5-HTP helps the body to produce more serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood and sleep-wake cycles. Healthy levels of serotonin contribute to a positive mood and outlook and also promote restful sleep. Serotonin also plays an important role in many other of the body’s functions, including digestion, appetite, and pain perception.

Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.


Do not fall for the easier methods of using MT-2, injections is the only proper way of using this peptide. Many Internet suppliers will sell things like nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptide, oral pills and powders, they simply don't work, if they did no one would use injections, right? There are a some positive reports of nasal spray experience, however its not very cost effective as peptide molecules in this form are large and difficult to pass the nasal membrance, there is some effect, but its minor comparable to injection route where absorption rate is 100%. Similarly, pills of this type are also quite useless because enzymes within the stomach will render the peptide inert.

I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. I would say yes though. Just because you dont “know” or “feel” any injury, you might be one functional movement away from a weakened tendon or muscle – snap, crackle and POP! These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever.
20 patients (nine from the 5-HTP group and 11 from the Placebo group) completed the study. Brain tryptophan availability in diabetic patients was significantly reduced when compared to a group of healthy controls. Patients receiving 5-HTP significantly decreased their daily energy intake, by reducing carbohydrate and fat intake, and reduced their body weight.”

The PDLCs were pre-treated with Wnt5a siRNA (30 nM) or Wnt5 peptide (500 ng/mL) for 2 hours, post-incubated with Tβ4 peptide (1 μg/mL) and 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E), and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2-treated group. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.


Since Wnt5a expression is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis [25, 26], expression of Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2), were examined. As shown in Fig 9A–9D, mRNA and protein expressions of Wnt5a and its receptors were increased by H2O2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
Recent preclinical studies by us and others have revealed that endogenous neurorestoration is present after TBI, including neurogenesis, axonal sprouting, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis, which may contribute to the spontaneous functional recovery.13-18 In addition, treatments that promote these neurorestorative processes have been demonstrated to improve functional recovery after brain injury.19,20 However, clinical trials in TBI have primarily targeted neuroprotection, and trials directed specifically at neurorestoration have not been conducted. The essential difference between neuroprotective and neurorestorative treatments is that the former target the lesion that is still not irreversibly injured and the latter treat the intact tissue.19 Thus, neurorestorative treatments can be made available for a larger number of TBI patients.
Who is 5-HTP best for? Emotional eaters stand to benefit greatly, of course. So do carb addicts. Carbs help the body make 5-HTP — so when 5-HTP or serotonin are low, carb cravings kick in. Boosting 5-HTP with a supplement has been shown to slash carb cravings by more than 50 percent. And if a “fat gene” runs in your family, early evidence hints that this genetic tendency toward obesity is linked to “decreased activity of an enzyme that helps turn tryptophan into 5-HTP,” explains Michael T. Murray, ND, author of 5-HTP: The Natural Way to Overcome Depression, Obesity and Insomnia ($14.77, Amazon). Though more human research is needed, Dr. Murray believes 5-HTP supplements are a quick fix for the genetic glitch.
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings.

Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking. In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experimental explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.[20]
With the TB-500 it seems that pain was reduced even more in my shoulder and it appears that I recovered much faster from my workouts. I took the TB-500 on rest days. I have two more 1mg doses of TB-500 and I am going to site inject intramuscularly to the shoulder to see what happens. Then I will stop taking both for a month to see how things work out. Hopefully I won’t need them again.
For decades, 5-HTP has been recognized as important to appetite regulation. Higher levels of serotonin are linked to diminished appetite. Keeping serotonin levels from dipping can help keep appetite in check, and may help reduce cravings for carbohydrates. As a serotonin booster, 5-HTP may help to suppress appetite. Research indicates that 5-HTP may be effective in helping people who are overweight or obese lose weight.
Ingroup bonding: Oxytocin can increase positive attitudes, such as bonding, toward individuals with similar characteristics, who then become classified as "in-group" members, whereas individuals who are dissimilar become classified as "out-group" members. Race can be used as an example of in-group and out-group tendencies because society often categorizes individuals into groups based on race (Caucasian, African American, Latino, etc.). One study that examined race and empathy found that participants receiving nasally administered oxytocin had stronger reactions to pictures of in-group members making pained faces than to pictures of out-group members with the same expression.[62] This shows that oxytocin may be implicated in our ability to empathize with individuals of different races and could potentially translate into willingness to help individuals in pain or stressful situations. Moreover, individuals of one race may be more inclined to help individuals of the same race than individuals of another race when they are experiencing pain. Oxytocin has also been implicated in lying when lying would prove beneficial to other in-group members. In a study where such a relationship was examined, it was found that when individuals were administered oxytocin, rates of dishonesty in the participants' responses increased for their in-group members when a beneficial outcome for their group was expected.[63] Both of these examples show the tendency of individuals to act in ways that benefit those considered to be members of their social group, or in-group.

Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). α-MSH is a melanocortin I receptor agonist which has a role in human pigmentation by stimulating production of eumelanin. As melanotan II is a non-specific melanocortin receptor agonist, it has been reported to cause toxicity effects involving the many physiological systems affected by the receptors.
In December 2010, the delegate made a delegate only decision to include afamelanotide (also known as melanotan I) with a cross-reference to melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) for inclusion into the current Poisons Standard. It was noted that afamelanotide should not be confused with a similar substance commonly known as Melanotan-II, which is a cyclic lactam synthetic analogue of α-MSH. It was noted that melanotan-II was under investigation for treating sexual dysfunction, although this has been abandoned due to side effects associated with the immune and cardiovascular systems. Its metabolite, bremelanotide, is under investigation for treating haemorrhagic shock.
The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.
Mouse BMMs were cultured with M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL) or CM collected from PDLCs for 5 days (A) and 60 minutes (B). The mRNAs expression was determined by PCR analysis (A). The phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK), and activation of NF-κB were determined by Western blot analysis (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon and also as generic oxytocin. Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore must be administered by injection or as nasal spray. Oxytocin has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood. Oxytocin given intravenously does not enter the brain in significant quantities - it is excluded from the brain by the blood-brain barrier. There is no evidence for significant CNS entry of oxytocin by nasal spray. Oxytocin nasal sprays have been used to stimulate breastfeeding but the efficacy of this approach is doubtful[24].
Astrocytes constitute the largest population of cells in the central nervous system, constituting approximately 90% of human parenchymal cells. Astrocytes are highly responsive to injury, undergoing rapid hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Astrocytes act as physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration by forming glial scars along ischemic lesions and producing axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycans. Administration of MSCs significantly attenuates the glial scar in the ischemic boundary and reduces expression of inhibitory proteins, such as Nogo. Analysis of single-cell astrocytes isolated from the ischemic boundary by laser capture microdissection reveals that administration of MSCs dramatically down regulates neurocan, an axonal growth-inhibitory proteoglycan. Coculture of MSCs with astrocytes also substantially reduces neurocan expression in astrocytes activated by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that injected MSCs reduce physical and biochemical barriers of astrocytes, which also contribute to axonal and neurite outgrowth.
A 2002 review concluded that although the data evaluated suggests that 5-HTP is more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression, the evidence was insufficient to be conclusive due to a lack of clinical data meeting the rigorous standards of today.[2] More and larger studies using current methodologies are needed to determine if 5-HTP is truly effective in treating depression.[3][4] In small controlled trials 5-HTP has also been reported to augment the antidepressant efficacy of the antidepressant clomipramine.[5][6][7]
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