Evidence accumulated over the past decades has overturned the traditional dogma that the adult mammalian brain cannot generate new neurons. Adult neurogenesis has been identified in all vertebrate species examined thus far including humans.44-49 Newly generated neuronal cells originate from neural stem cells in the adult brain. Neural stem cells are the self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neuronal and glial cells of the nervous system.50 The major function of neurogenesis in adult brain seems to replace the neurons that die regularly in certain brain areas. Granule neurons in the DG continuously die and the progenitors in the subgranular zone of the DG may proliferate at the same rate as mature neuronal death to maintain a constant DG cell number.51 Similarly, the newly proliferated cells from the subventricular zone migrate and replenish the dead olfactory bulb neurons.52 Here, we focus on DG neurogenesis which is important for spatial learning and memory. In normal adult rats, newborn neural cells migrate from the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus into the granule cell layer and eventually become mature granule neurons.53 These new granule neurons extend axonal processes to their postsynaptic targets54-57 and receive synaptic input.58 TBI stimulates widespread cellular proliferation in rats and results in focal neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus.59,60 Some of the newly generated granule neurons integrate into the hippocampus. The integration of the injury-induced neurogenic population into the existing hippocampal circuitry coincides with the time point when cognitive recovery is observed in injured animals.44

Oxytocin's story starts back in the early 1900s, when biochemists discovered that a substance from the posterior pituitary gland could promote labour contractions and lactation. When scientists later discovered the hormone responsible, they named it oxytocin after the Greek phrase meaning 'rapid birth'. Oxytocin is produced mainly by the brain's hypothalamus; in the 1970s, studies revealed that oxytocin-producing neurons send signals throughout the brain, suggesting that the hormone had a role in regulating behaviour.
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the “love hormone,” because it is associated with good feelings and emotions. But its role in the body is much more complex than that. It is not a bliss or hug hormone, but it does appear to be connected to human emotions and the regulation of childbirth and breast-feeding.

Jump up ^ Wei D, Lee D, Cox CD, Karsten CA, Peñagarikano O, Geschwind DH, Gall CM, Piomelli D (November 2015). "Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (45): 14084–9. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214084W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509795112. PMC 4653148. PMID 26504214.

TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein thymosin β4. They are found almost exclusively in multicellular animals. Thymosin β4 was originally obtained from the thymus in company with several other small proteins which although named collectively "thymosins" are now known to be structurally and genetically unrelated and present in many different animal tissues.

Even if you did look after yourself adequately and monitor the amount of 5-HTP you were taking, it doesn't appear to be a permanent or lasting solution. A couple of the doctors talked about something that comes up time and time again with long-term SSRI use: a dissipating effect, meaning they can feel less and less effective over time. It seems that people may have the same problem with 5-HTP. "If you push on your biochemistry hard enough, it may downregulate," Dr Paddock explained. "If you're taking SSRIs your body may downregulate the amount of serotonin it puts out so you get waning effects over time. It's similar with 5-HTP. There may be a certain level of serotonin your body is keeping you at and if you raise it or push it, your body then may say, 'Okay, we're above the set point, let's then raise that point again.'"
Actual injection can be done Subq or IM that is - subcutaneous or intramuscular. Injection site does not matter, there is no one site better than others so use one which is more comfortabe to reach, after injection product is absorbed into bloodstream and spread through the body evenly. Subq injection takes place by pinching the skin loose from the muscle and raising it so the needle can be inserted in the fat layer of skin.

Eventually I found Dr Kristaps Paddock, a naturopathic doctor and 5-HTP expert from Maryland in the US. He said one benefit 5-HTP has over SSRIs is that it kicks in quickly for those with anxiety and depression. "Serotonin has a short metabolic half-life, so it metabolises very, very fast. It goes into the body and out at a great speed, unlike SSRIs, which take a while to take effect so a sufferer wouldn't be feeling good during that time, and in fact may be feeling more suicidal. SSRIs also then have to be weaned off slowly, whereas you can stop taking 5-HTP instantly." Another bonus, of course, is that it's natural rather than synthetic. "If you're seriously considering the supplement, you have to weigh the positives and negatives against each other. The toxicity with 5-HTP is lower than that of SSRIs, since it's natural. Also because it's metabolised much quicker, it'd get out of your system more quickly if there were any problems. On the other hand, the research basis for 5-HTP is dramatically lower, so it's important to think of that."

