It was under development as drug candidate for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction but clinical development ceased by 2003, and as of 2018, no product containing melanotan II was marketed and all commercial development had ceased.[1] Unlicensed, untested, or fraudulent products sold as "melanotan II" are found on the Internet, and purported to be effective as "tanning drugs", though side effects such as uneven pigmentation, new nevi (moles), and darkening or enlargement of existing moles are common and have led to medical authorities discouraging use.[2][3]
Oxytocin is a versatile actor, whose resume includes all sorts of jobs in sex, reproduction, social behaviour and emotions.  It can increase trust among people and make them more cooperative (this works in meerkats, too). It can increase the social skills of autistic people. It’s released during orgasm. It affects lactating breasts, contracting wombs and the behaviour of sheep mothers towards their newly born lambs. The list goes on: drug addiction, generosity, depression, empathy, learning, memory.
“The study is kind of a high-water mark for the field, putting different levels all together: a robust behaviour, a brain region, and a cellular basis for it,” says Richard Tsien, a neuroscientist also at Langone. Tsien has been studying the action of oxytocin on neuronal circuits in detail, by examining slices of the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. In a 2013 study6 of rats, Tsien's team found that oxytocin selectively acts on a type of cell called an inhibitory interneuron in a way that quiets background chatter within the neuronal circuit. “Oxytocin improved signal transmission, almost doubling the ability of information to flow through the system,” Tsien says. In effect, it is producing more signal and less noise.
Moreover, Tβ4 concentration revealed wide variability, and it decreased in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as periodontal disease progressed [19]. In contrast, Tβ4 mRNA expression was 3.76 fold higher in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, compared with healthy individuals’ tissue obtained from public microarray data (GEO assession: GSE 23586) [20]. However, the Tβ4 mRNA level did not change in the periodontal-diseased gingival tissue (arbitrary units; 6.249) when compared with healthy tissue (arbitrary units; 6.242) (GEO assession: GSE 10334) [21]. Although Tβ4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, the precise role of Tβ4 in the inflammatory response remains unclear.
What we noticed was that all the rats that had received oxytocin straight into their brain immediately prior to being given alcohol, were up and moving about and seemed to be completely sober. Whereas all of the rats that had just been given the alcohol were, as we would predict from the dose that we were giving them, quite drunk. And so we thought, 'Wow, what's going on here?' It was almost as though the oxytocin was blocking the intoxicating effects of the alcohol.
Tb4 has other effects that are needed in healing and repair of damaged tissue. It is a chemo-attractant for cells, stimulates new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis), downregulates cytokines and reduces inflammation, thus protecting newly formed tissue from damaging inflammatory events. Tb4 has been shown to reduce free radical levels (with similar efficiency as superoxide dismutase), decrease lipid peroxidation, inhibit interleukin 1 and other cytokines, and decrease inflammatory thromboxane (TxB2) and prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha).
There have been some side effects reported while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: nausea, appetite loss, drowsiness and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine can be taken when injecting until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to inject Melanotan before bed, this is also beneficial to combat any drowsiness.
Before all of this, the men completed a series of widely used questionnaires to measure the state of their social ties. The questions assessed the nature of their bonds with their families and friends, how sensitive they are to rejection, how comfortable they are at being close to other people, how much they desire that closeness, and more. Shortly after using both sprays, the recruits also answered questions about their mother’s parenting style.
Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
In regards to interventions, one study in treatment resistant depressed persons that combination therapy of 5-HTP with Carbidopa noted that 43 out of 99 (43.4%) patients improved with an average 200mg (variable 50-600mg) dosage of 5-HTP.[24] It has been noted[25] that since Cardidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that can prevent metabolism of monoamines including serotonin[26] that these results are unlikely to reflect monotherapy with 5-HTP, despite being within the 30-45% range sometimes seen with the placebo effect.[25][27]
^ Jump up to: a b Hurlemann R, Patin A, Onur OA, Cohen MX, Baumgartner T, Metzler S, Dziobek I, Gallinat J, Wagner M, Maier W, Kendrick KM (April 2010). "Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans". The Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (14): 4999–5007. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5538-09.2010. PMID 20371820.

