In the male mammal, the small peptide hormone oxytocin is produced in similar quantities within the hypothalamo-pituitary magnocellular system as in the female, yet for the male little is known about the physiology associated with this hormone. The present review summarizes what is known about the function of oxytocin in the male mammal and tries to take account of both central and systemic effects, and those linked with a local production of oxytocin within the male reproductive organs. In several species a pulse of systemic oxytocin, presumably of hypothalamic origin, appears to be associated with ejaculation. The systemic hormone could act peripherally stimulating smooth muscle cells of the male reproductive tract, but could also reflect central effects in the brain modulating sexual behaviour. In addition to systemic oxytocin, the peptide is also made locally within the testis, and possibly also the epididymis and prostate. In the former tissue it appears to have an autocrine/paracrine role modulating steroid metabolism, but may in addition be involved in contractility of the seminiferous tubules. However, the latter function may involve the mediacy of Sertoli cells which under some circumstances can also exhibit the components of a local oxytocin system. In the prostate of the rat and the dog oxytocin is linked again to steroid metabolism and may also act as a growth regulator. Finally, oxytocin in seminal fluid is discussed and its possible role in respect to the fate of the semen following ejaculation.
Recently, therapeutic biomolecules such as growth factors provide great potential as an alternative therapeutic approach to traditional periodontal wound healing [61]. However, because of the short half-lives of growth factors and polynucleotides in the body and the necessity to deliver to specific target sites, those medicinal substances do not always exhibit the anticipated therapeutic potency and outcomes [62]. Thus, optimized delivery regimes and well-defined release kinetics appear to be logical prerequisites for safe and efficacious clinical application of biomolecules. For considering the application of Tβ4 in clinical trials, target cells of exogenous Tβ4 should be restricted to cells in the periodontal tissue.
Another interesting agent reported to significantly accelerate chronic wound repair is infrared (700–1200 nm wavelength) and near infrared (600–700 nm) light delivered through lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (Mester et al., 1968; Rochkind et al., 1989; Conlan, 1996; Schindl et al., 2000; Enwemeka, 2004). Spectroscopic measurements indicate that photons at wavelengths of 630–800 nm penetrate through the skin and muscles of the forearm and lower leg (Chance et al., 1988; Beauvoit et al., 1994, 1995). The effect of the light may be to stimulate cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and production of ATP (Karu, 1999).
In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people and generosity.123 Oxytocin first became of interest to researchers when they discovered that breastfeeding women are calmer when exercising and experiencing stress than moms who were bottle-feeding. It is just one part of the important, complex neurochemical system in our bodies that helps us adapt to emotional situations.
Do not fall for the easier methods of using MT-2, injections is the only proper way of using this peptide. Many Internet suppliers will sell things like nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptide, oral pills and powders, they simply don't work, if they did no one would use injections, right? There are a some positive reports of nasal spray experience, however its not very cost effective as peptide molecules in this form are large and difficult to pass the nasal membrance, there is some effect, but its minor comparable to injection route where absorption rate is 100%. Similarly, pills of this type are also quite useless because enzymes within the stomach will render the peptide inert.
Thymosin beta 4, developed by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals as a pharmaceutical for the healing of wounds, is a synthetic version of the natural peptide. As Dr. Allan Goldstein emphasizes, “Tb4 represents a new class of wound healing compounds. It is not a growth factor or cytokine, but rather exhibits a number of physiological properties which include the ability to sequester and regulate actin, its potent chemotactic properties. . . and its capability to downregulate a number of inflammatory cytokines that are present in chronic wounds.” When a wound heals there are many growth factors produced in the area so that additional factors, such as those currently on the market for wound healing, may help but are not necessarily lacking. Tb4 treatment, however, adds a new dimension to wound repair by providing cells with actin as needed, for cell migration, replication and differentiation.
In regards to interventions, one study in treatment resistant depressed persons that combination therapy of 5-HTP with Carbidopa noted that 43 out of 99 (43.4%) patients improved with an average 200mg (variable 50-600mg) dosage of 5-HTP.[24] It has been noted[25] that since Cardidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that can prevent metabolism of monoamines including serotonin[26] that these results are unlikely to reflect monotherapy with 5-HTP, despite being within the 30-45% range sometimes seen with the placebo effect.[25][27]
The first time Ditzen and her colleagues did this experiment they found that for both men and women oxytocin improved communication and lowered cortisol, a stress hormone. But in a recent study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Ditzen and her colleagues measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)—an enzyme tied specifically to social stress—and found that men and women responded differently. Women who got oxytocin showed a decrease in sAA whereas men showed an increase and reported feeling more intense emotions. Counterintuitively, these men were also better at communication during conflict: they smiled more, had more eye-contact and were more open about their feelings. These behaviors are essential for peaceful conflict resolution.
