In January 1955, adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was included in the very first Poisons Schedules. It was included in Schedule 4, Part A, which is equivalent to the current Schedule 4 of the Poisons Standard. Provisions for a repeated script must be authorised by an authorised prescriber, including general practitioners, veterinarian or dentist (if required for the purposes of the dental profession or are permitted to be prescribed by a dentist).
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.
Suggested doses vary depending on the source – some sellers will encourage higher use! One site suggests starting with a dose of 0.25mg. If side-effects (see above) are not proving troublesome, the site advises users to attempt to increase daily dosage. After 2-3 weeks of daily use, or when the desired level of pigmentation has been achieved, people who use Melanotan II should start a maintenance phase of two injections per week.
Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(4):553-557. View abstract.
While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in this primate taxon. Vargas-Pinilla et al. sequenced the coding regions of the OXT gene in other genera in new world primates and identified the following variants in addition to Leu8- and Pro8-OT: Ala8-OT, Thr8-OT, and Val3/Pro8-OT.[118] Ren et al. identified a variant further, Phe2-OT in howler monkeys.[119]
Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue, can be incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells and is widely used to label new cells.61-63 To label proliferating cells, BrdU (100 mg/kg) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 1 post TBI for 10 days. The number of BrdU-positive cells found in the ipsilateral cortex, DG, and CA3 areas was significantly increased 35 days after TBI compared with sham controls.18,34,64,65 Tβ4 treatment further increased the number of BrdU-positive cells compared to saline controls.34 The increased number of BrdU-positive cells may result from effects of Tβ4 on either increasing cell proliferation or reducing cell death of newborn cells. Our recent data show Tβ4 increases oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and differentiation in animal models of stroke25 and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.27 Tβ4 may not directly affect cell proliferation but inhibit cell death, for example, in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells treated with benzalkonium chloride in vitro66 and endothelial precursor cells under serum deprivation.67 Our data further show that neurogenesis increases in TBI rats treated with Tβ4, suggesting that Tβ4 promotes newborn cells to differentiate into neurons. This is consistent with the effect of Tβ4 on promoting epicardium-derived progenitor cell differentiation into endothelial and smooth muscle cells to form the coronary vasculature.22 Whether the increased number of BrdU-positive cells in the brain of TBI rats treated with Tβ4 is tissue specific remains unknown. Tβ4 may not directly affect cell proliferation. Increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis are also possibly secondary to that Tβ4-mediated angiogenesis, as described later.
A later experiment by another group took it a step further. This time the volunteers were told how they did, and in half of the cases, they learned that the trustee had burned them and kept the money. The volunteers who were burned were asked whether they wanted to try again. What would you do? This would be like getting that spam from the Nigerian Prince a second time and sending him $5,000 again, right?
Kim found that when Americans who carry a particular version of the OXTR gene are more likely to turn to their friends for support when they are distressed. But Koreans react to social stress in a different way – for them, it’s less socially acceptable to turn to friends for support during tough times. And distressed Koreans who carry the same version of OXTR are less likely to seek support from their friends.
Studies on diabetic rats indicated significant increases in the amount of collagen and in tensile strength of light-treated wounds over controls (Stadler et al., 2001; Reddy et al., 2001). In combination with hyperbaric oxygen, light-treated skin wounds in rats closed faster (Yu et al., 1997), an effect that was associated with a more uniform rise and fall in VEGF and FGF-2 instead of the sharp peaks at day four and subsequent rapid drop-off observed in control wounds (Whelan et al., 2001). In vitro, proliferation of mouse fibroblasts was increased by over 150% and that of human epithelial cells by 155–171% (Whelan et al., 2001). Whelan et al. (2001) also reported that wound-healing time was decreased by 50% aboard a submarine, where the atmosphere is lower in oxygen and higher in carbon dioxide, and that children suffering from oral mucositis as a result of chemotherapy experienced a 47% reduction in pain. Recently, however, a randomized trial using a 980 nm diode laser to treat venous leg ulcers of 18 patients indicated no difference in reduction of ulcer size compared to the 16 control patients (Leclere et al., 2010).
Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78:676-683. View abstract.
Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon and also as generic oxytocin. Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore must be administered by injection or as nasal spray. Oxytocin has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood. Oxytocin given intravenously does not enter the brain in significant quantities - it is excluded from the brain by the blood-brain barrier. There is no evidence for significant CNS entry of oxytocin by nasal spray. Oxytocin nasal sprays have been used to stimulate breastfeeding but the efficacy of this approach is doubtful[24].
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as nature’s love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocin’s role in the mother–child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. “The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found,” she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women.

Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-C). Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot analysis (A). The production of NO (B) and PGE2 (C) were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Data replicated the quantifications of NO and PGE2 with the standard deviation of at least three experiments (n = 4). The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the “love hormone,” because it is associated with good feelings and emotions. But its role in the body is much more complex than that. It is not a bliss or hug hormone, but it does appear to be connected to human emotions and the regulation of childbirth and breast-feeding.
Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury. This large number of pleiotropic effects results from Tβ4’s many interactions with cellular signaling pathways, particularly indirect regulation of cellular motility and movement via the SRF–MRTF–G-actin transcriptional pathway. Variation in effects and effect sizes in animal models may potentially be due to variable distribution of Tβ4. Preclinical studies of PK/PD relationships and a reliable pharmacodynamic biomarker would facilitate clinical development of Tβ4.

Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
The two main actions of oxytocin in the body are contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins, which increase the contractions further. Manufactured oxytocin is sometimes given to induce labour if it has not started naturally or it can be used to strengthen contractions to aid childbirth. In addition, manufactured oxytocin is often given to speed up delivery of the placenta and reduce the risk of heavy bleeding by contracting the uterus. During breastfeeding, oxytocin promotes the movement of milk into the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple. Oxytocin is also present in men, playing a role in sperm movement and production of testosterone by the testes.
A and B; Mouse BMMs were cultured with 200 μM H2O2 and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL). C and D; PDLCs were co-cultured with mouse BMMs in the presence of M-CSF, RANKL, 200 μM H2O2, and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide. To monitor osteoclast differentiation, both TRAP activity and the number of TRAP multinucleated cells were examined. * Statistically significant difference compared with control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
Myocardial infarction and heart failure are severe causes for death in humans. Extracellular nucleotides (ATP and ADP) released at the site of myocardial damage induce thrombosis, apoptosis and necrosis. ENTPD1 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, CD39) rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP. An in vivo myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury test in transgenic mice expressing human CD39 resulted in a decrease of the infarct size. The same transgene including the human CD39 cDNA driven by the murine MHC class I gene H-2Kb promoter was used for the generation of transgenic pigs via SCNT. Expression of human CD39 was detected on circulating blood cells and in myocardial tissue of the transgenic animals. After in vivo induction of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, a reduction of the myocardial injury analogous to the results in the transgenic mice was found (Wheeler et al., 2012).
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light prompts an increased release of Alpha-MSH, which in turn stimulates the production of melanin in the skin. The more melanin produced the greater pigmentation level becomes, making the skin progressively darker and tan lasts significantly longer. This makes Melanotan peptide unique, people do not require as much exposure to UV light to produce more melanin, very attractive for people wishing to develop greater tanning of the skin in fastest way possible.
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Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[13] In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.
5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taking by mouth appropriately. 5-HTP has been used safely in doses up to 400 mg daily for up to one year. However, some people who have taken it have developed a condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia). Some people think EMS might be caused by an accidental ingredient or contaminant in some 5-HTP products. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to know if EMS is caused by 5-HTP, a contaminant, or some other factor. Until more is known, 5-HTP should be used cautiously.