Thymosin Beta 4 is a potent peptide that comes from a family of 16 related molecules that are localized in circulating cells and tissues within the body. These molecules also have a high conservation of sequence. TB 500 conjoins with actin and prevents actin polymerization. It is noted as being the actin-sequestering molecule within eukaryotic cells. It also boosts extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme production.

Johansson, A., Westberg, L., Sandnabba, K., Jern, P., Salo, B., & Santtila, P. (2012). Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption [Abstract]. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(9), 1546-56. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22421562

 Don't be surprised.  A lot of people haven't heard of Melanotan.  Melanotan is a tanning peptide that stimulates the production of melanin in the body to foster a deep, natural tan.  This is the body's way of protecting itself from too much sun exposure by increasing the level of melanin in the body.  Melanin is your body's natural response to UV damage.  The end result is a darkening of the skin.
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I would take the recommended dosage and see how you feel. Only you can tell whether it's working or not.
Good quality Griffonia Simplicifonia, however the pouch is a very inconvenient packaging choice! Why not use the small 25-50gm pill bottle type? I used to be a quality controller in food additives and it would be so perfect to take doses from and fairly cheap and easy to source. I can understand if this is a new product for your line however but you should invest in this for 5htp alone perhaps. Thank you though will be ordering more down the track!
She recruited 31 men* and asked them to sniff either an oxytocin nasal spray or another spray with the same ingredients minus oxytocin – a placebo. A few weeks later, the sprays were swapped so that the men who took oxytocin now took the placebo, and vice versa. At the time, neither the scientists nor the volunteers knew which was which – that was only revealed after the experiment was over.
Cells were incubated for 48 hours with the indicated times with 200 μM H2O2 (A) and the indicated concentrations of H2O2 (B) for 48 hours. The mRNA and protein expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05.
5-HTP is an easy way to lose weight on just about any diet, so you can choose any plan that appeals to you — or even no plan at all! But if you’re looking for a quick approach proven to work, use guidelines created by the University of Rome researchers. They allotted folks 1,200 calories a day, about half from carbs and the rest a mix of lean protein and fat. That means at most sittings, you’ll want to start with 200 calories of carbs, including both starchy carbs and carbs from produce (such as a bowl of cereal with fruit, or pasta with veggies). Add about 120 calories of protein (such as some Greek yogurt, egg whites or a few ounces of lean meat). Finish with 80 calories of fat, such as 10 almonds or 2 tsp. olive oil. An easy formula for fast weight loss if we've ever heard one!
At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.
When you get your TB-500, it will come in a powder form. Just like BPC-157, you will need to “reconstitute” it by adding bacteriostatic water. Go back and read my article on BPC-157 to get access to a peptide calculator that will help you with the mixing/dosage math. Once your TB-500 is properly mixed, you then draw the dose into an insulin syringe, and inject it intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously (according to your preference).

Oxytocin production does not exist separately from the evolved neurophysiological mechanisms that regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. There are mammalian pheromones that are known to directly influence the GnRH pulse, for example androstenol. Oxytocin is not considered to be a pheromone by anyone I know who is involved in olfactory research. Sniffing it is simply a delivery method that we now can see might have negative consequences.
Froemke's study1, published in April, showed that oxytocin temporarily suppresses inhibitory neurons — those that dampen neural activity — which allows excitatory cells to respond more strongly and reliably. “Our hypothesis is that the virgin brain is a blanket of inhibition, and that pairing the pup calls with oxytocin allows the network to be reconfigured,” says Froemke. The hormone may serve to amplify incoming signals and allow them to be recognized as behaviourally important. (It is at least possible, he says, that this same mechanism could explain why some human mothers feel they are uniquely tuned to a baby's cries.)
Thymosin β4 has been tested in multicenter trials sponsored jointly by RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc (Rockville, MD, USA) and Sigma Tau (Pomezia, Italy) in the United States and Europe in patients with bed sores, ulcers caused by venostasis, and Epidermolysis bullosa simplex and was found to accelerate bed sore and stasis ulcer repair by one month. It has also been tested in patients with chronic neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects and found to promote repair.