Moreover, Tβ4 concentration revealed wide variability, and it decreased in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as periodontal disease progressed [19]. In contrast, Tβ4 mRNA expression was 3.76 fold higher in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, compared with healthy individuals’ tissue obtained from public microarray data (GEO assession: GSE 23586) [20]. However, the Tβ4 mRNA level did not change in the periodontal-diseased gingival tissue (arbitrary units; 6.249) when compared with healthy tissue (arbitrary units; 6.242) (GEO assession: GSE 10334) [21]. Although Tβ4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, the precise role of Tβ4 in the inflammatory response remains unclear.
At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.
It was under development as drug candidate for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction but clinical development ceased by 2003, and as of 2018, no product containing melanotan II was marketed and all commercial development had ceased.[1] Unlicensed, untested, or fraudulent products sold as "melanotan II" are found on the Internet, and purported to be effective as "tanning drugs", though side effects such as uneven pigmentation, new nevi (moles), and darkening or enlargement of existing moles are common and have led to medical authorities discouraging use.[2][3]

These results were in agreement with previous studies that showed Wnt5a expression can be induced in activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) after inflammatory stimulation [58, 59]. In addition, we found that the effects of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17), the expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), osteoclastogenic cytokines (cathepsin-K, calcitonin receptor or Calcr, NFATc1, and RANK), and osteoclastic differentiation, were reversed by exogenous treatment with Wnt5a siRNA but enhanced by rh-Wnt5a, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenetic effects of Tβ4 activation were involved the Wnt5a-dependent signaling pathway. Similar to our results, Wnt5a knock-down markedly reduced cytokine/chemokine production induced by TNF in HDPCs [60].
Disclaimer: Thymosin Beta 4 is a peptide that should only be purchased for use in experimentation and research. It should not be purchased for human use or any other purpose than for research. It is advised that once purchased, the peptide is used within experimental circumstances that are under strict lab regulations. It is recommended that researchers use protective gear in order to prevent contact with the substance. However, if exposure is made with the peptide, it is very important to cleanse the area immediately to prevent harm.
The tb-500 has a systematic effect regardless of where it is injected. Some believe that thymosin beta-4 should be injected as close to the injury as possible however there is no evidence to show this would be superior. It can be injected subcutaneously (stomach fat) or intramuscularly (shoulders, thighs, buttocks). Injections should be given in different sites (rotated) each time. Depending on the spot, you can either feel nothing or you can feel slight pain - you will learn your favorite spots in time.
“Further analysis by gender revealed that females in the 5-HTP group had a significantly lower panic rate and intensity of cognitive symptoms whereas, in males, the effect of 5-HTP was limited to lowering the intensity of somatic panic symptoms. Thus, an increased availability of 5-HT may have a gender-dependent protective effect in CCK-4-induced panic.”
Serotonin appears to be associated with panic attacks. Although studies that have used tryptophan depletion techniques in humans do not necessarily induce a panic attack[34][35][36] it appears it may sensitize the body by an increase in neurovegetative panic symptoms and increased anxiety[37] which suggests that serotonin is protective against panic attacks, at least acutely.[38][39] A study in 24 unmedicated panic disorder patients and normal participants given 200mg 5-HTP prior to a 35% CO2 test (used to induce a panic attack-like response) noted that the test was able to induce panic attack in both panic disorder patients and normal persons and that 200mg 5-HTP was protective in both conditions but to a greater degree in persons suffering from panic disorders.[40] This has been replicated with cholecystokinin-4 induced panic attack with 200mg 5-HTP in otherwise healthy persons.[41]
Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.
Jump up ^ Ballweber E, Hannappel E, Huff T, Stephan H, Haener M, Taschner N, Stoffler D, Aebi U, Mannherz HG (Jan 2002). "Polymerisation of chemically cross-linked actin:thymosin beta(4) complex to filamentous actin: alteration in helical parameters and visualisation of thymosin beta(4) binding on F-actin". Journal of Molecular Biology. 315 (4): 613–25. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5281. PMID 11812134.