A critical step in wound healing is angiogenesis. New vessels are needed to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cells involved in repair, to remove toxic materials and debris of dead cells and generate optimal conditions for new tissue formation. Another important step is the directional migration of cells into the injured area, joining up to repair the wound. This requires an attractant that will direct the cells to the wound and propel them to the site. These critical steps in wound healing are regulated by beta 4, as seen in the following experiments.
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.
RegeneRx is continuing with pre-clinical research, in collaborative arrangements with the National Institutes of Health, accumulating data on the effects of Tb4 and aiming for an IND application (Investigational New drug App-lication) to proceed with clinical studies. Phase I clinical trials will determine the ability of Tb4 to repair ulcers in diabetic patients and to reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery from burns and abrasions to the cornea.

A user knowing their skin type in relation to the Fitzpatrick scale is important because it will dictate dosing needs. It should be noted that those who will benefit the most from this product are those in the upper spectrum of the Fitzpatrick scale (Types 1, 2 and 3 especially). Skin type 1 and 2 users will typically take longer to see any results from this product, however once beautiful tan is obtained maintenance is easy.

Suggested doses vary depending on the source – some sellers will encourage higher use! One site suggests starting with a dose of 0.25mg. If side-effects (see above) are not proving troublesome, the site advises users to attempt to increase daily dosage. After 2-3 weeks of daily use, or when the desired level of pigmentation has been achieved, people who use Melanotan II should start a maintenance phase of two injections per week.
Wonderful column. My expertise is the psychology of risk perception, and I have done some reading on oxytocin and trust (not the kind you want to boost in a bar with Liquid Trust – you can the stuff with pheromones – to boost THAT kind of trust). It turns out there is a high concentration of oxytocin receptors on the amygdala, the area of the brain where fear starts. As oxytocin levels go up, the ability of the amygdala to be warry and more mistrustful goes down. I describe this in Ch. 3 of How Risky Is It, Really? Why Our Fears Don’t Always Match the Facts. A few graphs of which are below. I wonder whether the influence of oxytocin on the amygdala might be connected with the finding of the study you write about.

This may be an odd question. But would this be good to inject or spray on those that have undergone hair transplants in the first month of surgery. Fue microscars. I see you mention it improves hair growth and blood flow. both which basically what rogaine claims to do. Surely this would benefit new transplanted hair follicles in taking and holding? Interested in your thoughts in the matter.
Autism. A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children.[14] A 2003 study found a decrease in autism spectrum repetitive behaviors when oxytocin was administered intravenously.[15] A 2007 study reported that oxytocin helped autistic adults retain the ability to evaluate the emotional significance of speech intonation.[16]
Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.[48] Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.[49]

In the experiments, an epithelial wound was made in the corneas of sedated rats. A Tb4 solution was applied at several concentrations to the injured eyes in one group of rats while another group was treated with a solution without Tb4. Following 12, 24 and 36 hours, the eyes were tested by microscopic observation for epithelial growth over the injured site. Investigators found the Tb4 accelerated corneal wound repair at doses of Tb4 similar to those found to repair skin wounds. When tested 24 hours after treatment, the rate of accelerated repair was proportional to the concentration of Tb4, with the highest dose (25 microgram) showing a threefold acceleration of epithelial cell migration, compared to untreated. Treatment with Tb4 showed anti-inflammatory effects, helping resolve the injury. An application to human cells in a model of human corneal cells in culture showed that Tb4 enhanced epithelial cell migration in vitro.

Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein thymosin β4. They are found almost exclusively in multicellular animals. Thymosin β4 was originally obtained from the thymus in company with several other small proteins which although named collectively "thymosins" are now known to be structurally and genetically unrelated and present in many different animal tissues.

Suggested doses vary depending on the source – some sellers will encourage higher use! One site suggests starting with a dose of 0.25mg. If side-effects (see above) are not proving troublesome, the site advises users to attempt to increase daily dosage. After 2-3 weeks of daily use, or when the desired level of pigmentation has been achieved, people who use Melanotan II should start a maintenance phase of two injections per week.

