Oxytocin is a versatile actor, whose resume includes all sorts of jobs in sex, reproduction, social behaviour and emotions.  It can increase trust among people and make them more cooperative (this works in meerkats, too). It can increase the social skills of autistic people. It’s released during orgasm. It affects lactating breasts, contracting wombs and the behaviour of sheep mothers towards their newly born lambs. The list goes on: drug addiction, generosity, depression, empathy, learning, memory.
To determine the direct effect of Tβ4 peptide on osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were directly exposed to Tβ4 peptide. Direct treatment with Tβ4 peptide also reduced the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells and TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 7A and 7B). Since Tβ4 downregulated H2O2-induced various cytokines expression, the indirect effect of Tβ4 on osteoclast formation through PDLC cells using co-culture system were investigated. After addition of Tβ4 peptide to the BMMs-PDLCs co-culture, the number of osteoclast and TRAP activity were also significantly decreased (Fig 7C and 7D).
Evidence for this role of oxytocin come from two types of experiments. First, infusion of oxytocin into the ventricles of the brain of virgin rats or non-pregnant sheep rapidly induces maternal behavior. Second, administration into the brain of antibodies that neutralize oxytocin or of oxytocin antagonists will prevent mother rats from accepting their pups. Other studies support the contention that this behavioral effect of oxytocin is broadly applicable among mammals.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay (A). Protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by RT-PCR (B) and Western blot analysis (C), respectively. The production of NO (D) and PGE2 (E) were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Data replicated the quantifications of cytotoxicity, NO, and PGE2 with the standard deviation of at least three experiments (n = 4). The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
But returning hunters also need to share meat with their families and friends; this is where oxytocin comes into play. It can help overcome the potentially negative social effects of testosterone. Men who were absent for longer seem to need more oxytocin to reconnect with their families; it seems that absence does indeed make the heart grow fonder, via an oxytocin blast.

Thymosin beta 4, developed by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals as a pharmaceutical for the healing of wounds, is a synthetic version of the natural peptide. As Dr. Allan Goldstein emphasizes, “Tb4 represents a new class of wound healing compounds. It is not a growth factor or cytokine, but rather exhibits a number of physiological properties which include the ability to sequester and regulate actin, its potent chemotactic properties. . . and its capability to downregulate a number of inflammatory cytokines that are present in chronic wounds.” When a wound heals there are many growth factors produced in the area so that additional factors, such as those currently on the market for wound healing, may help but are not necessarily lacking. Tb4 treatment, however, adds a new dimension to wound repair by providing cells with actin as needed, for cell migration, replication and differentiation.
Even if you did look after yourself adequately and monitor the amount of 5-HTP you were taking, it doesn't appear to be a permanent or lasting solution. A couple of the doctors talked about something that comes up time and time again with long-term SSRI use: a dissipating effect, meaning they can feel less and less effective over time. It seems that people may have the same problem with 5-HTP. "If you push on your biochemistry hard enough, it may downregulate," Dr Paddock explained. "If you're taking SSRIs your body may downregulate the amount of serotonin it puts out so you get waning effects over time. It's similar with 5-HTP. There may be a certain level of serotonin your body is keeping you at and if you raise it or push it, your body then may say, 'Okay, we're above the set point, let's then raise that point again.'"
When we asked a group of readers to test out 5-HTP to lose weight, they ate unlimited portions of healthy food and still shed up to five pounds in a week. We also talked to women who’d been using 5-HTP long term. Heather Miars started taking 5-HTP for her mood at Dr. Bhatia’s urging. “I was finally able to go off prescription antidepressants and lose 15 pounds!” recalls the 45-year-old mom. Meanwhile, Audra Holmes tried 5-HTP after developing “mood swings so wild, I was giving people whiplash,” she jokes. On 5-HTP, she says: “I didn’t have the highs and lows. I could suddenly get through the day without naps or comfort food!” She shed 50 pounds in 16 weeks. Wish you could have the same kind of success with an easy way to lose weight? As Dr. Oz put it: “5-HTP may be your pre-meal must-have!”