Indeed, the findings that progenitor cells of some form exist both in the regenerative zebrafish heart, and in the hearts of less-regenerative mammals supports this idea. Zebrafish have ostensibly found some method to optimize the activity of progenitor cells, perhaps either by maintaining more cells, or by harboring a more cultivating environment for regeneration. Also, both mammalian and nonmammalian hearts contain an epicardial cell layer, yet zebrafish have found some way to activate the epicardium after injury, a process linked with essential neovascularization of regenerating muscle (Lepilina et al., 2006. This result points to the adult mammalian epicardium as a potential cellular source to assist myocardial regeneration or survival. Indeed, mammalian myocardial infarcts typically show poor or insufficient neovascularization, a response that many are trying to improve experimentally. Recent findings have indicated that the G-actin sequestering protein, Thymosin-ß4, may influence the mammalian epicardium. Treatment of adult cardiac explants with Thymosin-ß4 induced the migration of fibroblasts, endothelial and smooth muscle cells as assessed by gene expression and cellular morphology (Smart et al., 2007). In addition, in vivo Thymosin-ß4 treatment could partially restore cardiac survival and function following coronary ligation (Bock-Marquette et al., 2004). Notably, Thymosin-ß4 expression is induced in the injured zebrafish heart, suggesting that fish naturally release this epicardial stimulant on injury (Lien et al., 2006).
Oxytocin is known to be metabolized by the oxytocinase, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase.[25][26] Other oxytocinases are also known to exist.[25][27] Amastatin, bestatin (ubenimex), leupeptin, and puromycin have been found to inhibit the enzymatic degradation of oxytocin, though they also inhibit the degradation of various other peptides, such as vasopressin, met-enkephalin, and dynorphin A.[27][28][29][30]

Serotonin syndrome (Serotonin toxicity) is caused by an excess of serotonin in the brain. It is most often caused by taking more than one Serotonin-enhancing substance at the same time, such as 5-HTP and an antidepressant medication. Symptoms range in severity according to the level of intoxication and may include increased heart rate, tremor, sweating, mental agitation, seizures, shock, organ failure and death (9).
Both the production of oxytocin and response to oxytocin are modulated by circulating levels of sex steroids. The burst of oxytocin released at birth seems to be triggered in part by cervical and vaginal stimulation by the fetus, but also because of abruptly declining concentrations of progesterone. Another well-studied effect of steroid hormones is the marked increase in synthesis of uterine (myometrial) oxytocin receptors late in gestation, resulting from increasing concentrations of circulating estrogen.

As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis [24], we examined whether H2O2 could down-regulate or up-regulate Tβ4 expression in PDLCs. As shown in Fig 1A and 1B, Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated by H2O2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Because maximal Tβ4 mRNA and protein expressions were achieved with 200 μM H2O2 within 48 hours in PDLCs, this concentration was used in subsequent experiments.
Advice & Tips: 5-HTP is a serotonin precursor. Serotonin is well-known as a hormone that affects one's mood in a positive way, but it is probably less-well known that it increases intestinal motility. It has worked magic for my symptoms. I am completely regular now, and the majority of my days are good days, whereas before I began taking it the majority of my days were bad days that began with symptoms of constipation and intestinal pain or discomfort. For me, at least, this is not a prescription. I began taking 5-HTP after my fiancee'--who had already been taking it to help her mood and, primarily, her difficulty sleeping through the night--learned it can be helpful when taken for gastrointestinal motility, and I began taking it myself shortly after that (and felt its effects almost immediately). Although not entirely unexpected, my slightly enhanced good moods are a nice side benefit of taking the supplement. I do get some very mild undesirable side effects, especially during mid-day when I take twice my morning and evening dose of 100 mg. Sometimes my face feels hot and flushes fairly noticeably--and this may be intensified with eating--but those symptoms subside within probably 30 minutes or less.
Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine (CYIQNCPLG). The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.