The molecule of this peptide is very big, so it isn’t able to completely fit within a receptor. Each area of the molecule has different functions. For instance, TB 500 is responsible for promoting majority of the useful effects, such as the healing, muscle cells, new blood and repair. In some scenarios, TB 500 could be used rather than the whole Thymosin Beta 4 protein. TB 500’s main ability is to regulate Actin, which is a cell-building protein. There are thousands of proteins found inside of cells, but actin makes up to 10 percent of the total amount of proteins, giving it a major role in the cell’s genetic makeup.
To explore whether Tβ4 peptide-induced anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenesis were dependent on the up-regulation of Wnt5a, the effects of recombinant human (rh) Wnt5a (500 ng/mL) and Wnt5a-specific siRNA were assessed. Pretreatment of Wnt5a siRNA reversed the inhibitory effects of Tβ4 peptide on H2O2-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions, NO and PGE2 productions, osteoclastogenic cytokines, and RANKL expression (Fig 10A–10E). In contrast, pretreatment with rhWnt5a enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 peptide whereas control siRNA showed no effect on PDLCs. In accordance with anti-inflammatory results, Tβ4 peptide-suppressed osteoclast number and TRAP activity in BMM cells were reversed by exogenous treatment with Wnt5a siRNA but enhanced by rh-Wnt5a (Fig 11A–11C).
The first time Ditzen and her colleagues did this experiment they found that for both men and women oxytocin improved communication and lowered cortisol, a stress hormone. But in a recent study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Ditzen and her colleagues measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)—an enzyme tied specifically to social stress—and found that men and women responded differently. Women who got oxytocin showed a decrease in sAA whereas men showed an increase and reported feeling more intense emotions. Counterintuitively, these men were also better at communication during conflict: they smiled more, had more eye-contact and were more open about their feelings. These behaviors are essential for peaceful conflict resolution.
Oxytocin was also correlated with the longevity of a relationship. Couples with the highest levels were the ones still together six months later. They were also more attuned to each other than the low-oxytocin couples when Feldman asked them to talk about a shared positive experience. The high-oxytocin couples finished each other’s sentences, laughed together and touched each other more often. Feldman says it’s still not clear whether oxytocin was responsible for the stability of the couple’s bond six months later or if couples who weren’t as connected failed to trigger the oxytocin system.
The vascular system in the normal adult brain is stable, but is activated in response to certain pathological conditions including injuries.68 Von Willebrand factor (vWF) staining has been used to identify vascular structure in the brain after TBI.69 TBI alone significantly increased vascular density in the injured cortex, CA3, and DG of the ipsilateral hemisphere when examined at day 35 after TBI compared to sham controls.18,34,64,65 Tβ4 treatment significantly increased the vascular density in these regions compared to saline treatment.34 This is in agreement with in vitro and in vivo pro-angiogenic effect of Tβ4.70,71
In December 2010, the delegate made a delegate only decision to include afamelanotide (also known as melanotan I) with a cross-reference to melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) for inclusion into the current Poisons Standard. It was noted that afamelanotide should not be confused with a similar substance commonly known as Melanotan-II, which is a cyclic lactam synthetic analogue of α-MSH. It was noted that melanotan-II was under investigation for treating sexual dysfunction, although this has been abandoned due to side effects associated with the immune and cardiovascular systems. Its metabolite, bremelanotide, is under investigation for treating haemorrhagic shock.
The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (cysteine - tyrosine - phenylalanine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - arginine - glycine), also a nonapeptide with a sulfur bridge, whose sequence differs from oxytocin by 2 amino acids. A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article. Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955.
I have done my research related to this, I am thinking about ordering TB-500…I have a few questions to ask before ordering, I am a volleyball player and stopped playing for a while to let it rest and in process of healing. I have A SLAP tear is an injury to the labrum of the shoulder. Should I use TB-500 for shoulder so it can increase muscle growth? I would be interested on your take of how to do the injections there.

Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Tβ4 is known to be involved in various cellular responses, including antiinflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. Emerging evidence suggests that Tβ4 is expressed in the liver; however, its biological roles are poorly understood. Herein, we introduce liver fibrogenesis and recent findings regarding the function of Tβ4 in various tissues and discuss the potential role of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis with a special focus on the effects of exogenous and endogenous Tβ4. Recent studies have revealed that activated HSCs express Tβ4 in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with the exogenous Tβ4 peptide inhibits the proliferation and migration of activated HSCs and reduces liver fibrosis, indicating it has an antifibrotic action. Meanwhile, the endogenously expressed Tβ4 in activated HSCs is shown to promote HSCs activation. Although the role of Tβ4 has not been elucidated, it is apparent that Tβ4 is associated with HSC activation. Therefore, understanding the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis may provide a novel treatment for patients.