"By understanding the oxytocin system's dual role in triggering or reducing anxiety, depending on the social context, we can optimize oxytocin treatments that improve well-being instead of triggering negative reactions," said Jelena Radulovic, the senior author of the study and the Dunbar Professsor of Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The paper was published July 21 in Nature Neuroscience.

Combined treatments of 5-HTP and SSRI seem to have strong synergistic effects on serotonin levels in rats and humans so that some clinicians recommend the use of slow-released 5-HTP in combination with SSRIs (R, R2, R3). However, additional clinical trials are required to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this approach, and combinations of 5-HTP and medications should only be used under medical supervision.


I went to a neurologist, He said it was just in my head because I have depression–the exact reason why I took 5HTP. Not satisfied with that doctor, I went to an immunologist. He said I got myositis. Eosinophilic Myositis. From my blood test, I got positive ANA IF, very high number of IgE, elevated Creatine Kinase, and very low Vitamin D 25(OH)D. But my ANA Profile test showed negative.
Virtually all vertebrates have an oxytocin-like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions and a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation. The two genes are always located close to each other (less than 15,000 bases apart) on the same chromosome and are transcribed in opposite directions. It is thought that the two genes resulted from a gene duplication event; the ancestral gene is estimated to be about 500 million years old and is found in cyclostomes (modern members of the Agnatha).[12]

Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of ROS and plays a key role in the progression of periodontal diseases [24]. Damage of tissues in inflammatory periodontal disease can be mediated by ROS resulting from the physiological activity of PMN during the phagocytosis of periodontopathic bacteria [27]. In addition, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as hypoxia induces a NOX4-dependent increase in H2O2 release in PDLCs [28]. Furthermore, ROS such as H2O2 are small, diffusible, and ubiquitous molecules, can affect human PDLCs and gingival fibroblasts cell injury indirectly by enhancing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, NO, PGE2, and ROS [29–31]. This ROS is known to stimulate osteoclast differentiation and participate in early signaling events associated with osteoclast activation for bone resorption [32]. Since LPS from P. gingivalis increases oxidative stress in PDLCs and contributes to periodontitis [28], human PDLCs treated with H2O2 may serve as an in vitro model relevant to periodontitis.
Cells were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for indicated times (A). Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide (0.1–5 μg/mL) for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 60 minutes (B). Data were representative of three independent experiments. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.
What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now

The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.1718 The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin’s effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.19 Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm.20 A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted that these changes “may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue.”21