I’m curious to know where you got your reconstitution calculation from; you recommend putting approx 3 cc’s in a 5 mg TB-500 which ‘almost fills’ the vial. I have been doing a ton of research on TB-500 and finding contradictory recommendations on how to reconstitute. Because the dosing for TB-500 is higher than what I’m used to with GHRH & GHRP – I felt a lower reconstitution mixture would reduce the amount I needed to take (but now I’m wondering if I’ve been over dosing based on your formula). Would really appreciate knowing how you arrived at filling an insulin syringe ‘three times’ equal to 3 cc’s – just want to make sure i’m dosing correctly
In January 1955, adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was included in the very first Poisons Schedules. It was included in Schedule 4, Part A, which is equivalent to the current Schedule 4 of the Poisons Standard. Provisions for a repeated script must be authorised by an authorised prescriber, including general practitioners, veterinarian or dentist (if required for the purposes of the dental profession or are permitted to be prescribed by a dentist).
To untangle the ways different hormones together influence behavior in more naturalistic contexts, we worked with the Tsimane people in Bolivia. Traditional societies like the Tsimane are not living relics of the past, but their lifeways – small, tight-knit communities that produce their own food – can reveal the kinds of situations our hormone systems are well adapted to.
To determine the effects of Tβ4 peptide and H2O2 on cytotoxicity, its cell viability was evaluated. A 48-h exposure to 0.1–5 μg/mL Tβ4 peptide did not affect H2O2-mediated cell viabilities (Fig 2A). In order to examine whether Tβ4 peptide suppressed ROS-induced inflammatory mediators, the ability of Tβ4 peptide on production of NO and PGE2, and expressions of COX-2 and iNOS were measured by RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Pretreatment with Tβ4 peptide dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2 and iNOS, and NO and PGE2 production (Fig 2B–2E).

Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.


Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking. In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experimental explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.[20]
A study using an oral cavity spray of 5-HTP (via the plant source of Griffonia Simplicifolia) has noted that 7.68mg of 5-HTP via 30.72mg of Griffonia Simplicifolia extract taken five times daily (total daily dose of around 40mg) has confirmed an increase in urinary 5-HIAA (from 3.71+/-1.27mg/24 hours to 8.80+/-4.02mg/24 hours; a 137% increase) relative to baseline, confirming that 5-HTP can be absorbed sublingually.[3] Similar results have been noted elsewhere with this spray, although it should be noted that it is confounded with other herbs (detailed in the appetite subsection).[2]
Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
Ingroup bonding: Oxytocin can increase positive attitudes, such as bonding, toward individuals with similar characteristics, who then become classified as "in-group" members, whereas individuals who are dissimilar become classified as "out-group" members. Race can be used as an example of in-group and out-group tendencies because society often categorizes individuals into groups based on race (Caucasian, African American, Latino, etc.). One study that examined race and empathy found that participants receiving nasally administered oxytocin had stronger reactions to pictures of in-group members making pained faces than to pictures of out-group members with the same expression.[62] This shows that oxytocin may be implicated in our ability to empathize with individuals of different races and could potentially translate into willingness to help individuals in pain or stressful situations. Moreover, individuals of one race may be more inclined to help individuals of the same race than individuals of another race when they are experiencing pain. Oxytocin has also been implicated in lying when lying would prove beneficial to other in-group members. In a study where such a relationship was examined, it was found that when individuals were administered oxytocin, rates of dishonesty in the participants' responses increased for their in-group members when a beneficial outcome for their group was expected.[63] Both of these examples show the tendency of individuals to act in ways that benefit those considered to be members of their social group, or in-group.
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.
In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people and generosity.123 Oxytocin first became of interest to researchers when they discovered that breastfeeding women are calmer when exercising and experiencing stress than moms who were bottle-feeding. It is just one part of the important, complex neurochemical system in our bodies that helps us adapt to emotional situations.
TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes.
According to recent research, this hormone “is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug.”4
Growing up, Joe was plagued with a myriad of health issues such as gut problems, autoimmune issues, chronic fatigue, brain fog, insomnia, and general inflammation. Both conventional and alternative doctors weren’t able to help him, so he decided to fix himself. With lots of health questions and few satisfying answers, Joe decided to read every research paper he could get his hands on and conduct thousands of experiments on his own body in order to fix his health issues. Joe started SelfHacked in late 2013 when he successfully fixed all of his issues, and now it gets millions of readers a month looking to educate themselves about how they can improve their health. Joe is now a thriving author, speaker, and serial entrepreneur, founding SelfDecode & LabTestAnalyzer.