The RANKL and OPG have been identified as a key regulatory component of alveolar bone loss associated with inflammatory periodontal disease [52]. Moreover, PDLCs were shown to express several osteoclastogenic cytokines, including both OPG and RANKL [30, 31]. Our data demonstrated that Tβ4 peptide abolished H2O2-induced RANKL expression and restored OPG expression. Osteoclasts, bone-resorptive multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, are associated with osteolytic diseases. Furthermore, NFATc1, a master modulator of osteoclastogenesis, regulates target genes, such as cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor or Calcr [53]. In our in vitro study using BMMs, Tβ4 peptide directly and indirectly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and expression of osteoclast markers, such as cathepsin-K, calcitonin receptor or Calcr, NFATc1, and RANK in BMM cells. These results indicated that Tβ4 was a key therapeutic target in controlling inflammation-induced bone loss.
Supplements haven't been tested for safety and due to the fact that dietary supplements are largely unregulated, the content of some products may differ from what is specified on the product label. Also keep in mind that the safety of supplements in pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, and those with medical conditions or who are taking medications has not been established. You can get tips on using supplements, but if you're considering the use of 5-HTP supplements, talk with your primary care provider first. Self-treating a condition and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences.
To further determine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of Tβ4 activation, expressions of proinflammatory or osteoclastogenic cytokines were measured by RT-PCR (Fig 4A). The TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 mRNA levels increased in the H2O2- stimulated PDLCs, and these increases were significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by treatment with the Tβ4 peptide. Since receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are two important osteoclastogenic factors, we next explored the effects of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL and OPG expressions in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide reduced H2O2-stimulated up-regulation of RANKL, with a reciprocal increase in OPG mRNA in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 4B).
Social behavior[66][111] and wound healing: Oxytocin is also thought to modulate inflammation by decreasing certain cytokines. Thus, the increased release in oxytocin following positive social interactions has the potential to improve wound healing. A study by Marazziti and colleagues used heterosexual couples to investigate this possibility. They found increases in plasma oxytocin following a social interaction were correlated with faster wound healing. They hypothesized this was due to oxytocin reducing inflammation, thus allowing the wound to heal more quickly. This study provides preliminary evidence that positive social interactions may directly influence aspects of health.[112] According to a study published in 2014, silencing of oxytocin receptor interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of female mice resulted in loss of social interest in male mice during the sexually receptive phase of the estrous cycle.[113] Oxytocin evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security when in the company of the mate.[101] This suggests oxytocin may be important for the inhibition of the brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear, and anxiety, thus allowing orgasm to occur. Research has also demonstrated that oxytocin can decrease anxiety and protect against stress, particularly in combination with social support.[114] It is found, that endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward.[115]
There have been some side effects reported while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: nausea, appetite loss, drowsiness and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine can be taken when injecting until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to inject Melanotan before bed, this is also beneficial to combat any drowsiness.
Although maternal bonding may not always be hardwired — after all, human females can adopt babies and take care of them — oxytocin released during pregnancy "does seem to have a role in motivation and feelings of connectedness to a baby," Young said. Studies also show that interacting with a baby causes the infant's own oxytocin levels to increase, he added. 

Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use: if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking carbidopa or drugs/supplements with serotonergic activity including, but not limited to, L-tryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's Wort, antidepressants, pain killers, over-the-counter cough and cold medication containing dextromethorphan, anti-nausea medication and anti-migraine medication. Discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner if you show signs of weakness, oral ulcers, or abdominal pain accompanied by severe muscle pain. Do not use if you have scleroderma. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness. Some people may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness.
Nasally administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[76] Indeed, studies in rodents have shown oxytocin can efficiently inhibit fear responses by activating an inhibitory circuit within the amygdala.[77][78] Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude.[79] Individuals who receive an intranasal dose of oxytocin identify facial expressions of disgust more quickly than individuals who do not receive oxytocin.[75][qualify evidence] Facial expressions of disgust are evolutionarily linked to the idea of contagion. Thus, oxytocin increases the salience of cues that imply contamination, which leads to a faster response because these cues are especially relevant for survival. In another study, after administration of oxytocin, individuals displayed an enhanced ability to recognize expressions of fear compared to the individuals who received the placebo.[80] Oxytocin modulates fear responses by enhancing the maintenance of social memories. Rats that are genetically modified to have a surplus of oxytocin receptors display a greater fear response to a previously conditioned stressor. Oxytocin enhances the aversive social memory, leading the rat to display a greater fear response when the aversive stimulus is encountered again.[74]
Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.6

The reality is that people are always going to self-medicate. Boots, Amazon and H&B all sell 5-HTP, and in theory you could keep buying it and taking it for as long as you like. But it's important to know the facts. It shouldn't be used in conjunction with an SSRI, for example. In that situation, if the body is preventing serotonin breakdown while also getting extra serotonin, which leads to seriously unhealthy levels of serotonin activity.
5-HTP helps the body to produce more serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood and sleep-wake cycles. Healthy levels of serotonin contribute to a positive mood and outlook and also promote restful sleep. Serotonin also plays an important role in many other of the body’s functions, including digestion, appetite, and pain perception.