Autism. A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children.[14] A 2003 study found a decrease in autism spectrum repetitive behaviors when oxytocin was administered intravenously.[15] A 2007 study reported that oxytocin helped autistic adults retain the ability to evaluate the emotional significance of speech intonation.[16]
Tβ4 is not a thymus-specific peptide but also present in most tissue and all cells except red blood cells [35]. High amounts of Tβ4 were detected in human white blood cells, especially in neutrophils and in macrophages [34], expressed in developing mandible (embryonic day 12) [36] and hair follicles (HF) of mice [37]. In addition, the peptide is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids [34]. Although the mechanism(s) of action of exogenous Tβ4 on anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear, the high levels of Tβ4 present in human wound fluid (13 μg/mL) suggest its importance in wound healing or anti-inflammation [38]. However, the level of Tβ4 is variable (unchanged, decreased, and increased) in GCF or biopsied gingival tissue of periodontal patients [20, 21]. Based on the observations that Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects [11–14], the hypothesis is that Tβ4 regulates inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic bone disease, such as periodontitis.
5-HTP, along with other L-Tryptophan supplements, have been implicated in the flu-like, potentially fatal Eosinophilic Myalgia Syndrome. This syndrome was initially tied to  impurities - Amino Acids called "Peak E" and "Peak X" - which were present in these products because of poor manufacturing processes by a single major supplier. Some people reject this idea and believe that the syndrome is caused by an excess of tryptophan itself (10, 11).
One way to clarify that question is to give individuals oxytocin rather than just measure naturally occurring levels. In experiments by couple therapist and researcher Beate Ditzen at the University of Zurich, couples each sprayed a liquid containing oxytocin up their noses (which ensures that the hormone reaches the brain). Ditzen then got them to talk with each other about an issue that both partners said often lead to disagreement or fighting, such as who did the housework or how they spent their free time. She observed how they communicated with each other during the discussion compared with couples who didn’t get the hormone.

About ten years ago, psychology studies started to show that single doses of oxytocin, delivered through an intranasal spray, could promote various aspects of social behaviour in healthy adults. People who inhaled oxytocin before playing an investment game were more willing to entrust their money to a stranger than were placebo-treated players10. A dose of the hormone also increased the amount of time that people spent gazing at the eye region of faces11, and improved their ability to infer the emotional state of others from subtle expressions12.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide.

I had tennis elbow on both arms for over 3 years now. Had one surgery on the R, countless PRPs, and a stem cell treatment on both but still to no avail. Pain on the L never eased up and I just had my 3rd PRP booster injections yesterday after having my stem cells 2 months ago. So can you tell me if BPC 157 or TB 500 better suits my situation. Many thanks!


In years past, oxytocin had the reputation of being an "uncomplicated" hormone, with only a few well-defined activities related to birth and lactation. As has been the case with so many hormones, further research has demonstrated many subtle but profound influences of this little peptide, particularly in regards to its effects in the brain. Oxytocin has been implicated in setting a number of social behaviors in species ranging from mice to humans. For example, secretion or administration of oxytocin in humans appears to enhance trust and cooperation within socially-close groups, while promoting defensive aggression toward unrelated, competing groups.
"By understanding the oxytocin system's dual role in triggering or reducing anxiety, depending on the social context, we can optimize oxytocin treatments that improve well-being instead of triggering negative reactions," said Jelena Radulovic, the senior author of the study and the Dunbar Professsor of Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The paper was published July 21 in Nature Neuroscience.

There are several layers in the skin; the outer epidermis and beneath it the dermis and the subcutaneous layer. Cells in the epidermis include keratinocytes, its major cell type, that move continuously from the lower basal layer where they are formed by cell division. Other cells in the epidermis are the melanocytes that synthesize pigment and transfer it to the keratinocytes, giving our skin its color, and a wide variety of immune cells that maintain immune surveillance and secrete substances called cytokines, like interleukin 1 and 2, which are active in inflammation. The dermis contains connective tissue, mainly collagen, blood vessels, various types of immune white cells and fibroblasts.