Ultimately, this lack of literature on the drug best serves to illustrate the recklessness of Stephen Dank in committing to something so experimental in nature. Perhaps he was privy to anecdotal evidence the rest of us weren’t. The drug has been used by amateur athletes and bodybuilders, and reportedly in the equine industry. Nevertheless, any benefits are unsubstantiated, which lends to an exasperation shared by supporters as to why Dank would risk so much for a substance that potentially offers no advantage at all. As a supporter, I would have much preferred a drug that allowed us to hit a target inside 50.
I have taken BPC-157 in conjunction with TB-500 after reading about someone’s experience. I used the BPC-157 at an injury/inflammation site in my shoulder. I have a pain that came out of nowhere and has prevented me from doing bench presses mainly, and shoulder presses. I also got pain when I did external rotation of my shoulder. The BPC-157 gave me good results at 250 mcg twice daily intramuscularly. The pain is not completely gone but it has definitely lessened in severity. I don’t get any pain with a reverse grip press so I have been doing those with light weight and I can now do shoulder presses. BPC-157 really blew me away on how quickly it improved my gut status. For me it only took 4 days of orally dosing with 250 mcg. So I did both the oral and intramuscular daily for a month. Two weeks into the BPC-157 I ordered TB-500 and did 1mg per week subq in my thigh because I didn’t know about injecting intramuscularly at the injury site.
How does MT-1 compare to MT-2? In terms of darkening the pigmentation of skin to enhance and individuals tan, both types have been proven to work in a number of clinical trials. However, the side effects using MT-2 are more common, but offsetting this is the fact that the darkening effect using MT-2 can be seen faster. It's important to note that the dosages for Melanotan-1and Melanotan-2 are different. For example, a sometimes recommended beginning dose of MT1 is 1mg, while a beginning dose of MT2 is often only 0.25mg.
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
5-HTP supplements are made using an extract from the seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia,a tree native to Africa (2). 5-HTP very rarely occurs naturally in what we eat, but tryptophan, from which 5-HTP is made in the body, is found in a variety of foods. The richest natural food sources include cheese, poultry, eggs, fish, nuts, soy, and various greens.
In regards to interventions, one study in treatment resistant depressed persons that combination therapy of 5-HTP with Carbidopa noted that 43 out of 99 (43.4%) patients improved with an average 200mg (variable 50-600mg) dosage of 5-HTP.[24] It has been noted[25] that since Cardidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that can prevent metabolism of monoamines including serotonin[26] that these results are unlikely to reflect monotherapy with 5-HTP, despite being within the 30-45% range sometimes seen with the placebo effect.[25][27]

Showa Denko, the source of up to 60% of all the tryptophan sold in the United States, had used an untested manufacturing process that reduced the amount of activated charcoal used to filter fermented raw tryptophan. Some reports suggest that purity may be a potential problem for 5-HTP as well. No cases of EMS resulting from 5-HTP use have been reported, however.
Stimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at birth: At the end of gestation, the uterus must contract vigorously and for a prolonged period of time in order to deliver the fetus. During the later stages of gestation, there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin receptors on uterine smooth muscle cells, which is associated with increased "irritability" of the uterus (and sometimes the mother as well). Oxytocin is released during labor when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina, and it enhances contraction of uterine smooth muscle to facilitate parturition or birth.
In humans, 5-HTP is the nutrient precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin – widely known as the 'happy neurotransmitter' – meaning 5-HTP converts directly into serotonin in the brain. As well as being in our bodies, it's found naturally in the seeds of a woody shrub native to West Africa. By taking it as a supplement, in theory, you will end up with more serotonin in your brain. Serotonin deficiency is linked to depression, anxiety and a whole host of physical and mental ailments. Raising its levels seems to help brain cells send and receive chemical messages, which in turn boosts mood.

Because of its role in creating serotonin, 5-HTP is indirectly involved in producing melatonin, a hormone that is critical for sleep. Melatonin helps the body’s bio clock stay in sync, and regulates daily sleep-wake cycles. A strong bio clock and regular sleep-wake routines are the cornerstone of healthy, restful, rejuvenating sleep. Research suggests that 5-HTP may help shorten the time it takes to fall asleep and increase sleep amounts.
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