To evaluate the indirect effect of Tβ4 peptide on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were incubated with RANKL and CM, prepared from HPDLCs treated with H2O2 and different concentrations of Tβ4, and allowed to differentiate into osteoclasts. As shown in Fig 6, Tβ4 peptide dose-dependently decreased the number of osteoclasts and TRAP activity. To determine whether the reduction in osteoclast generation by Tβ4 could be due to effects of Tβ4 peptide on viability of the BMMs, a cytotoxicity assay was performed. The viability of BMMs was not significantly affected by Tβ4 peptide (data not shown).
The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.
Chae, H. S., Kang, O. H., Choi, J. G., Oh, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Jang, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, H., Jung, K. Y., Sohn, D. H., and Kwon, D. Y. 5-hydroxytryptophan acts on the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase pathway to modulate cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32:553-557. View abstract.
Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of ROS and plays a key role in the progression of periodontal diseases [24]. Damage of tissues in inflammatory periodontal disease can be mediated by ROS resulting from the physiological activity of PMN during the phagocytosis of periodontopathic bacteria [27]. In addition, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as hypoxia induces a NOX4-dependent increase in H2O2 release in PDLCs [28]. Furthermore, ROS such as H2O2 are small, diffusible, and ubiquitous molecules, can affect human PDLCs and gingival fibroblasts cell injury indirectly by enhancing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, NO, PGE2, and ROS [29–31]. This ROS is known to stimulate osteoclast differentiation and participate in early signaling events associated with osteoclast activation for bone resorption [32]. Since LPS from P. gingivalis increases oxidative stress in PDLCs and contributes to periodontitis [28], human PDLCs treated with H2O2 may serve as an in vitro model relevant to periodontitis.
5-HTP appears to reduce food intake secondary to increasing satiety, although most studies are currently conducted in women (in regards to 5-HTP being related to serotonin, this may be relevant; see our creatine page and the Depression section for more information). At least one study that was mixed gender supports the notion it benefits both genders, however
Growing up, Joe was plagued with a myriad of health issues such as gut problems, autoimmune issues, chronic fatigue, brain fog, insomnia, and general inflammation. Both conventional and alternative doctors weren’t able to help him, so he decided to fix himself. With lots of health questions and few satisfying answers, Joe decided to read every research paper he could get his hands on and conduct thousands of experiments on his own body in order to fix his health issues. Joe started SelfHacked in late 2013 when he successfully fixed all of his issues, and now it gets millions of readers a month looking to educate themselves about how they can improve their health. Joe is now a thriving author, speaker, and serial entrepreneur, founding SelfDecode & LabTestAnalyzer.
"By understanding the oxytocin system's dual role in triggering or reducing anxiety, depending on the social context, we can optimize oxytocin treatments that improve well-being instead of triggering negative reactions," said Jelena Radulovic, the senior author of the study and the Dunbar Professsor of Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The paper was published July 21 in Nature Neuroscience.

Why have zebrafish retained the ability to regenerate? It is thought that the capacity for organ regeneration is an ancestral condition that has occasionally been diminished in the course of vertebrate evolution (Scadding, 1977; Goss, 1992; Wagner and Misof, 1992). Thus, most biologists suspect that the molecular machinery to optimize regeneration is present but poorly-utilized in mammals. By this line of reasoning, zebrafish heart regeneration may represent an optimal utilization of universal cardiac machinery.

In the ER, the patient's heart rate was elevated, she was sweaty, and had some muscle spasms. The physician in the ER called Poison Control for guidance. Poison Control indicated that a drug interaction between 5-HTP and Zoloft was a likely cause of the patient's symptoms because they were consistent with a rare but serious condition (serotonin syndrome) that occurs when serotonin concentrations in the brain are too high. Poison Control recommended a sedative to decrease the patient's heart rate and improve the other symptoms. 
Dr Sohère Roked is a GP in the UK with a specialist interest in integrative medicine. She prescribes 5-HTP to patients with anxiety and depression, alongside vitamins and other natural supplements, and sees no problem with it being used for mild conditions. "With the patients I see, generally I've seen good results with it. Antidepressants do work for some people, so I'm not against them completely, but others don't want to go down that path straight away. This gives them another option."
Young says that the oxytocin field would benefit from closer collaboration between basic and clinical researchers. If basic scientists can work out how oxytocin helps the brain to process social stimuli, then that might help in the design of stimuli — in the form of behavioural therapies — that could be given alongside the hormone to change behaviour, just as oxytocin and pup calls together affect virgin mice. “I think in the future these two branches need to have more communication,” Young says.
Pull 1ml of water into the syringe and inject it into the vial with powder. You should never shake the vial when mixing. You should not inject the water directly into the powder with force, but rather let it gently slide down the inside of the vial. If it bubbles up, you should put the vial in the refrigerator and leave it there for about 15-30 minutes. The bubbles will be gone by then. You should then gently rotate the vial between your fingers until all of the powder has dissolved (it takes about 3-4 minutes).
A Risk Quiz; Let’s say you are one of the volunteers to whom researchers gave $100, and this option: you can either keep the money, or give it to an anonymous trustee who will either invest it and double it to $200 and return half of the extra hundred bucks to you–$50–or keep all the money for herself. So you can either increase your money by 50%, or lose it all. What would you do? Would you trust that anonymous trustee? (Remember Loss Aversion from Chapter Two, where in a similar experiment most people decided to avoid the gamble and take the sure cash.)
There have been some side effects reported while using Melanotan 2, typically these effects appear during the first few days of dosing and will become increasingly less obvious as the body adjusts to the peptide. These effects include: nausea, appetite loss, drowsiness and increased sex drive. In order to combat nausea, an anti-histamine can be taken when injecting until the body gets used to it. But most common way to deal with this is to inject Melanotan before bed, this is also beneficial to combat any drowsiness.
We have evaluated the efficacy of early Tβ4 treatment on spatial learning and sensorimotor functional recovery in rats after TBI induced by unilateral CCI.34 In brief, TBI rats received Tβ4 at a dose of either 6 or 30 mg/kg (RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD) or a vehicle control (saline) administered i.p. starting at 6 hours after injury and then at 24 and 48 hours. Spatial learning was performed during the last five days (31-35 days post injury) using the modified Morris water maze (MWM) test, which is extremely sensitive to the hippocampal injury.35-37 Tβ4-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning when compared to the saline-treated TBI rats. Tβ4 treatment also significantly reduced the swim latency to reach the hidden platform by rats post TBI compared to saline treatment. Using the modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) test, our data show that significantly improved scores were observed after TBI in the Tβ4-treated group compared to the saline-treated group. Our data also show that Tβ4 reduced the incidence of both right forelimb and hindlimb footfaults in TBI rats.34 Histological data show that early Tβ4 treatment reduced cortical lesion volume by 20% and 30% for 6 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, respectively, and reduced hippocampal cell loss. These findings suggest that TB4 provides neuroprotection even when the treatment was initiated 6 hours post injury. In addition, 6-hour Tβ4 treatment promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus,38 which may contribute to improvement in spatial learning.

Cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of Tβ4 peptide for 2 hours and then incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-C). Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot analysis (A). The production of NO (B) and PGE2 (C) were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Data replicated the quantifications of NO and PGE2 with the standard deviation of at least three experiments (n = 4). The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein expression compared with control cells. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2—treated group.

When we asked a group of readers to test out 5-HTP to lose weight, they ate unlimited portions of healthy food and still shed up to five pounds in a week. We also talked to women who’d been using 5-HTP long term. Heather Miars started taking 5-HTP for her mood at Dr. Bhatia’s urging. “I was finally able to go off prescription antidepressants and lose 15 pounds!” recalls the 45-year-old mom. Meanwhile, Audra Holmes tried 5-HTP after developing “mood swings so wild, I was giving people whiplash,” she jokes. On 5-HTP, she says: “I didn’t have the highs and lows. I could suddenly get through the day without naps or comfort food!” She shed 50 pounds in 16 weeks. Wish you could have the same kind of success with an easy way to lose weight? As Dr. Oz put it: “5-HTP may be your pre-meal must-have!”


Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether Tβ4 was up-regulated in patients with periodontitis, and this study was also designed to investigate whether Tβ4 inhibition or activation suppressed the osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) as well as on their signaling pathways.
There is one glaring problem, however: the supplements come with a disclaimer that recommends not taking them for more than three months. Most of the information out there on 5-HTP is anecdotal, and most of them are stories of it helping people, rather than hard facts about its scientific properties. I approached neurologists, psychologists and experimental doctors about 5-HTP, and many responses were strange. Not many people were willing to speak about it, saying they weren't qualified or hadn't read the relevant material, but there isn't much material to speak of. The main source of legitimate scientific evidence came from the University of Maryland Medical Center website, who stated that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. But all the studies that support that statement were done in the 1980s and 1990s. I wanted to know if 5-HTP was a realistic alternative to SSRIs. Could I stay on 5-HTP forever, basking in its natural glory?
Sexual activity: The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of self-stimulated orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured five minutes after self arousal.[103] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[103]
Drug interaction: Impact on effects of alcohol and other drugs: According to several studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[68] MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity primarily via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[69] The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) may produce some of its effects via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation as well.[70][71]
5-HTP can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others).
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