The CCI model we used causes cortical tissue loss. Traditionally, the target for neuroprotective treatment of TBI is to reduce the lesion volume.39,40 A major limitation of neuroprotection strategies is the short time window between injury and treatment. In the vast majority of preclinical TBI studies, the treatment compounds provide neuroprotection only when administered early (usually several hours after brain injury).11 The administration of a compound early in the clinical setting is not practical.41 The neuroprotective effects demonstrated in rodents may diminish if the treatment compounds are given in the clinical setting beyond the short neuroprotective window. We are able to stimulate recovery of neurological function without altering the lesion volume, which has also been demonstrated in our experimental studies of stroke,19,42,43 and is in essence, enhancement of neurorecovery.19 The extended 24-hour window for treatment which improves neurological recovery, without altering CCI cortical volume, is a major benefit of the neurorestorative therapy. Recently, we evaluated the efficacy of delayed Tβ4 treatment on spatial learning and sensorimotor functional recovery in rats after TBI induced by CCI.34 Briefly, TBI rats received Tβ4 at a dose of 6 mg/kg or a vehicle (saline) administered i.p. starting at 24 hours after injury and then every third day for 2 weeks. The dose of Tβ4 was selected based on our previous studies in animal models of stroke and EAE.25,27 Tβ4 did not alter lesion volume (14.2 ± 3.9% for saline treatment vs. 15.7 ± 3.6% for Tβ4 treatment). TBI caused neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral CA3 and DG examined 35 days after injury compared to sham controls. Tβ4 treatment initiated 24 hours post injury significantly reduced cell loss in these two regions compared to saline controls. Tβ4-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning (MWM test) and sensorimotor (mNSS test) functional recovery compared to the saline-treated TBI rats.34


There is also a positive feedback involved in the milk-ejection reflex. When a baby sucks at the breast of its mother, the stimulation leads to oxytocin secretion into the blood, which then causes milk to be let down into the breast. Oxytocin is also released into the brain to help stimulate further oxytocin secretion. These processes are self-limiting; production of the hormone is stopped after the baby is delivered or when the baby stops feeding.
Our research mainly focusses on this early social experiences that people have that can be positive or negative, and that can really shape our developing brain. There have been some very interesting studies, for example, with children that grew up in Romanian orphanages. And we know that that early start, where it's really deprived from social contact and physical contact, had a massive impact. So we see that oxytocin levels, for example, are much lower than we would expect in other kids.
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.

The enzyme dopamine decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) mediates the conversion of 5-HTP into serotonin, and this enzyme is expressed in stomach tissue.[53] Inhibition of this enzyme in the stomach during 5-HTP ingestion is thought to promote the concentration of 5-HTP that reaches neural tissue, which is supported by a study using 100-200mg Carbidopa (pharmaceutical inhibitor) alongside 5-HTP to increase radioactivity of 5-HTP (indicative of neural accumulation) in humans.[54]


I have done my research related to this, I am thinking about ordering TB-500…I have a few questions to ask before ordering, I am a volleyball player and stopped playing for a while to let it rest and in process of healing. I have A SLAP tear is an injury to the labrum of the shoulder. Should I use TB-500 for shoulder so it can increase muscle growth? I would be interested on your take of how to do the injections there.

