spasms?
What we noticed was that all the rats that had received oxytocin straight into their brain immediately prior to being given alcohol, were up and moving about and seemed to be completely sober. Whereas all of the rats that had just been given the alcohol were, as we would predict from the dose that we were giving them, quite drunk. And so we thought, 'Wow, what's going on here?' It was almost as though the oxytocin was blocking the intoxicating effects of the alcohol.
Oral 5-HTP results in an increase in urinary 5-HIAA, a serotonin metabolite, indicating that 5-HTP is peripherally metabolized to serotonin, which is then metabolized. This might cause a false positive test in tests looking for carcinoid syndrome.[28][29] Due to the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin by the liver, there could be a risk of heart valve disease from serotonin's effect on the heart, as based on preclinical findings.[30][31] However, 5-HTP has not been associated with cardiac toxicity in humans.[22][32][33][34]
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