Studies on diabetic rats indicated significant increases in the amount of collagen and in tensile strength of light-treated wounds over controls (Stadler et al., 2001; Reddy et al., 2001). In combination with hyperbaric oxygen, light-treated skin wounds in rats closed faster (Yu et al., 1997), an effect that was associated with a more uniform rise and fall in VEGF and FGF-2 instead of the sharp peaks at day four and subsequent rapid drop-off observed in control wounds (Whelan et al., 2001). In vitro, proliferation of mouse fibroblasts was increased by over 150% and that of human epithelial cells by 155–171% (Whelan et al., 2001). Whelan et al. (2001) also reported that wound-healing time was decreased by 50% aboard a submarine, where the atmosphere is lower in oxygen and higher in carbon dioxide, and that children suffering from oral mucositis as a result of chemotherapy experienced a 47% reduction in pain. Recently, however, a randomized trial using a 980 nm diode laser to treat venous leg ulcers of 18 patients indicated no difference in reduction of ulcer size compared to the 16 control patients (Leclere et al., 2010).


The CCI model we used causes cortical tissue loss. Traditionally, the target for neuroprotective treatment of TBI is to reduce the lesion volume.39,40 A major limitation of neuroprotection strategies is the short time window between injury and treatment. In the vast majority of preclinical TBI studies, the treatment compounds provide neuroprotection only when administered early (usually several hours after brain injury).11 The administration of a compound early in the clinical setting is not practical.41 The neuroprotective effects demonstrated in rodents may diminish if the treatment compounds are given in the clinical setting beyond the short neuroprotective window. We are able to stimulate recovery of neurological function without altering the lesion volume, which has also been demonstrated in our experimental studies of stroke,19,42,43 and is in essence, enhancement of neurorecovery.19 The extended 24-hour window for treatment which improves neurological recovery, without altering CCI cortical volume, is a major benefit of the neurorestorative therapy. Recently, we evaluated the efficacy of delayed Tβ4 treatment on spatial learning and sensorimotor functional recovery in rats after TBI induced by CCI.34 Briefly, TBI rats received Tβ4 at a dose of 6 mg/kg or a vehicle (saline) administered i.p. starting at 24 hours after injury and then every third day for 2 weeks. The dose of Tβ4 was selected based on our previous studies in animal models of stroke and EAE.25,27 Tβ4 did not alter lesion volume (14.2 ± 3.9% for saline treatment vs. 15.7 ± 3.6% for Tβ4 treatment). TBI caused neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral CA3 and DG examined 35 days after injury compared to sham controls. Tβ4 treatment initiated 24 hours post injury significantly reduced cell loss in these two regions compared to saline controls. Tβ4-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning (MWM test) and sensorimotor (mNSS test) functional recovery compared to the saline-treated TBI rats.34
Evidence for this role of oxytocin come from two types of experiments. First, infusion of oxytocin into the ventricles of the brain of virgin rats or non-pregnant sheep rapidly induces maternal behavior. Second, administration into the brain of antibodies that neutralize oxytocin or of oxytocin antagonists will prevent mother rats from accepting their pups. Other studies support the contention that this behavioral effect of oxytocin is broadly applicable among mammals.
Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A, B). The mRNAs expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. This data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
Since Wnt5a expression is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis [25, 26], expression of Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2), were examined. As shown in Fig 9A–9D, mRNA and protein expressions of Wnt5a and its receptors were increased by H2O2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
In the experiments, an epithelial wound was made in the corneas of sedated rats. A Tb4 solution was applied at several concentrations to the injured eyes in one group of rats while another group was treated with a solution without Tb4. Following 12, 24 and 36 hours, the eyes were tested by microscopic observation for epithelial growth over the injured site. Investigators found the Tb4 accelerated corneal wound repair at doses of Tb4 similar to those found to repair skin wounds. When tested 24 hours after treatment, the rate of accelerated repair was proportional to the concentration of Tb4, with the highest dose (25 microgram) showing a threefold acceleration of epithelial cell migration, compared to untreated. Treatment with Tb4 showed anti-inflammatory effects, helping resolve the injury. An application to human cells in a model of human corneal cells in culture showed that Tb4 enhanced epithelial cell migration in vitro.
Obesity. Early research suggests that taking 5-HTP might help reduce appetite, caloric intake, and weight in obese people. Other research suggests that using a specific mouth spray containing 5-HTP and other extracts (5-HTP-Nat Exts, Medestea Biotech S.p.a., Torino, Italy) for 4 weeks increases weight loss by about 41% in overweight postmenopausal women.
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