5-HTP is converted by the body to serotonin, a chemical in the brain that plays an important role in mood, sleep, and appetite. Many prescription medications used for the treatment of depression increase serotonin concentrations in the brain. Because of 5-HTP's pathway to serotonin, it has appealed to researchers as well as the public as a "natural" alternative to antidepressants and treatment of depression, insomnia, migraines, obesity, and fibromyalgia.
Injection is the most effective way to administrate the peptide and results are seen the fastest and best. The nasal spray method is effective up to 30 – 40% because the nasal passages have poor absorption rate, you have to apply the nasal spray at least two to three times more than the injection. The injectable product of the Melanotan is very superior as compared to the nasal version. The nasal versions generally take four to five weeks for displaying the results appose to 10 days with the injection.
TB-500 has been used extensively for race horses to prevent adhesions from forming, although it is not a prescription veterinary drug. It’s an injectable peptide with limited human use. Mostly, it’s limited to humans who like to experiment, although reports of human use of thymosin dates back as far as 1974 – when a young girl became the first person to receive injections of thymosin because she was diagnosed without a functioning thymus gland.
As shown in Figure 1, thymic hormones also modulate the production of hypothalamus pituitary hormones and neuropeptides. Initial experiments revealed that neonatal thymectomy promotes a decrease in the number of secretory granules in acidophic cells of the adenopituitary [44]. In the same vein, athymic nude mice display low levels of various pituitary hormones, such as PRL, GH, LH and FSH [45]. With regard to thymic peptides, thymosin beta-4, when perfused intraventricularly, stimulates LH and LHRH secretion [46]. Similar results were obtained with another thymic peptide, thymulin, in perfused or fragmented pituitary preparations [47]. The administration of thymopoietin (another chemically-defined thymic hormone) in children with Hodgkin’s disease increased GH and cortisol serum levels [48]. Moreover, thymopentin (the synthetic biologically active peptide of thymopoietin) enhances in vitro the production of ACTH and beta-endorphin [49]. In addition, thymulin exhibits an in vitro stimulatory effect on perfused rat pituitaries, enhancing PRL, GH, TSH and LH release [50]. Using short-term cultures of pituitary fragments, an increase in ACTH secretion occurs after in vitro thymulin addition, with no changes in GH levels and significant reductions in PRL release [47]. A further thymosin peptide was recently isolated with the task in stimulating IL-6 release from rat glioma cells [51]. By contrast, thymosin alpha-1 is apparently able to down regulate TSH, ACTH and PRL secretion in vivo with no modifications on GH levels [52]. These inhibitory effects seem to occur through hypothalamic pathways. Indeed, the production of the corresponding releasing hormones by hypothalamic neurones decreased after in vitro addition of thymosin alpha-1 in medial basal hypothalamic fragments [52].
Studies demonstrate that TB-500 is a potent, naturally occurring wound repair factor with anti-inflammatory properties. Tß4 is different from other repair factors, such as growth factors, in that it promotes endothelial and keratinocyte migration. It also does not bind to the extracellular matrix and has a very low molecular weight meaning it can travel relatively long distances through tissues. One of TB-500 key mechanisms of action is its ability to regulate the cell-building protein, Actin, a vital component of cell structure and movement. Of the thousands of proteins present in cells, actin represents up to 10% of the total proteins which therefore plays a major role in the genetic makeup of the cell.
The hormone does not act alone. In 2013, neuroscientist Robert Malenka at Stanford University in California and his colleagues showed that oxytocin works together with the neurotransmitter serotonin to reduce the excitability of neurons in the nucleus accumbens9, a brain region involved in reward. This process seems to support the preference of mice to return to environments where they had rewarding social interactions with other animals. “Oxytocin is part of a system,” Carter says, “and it's not the only molecule that matters, but it's one that in some way is regulatory over a large number of other systems.”
A: 5-HTP stands for 5-hydroxytryptophan. 5-HTP is classified as a dietary supplement; it is made from the seeds of an African plant, Griffonia simplicfolia. 5-HTP is a metabolite (a metabolic by-product) of the amino acid tryptophan, and it is converted by the body into serotonin, which acts in the brain to sooth a person's mind and comfort one from stress and worry. People are using 5-HTP for a variety of conditions, including weight loss, depression, anxiety, PMS, fibromyalgia, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and headaches. 5-hydroxytryptophan has not been evaluated by the FDA for safety, effectiveness, or purity. One should follow the dosage recommendations on the particular packages of 5-HTP they purchase. According to one researcher, the suggested dosage range of 5-HTP is between 50 mg and 1,200 mg per day, with the usual range being 100 to 600mg. It is always a good idea to check with one
Letdown reflex. In lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be ‘let down’ into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by compressing the areola and sucking at the nipple. Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
Toxicity includes renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of new moles, with one report of melanoma associated with use of melanotan II. Other case reports include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (consisting of seizures, visual disturbance, confusion, headache, vomiting); refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome; shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping & pain, dizziness and lethargy.

Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.
Drug interaction: Impact on effects of alcohol and other drugs: According to several studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[68] MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity primarily via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[69] The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) may produce some of its effects via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation as well.[70][71]

But we have to be just as good at recognizing who we can trust, so the system needs fine-tuned control. That’s apparently where oxytocin comes in. The amygdala, that critical organ for our biological risk response, has a high concentration of receptors for oxytocin. In the second set of those gambling experiments with the volunteers and the trustees, researchers used fMRI to watch the brains of the volunteers as they made their choices. As the levels of oxytocin in the brain went up compared with the placebo group, activity in the amygdala went down! Oxytocin diminishes the amygdala’s ability to send out the message “Warning! Warning! I don’t trust this guy.”


Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use: if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking carbidopa or drugs/supplements with serotonergic activity including, but not limited to, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's Wort, antidepressants, pain killers, over-the-counter cough and cold medication containing dextromethorphan, anti-nausea medication and anti-migraine medication. Discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner if you show signs of weakness, oral ulcers, or abdominal pain accompanied by severe muscle pain. Do not use if you have scleroderma. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness. Some people may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness.

A and B; Mouse BMMs were cultured with 200 μM H2O2 and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/mL) and RANKL (100 ng/mL). C and D; PDLCs were co-cultured with mouse BMMs in the presence of M-CSF, RANKL, 200 μM H2O2, and indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide. To monitor osteoclast differentiation, both TRAP activity and the number of TRAP multinucleated cells were examined. * Statistically significant difference compared with control, p<0.05. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
“Shortly after taking the supplement, my vision changes. Colours appear more vivid, I feel lightheaded and generally at ease. My mind calms down and the racing thoughts stop. Today is the 3rd day and I’ve noticed the intensity has gone up and it almost feels like I’m tripping on something. The sky looked absolutely amazing today, colours are so intense but I feel a kind of ungrounded and odd, but still pretty mellow with no anxious thoughts or anything like that which is good.”
“Ultimately you’re body is going to down-regulate the enzymes needed to convert the tyrosine/l-phenylalanine into dopamine and norepinephrine; this also counts for 5 -htp being converted into serotonin. As far as I’m aware when simply supplementing amino acids to improve neurotransmitter prevalence in the brain, tolerance will build very rapidly within a one week to two week period (from personal experience). Not saying it’s not viable to help out with mood when used sparingly, just saying there’s most likely better ways for continued treatment.”
Establishment of maternal behavior: Successful reproduction in mammals demands that mothers become attached to and nourish their offspring immediately after birth. It is also important that non-lactating females do not manifest such nurturing behavior. The same events that affect the uterus and mammary gland at the time of birth also affect the brain. During parturition, there is an increase in concentration of oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid, and oxytocin acting within the brain plays a major role in establishing maternal behavior.
Three groups of mice were individually placed in cages with aggressive mice and experienced social defeat, a stressful experience for them. One group was missing its oxytocin receptors, essentially the plug by which the hormone accesses brain cells. The lack of receptors means oxytocin couldn't enter the mice's brain cells. The second group had an increased number of receptors so their brain cells were flooded with the hormone. The third control group had a normal number of receptors.
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Some work has pointed to a potential dark side to oxytocin. Carter's group found that a single low dose of the hormone given to baby prairie voles improved their pair bonding as adults, but that higher doses interfered with that behaviour — possibly because oxytocin started to activate other receptors16. And human studies have suggested that in certain contexts, a puff of oxytocin can cause people to be more aggressive in defending themselves against outsiders or competitors17. In patients with a psychiatric condition known as borderline personality disorder, a single dose of oxytocin has been found to hinder trust and cooperation18.
Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone and dynorphin, for example, that act locally. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make vasopressin. These are large neuroendocrine neurons which are excitable and can generate action potentials.[124]
“Shortly after taking the supplement, my vision changes. Colours appear more vivid, I feel lightheaded and generally at ease. My mind calms down and the racing thoughts stop. Today is the 3rd day and I’ve noticed the intensity has gone up and it almost feels like I’m tripping on something. The sky looked absolutely amazing today, colours are so intense but I feel a kind of ungrounded and odd, but still pretty mellow with no anxious thoughts or anything like that which is good.”
Addiction vulnerability: Concentrations of endogenous oxytocin can impact the effects of various drugs and one's susceptibility to substance use disorders. Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, can impact development of dependence. The status of the endogenous oxytocin system might enhance or reduce susceptibility to addiction through its interaction with these systems. Individual differences in the endogenous oxytocin system based on genetic predisposition, gender and environmental influences, may therefore affect addiction vulnerability.[72] Oxytocin may be related to the place conditioning behaviors observed in habitual drug abusers.
Toxicity effects of melanotan II from therapeutic and overdose exposures include renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, sympathomimetic overdrive, change in size and pigmentation of pre-existing moles, rapid increase in the number of new moles, associated with causing melanomas, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, refractory priapism, stretching and yawning syndrome, shortness of breath, chest pain, abdominal cramping and pain, dizziness and lethargy.
These studies demonstrate that in the animal model of TBI, early (6 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 i.p. at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss and improves functional recovery, suggesting its potential as a neuroprotective therapy for TBI. More importantly, delayed (24 hours post injury) treatment with Tβ4 administered i.p. at a dose of 6 mg/kg does not reduce lesion volume but significantly improves functional outcome in rats.34 Tβ4-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis may contribute to functional recovery.34 Therefore, our data suggest that promoting endogenous neurorestorative processes using Tβ4 provides a novel therapeutic option for TBI. It should be noted that systemic administration of Tβ4 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.26 Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying Tβ4-mediated neuroprotection and neurorestoration is warranted.
Hi Ben, I have been using TB-500 for minor injury repair assistance for more than 2 years. I have found it to be extremely effective for minor strains to calves, hamstring, shoulder etc. Luckily I have not had to try it for any major injuries. When I first used it I was blown away by how effectively it worked – even to the point that I began to doubt the seriousness of the original injury. When injured I dose at 5mg per week for four weeks then take at least four weeks break. The only side affect I have noticed is a little light headed feeling which passes pretty quickly. I am in my late 40’s and I train hard. TB-500 allows me to train through minor injuries which is great. Love your work
As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis [24], we examined whether H2O2 could down-regulate or up-regulate Tβ4 expression in PDLCs. As shown in Fig 1A and 1B, Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated by H2O2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Because maximal Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were achieved with 200 μM H2O2 within 48 hours in PDLCs, this concentration was used in subsequent experiments.
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light prompts an increased release of Alpha-MSH, which in turn stimulates the production of melanin in the skin. The more melanin produced the greater pigmentation level becomes, making the skin progressively darker and tan lasts significantly longer. This makes Melanotan peptide unique, people do not require as much exposure to UV light to produce more melanin, very attractive for people wishing to develop greater tanning of the skin in fastest way possible.
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
Romantic attachment: In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. For example, if a couple is separated for a long period of time, anxiety can increase due to the lack of physical affection. Oxytocin may aid romantically attached couples by decreasing their feelings of anxiety when they are separated.[101]
Tβ4 is not a thymus-specific peptide but also present in most tissue and all cells except red blood cells [35]. High amounts of Tβ4 were detected in human white blood cells, especially in neutrophils and in macrophages [34], expressed in developing mandible (embryonic day 12) [36] and hair follicles (HF) of mice [37]. In addition, the peptide is also detected outside cells, in blood plasma and in wound and blister fluids [34]. Although the mechanism(s) of action of exogenous Tβ4 on anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear, the high levels of Tβ4 present in human wound fluid (13 μg/mL) suggest its importance in wound healing or anti-inflammation [38]. However, the level of Tβ4 is variable (unchanged, decreased, and increased) in GCF or biopsied gingival tissue of periodontal patients [20, 21]. Based on the observations that Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects [11–14], the hypothesis is that Tβ4 regulates inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic bone disease, such as periodontitis.

There have been encouraging results for the use of Tβ4 as a topical gel to treat venous stasis ulcers, a type of wound that develops on the lower leg of patients with chronic vascular disease. Two other reports indicated that Tβ4, formulated in eye-drops, may enhance corneal wound healing in diabetic patients, and improve ocular discomfort. These are the most advanced trials to date. As of yet, despite promising animal models, there has been no significant study exploring the efficacy of intravenous Tβ4 injections in treating ischemic heart injury.
The cornea is the outer thin layer of epithelial cells protecting the eye. After wounding, timely resurfacing of the cornea with new cells is critical, to prevent loss of normal function and loss of vision. Corneal epithelial healing occurs in stages, with cells migrating, dividing and differentiating. Therapies for corneal injury are limited. Therefore, the recent finding that Tb4 promotes corneal wound repair in animal models offers hope for a therapeutic product that will improve the clinical outcome of patients with injured corneas.

Thymosin beta-4 is a naturally occurring peptide, and is found ubiquitously in our cells. A range of studies on animal models have indicated several key biological activities for Tβ4, such as “promot[ing] wound repair, tissue protection, and regeneration in the skin, eye, heart and central nervous system”. Only a handful of clinical trials in humans have attempted to explore these roles practically.
Some work has pointed to a potential dark side to oxytocin. Carter's group found that a single low dose of the hormone given to baby prairie voles improved their pair bonding as adults, but that higher doses interfered with that behaviour — possibly because oxytocin started to activate other receptors16. And human studies have suggested that in certain contexts, a puff of oxytocin can cause people to be more aggressive in defending themselves against outsiders or competitors17. In patients with a psychiatric condition known as borderline personality disorder, a single dose of oxytocin has been found to hinder trust and cooperation18.

Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[13] In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.


The idea that oxytocin is central to social cognition made it an attractive candidate for treating psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. People with this condition, who often have problems with social interaction and communication, may not process social stimuli appropriately — and scientists theorized that oxytocin might reverse some of the symptoms. Beginning in 2010, results emerged that seemed to support this theory: researchers found that single puffs of oxytocin could temporarily improve measures of empathy and social cooperation in people with autism spectrum disorder.

The scientists discovered that oxytocin strengthens negative social memory and future anxiety by triggering an important signaling molecule -- ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinases) -- that becomes activated for six hours after a negative social experience. ERK causes enhanced fear, Radulovic believes, by stimulating the brain's fear pathways, many of which pass through the lateral septum. The region is involved in emotional and stress responses.


I’ve been on this stuff for lots of years. I really needed it when I was depressed like hell, and I had an emotional pain that simply didn’t go away for 2 decades prior to starting that stack. Did it help? yes. Was it the best intervention possible? probably not. I was able to get off all this stuff with the uridine stack, and I believe it partly fixed a part of my brain that was damaged from this decade long suffering. So this is, why I am now more into brain regeneration and psychotherapeutic interventions (even though I do them myself), and I would only go back to this stack if I was completely fucked up again. There are a lot of side effects, and its a fine line to balance the supplements, to get rid of the side effects…
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