PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994), FGF-2 (Inadomi et al., 2004), IGF I and II (Zhao et al., 1995), TGF-β (Greenalgh, 1996), and L-arginine (Shi et al., 2003) enhance fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen in chronic wounds. Thymosin β4 accelerates wound repair in both young and old diabetic mice by significantly increasing wound contraction and collagen deposition. A synthetic peptide that duplicated the actin-binding domain of thymosin β4 promoted wound repair in aged mice to a degree comparable to that of the whole molecule (Philp et al., 2003). In rats with wound healing impaired by mitomycin C, the formation of granulation tissue (angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation) was significantly advanced by hydrogel sheets composed of alginate, chitin/chitosan, and fucoidin (Murakami et al., 2010).

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light prompts an increased release of Alpha-MSH, which in turn stimulates the production of melanin in the skin. The more melanin produced the greater pigmentation level becomes, making the skin progressively darker and tan lasts significantly longer. This makes Melanotan peptide unique, people do not require as much exposure to UV light to produce more melanin, very attractive for people wishing to develop greater tanning of the skin in fastest way possible.
The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[31] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.[citation needed]
Don’t take it by itself, you want to take it with a meal. The half life seems to vary; some people just need to take a single dose daily whereas some break it up into several doses. The dosage range is pretty wide, from 50 to 900 milligrams. Many report the antidepressant effect desired from lower doses, so start low with this one. Do not use a liquid form of 5-HTP.

In September 2007, the FDA issued a public notice advising consumers to stop using melanotan II as it was an unapproved drug with no safety or efficacy data for the advertised indications. Furthermore, the FDA issues a warning notice to a company owner that was illegally selling and marketing the product via a website. This led to subsequent indictment.


Our nutrition team created these easy mix-and-match menus using the same guidelines that helped 5-HTP dieters lose weight at top speed during the University of Rome study. The idea here is simple: You’ll eat balanced meals that keep you feeling energized and awesome, but you’ll also watch portions so you’re not overeating out of habit. While using these menus, be sure to drink plenty of water and add any other zero-cal beverages you like. You’re also encouraged to season meals to your liking with unlimited herbs, spices, vinegar, mustard, and citrus juice. As always, get a doctor’s OK before trying any new plan.
Froemke's and Tsien's work fits into a broader theory: that one way oxytocin helps social interaction and recognition is by enhancing the brain's response to socially relevant sights, sounds or other stimuli. Young has shown that the hormone helps mice to recognize and pay attention to the smells of other mice7; others found that it promotes people's ability to recognize faces8.

Total RNA was extracted from cells using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was performed using oligo deoxythymidine primer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in 20 μl volumes at 42°C for 60 min. The RT-PCR reaction was done with 1 μg of total RNA, 1 μl of 20 μM oligo dT primer, and 18 μl of reaction mixture by AccuPower RT/PCR PreMix (Bioneer, Daejeon, Korea). Then, PCR was performed in a 20 μl total mixture volume for 25 cycles at 95°C for 1 min, 55°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 1 min. Primer sequences are detailed in Table 1. PCR products were subjected to electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gels and visualized with ethidium bromide.
Cells on the surface of the skin are constantly being replaced by regeneration from below. The repair of a wound is a scaling up of this normal process, with additional complex interactions among cells, formation of new blood vessels, collagen, more extensive cell division and cell migration, as well as strict control of inflammatory cells and the cytokines they release to resolve the inflammation.
The PDLCs were pre-treated with Wnt5a siRNA (30 nM) or Wnt5 peptide (500 ng/mL) for 2 hours, post-incubated with Tβ4 peptide (1 μg/mL) and 200 μM H2O2 for 48 hours (A-E), and then conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The bar graph shows the fold increase in protein or mRNA expression compared with control. * Statistically significant differences compared with the control, p<0.05. # Statistically significant difference compared with the H2O2-treated group. The data presented were representative of three independent experiments.
Eventually I found Dr Kristaps Paddock, a naturopathic doctor and 5-HTP expert from Maryland in the US. He said one benefit 5-HTP has over SSRIs is that it kicks in quickly for those with anxiety and depression. "Serotonin has a short metabolic half-life, so it metabolises very, very fast. It goes into the body and out at a great speed, unlike SSRIs, which take a while to take effect so a sufferer wouldn't be feeling good during that time, and in fact may be feeling more suicidal. SSRIs also then have to be weaned off slowly, whereas you can stop taking 5-HTP instantly." Another bonus, of course, is that it's natural rather than synthetic. "If you're seriously considering the supplement, you have to weigh the positives and negatives against each other. The toxicity with 5-HTP is lower than that of SSRIs, since it's natural. Also because it's metabolised much quicker, it'd get out of your system more quickly if there were any problems. On the other hand, the research basis for 5-HTP is dramatically lower, so it's important to think of that."

Noteworthy:  Many online sources sell an ineffective product.  Also, peptides are fragile by nature and are not effective when they are taken orally (pills, shakes, etc) because they will be broken down by the digestive process. Instead, peptides are mixed with bacteriostatic water and then injected under the skin with an insulin needle. Peptide injections in this manner are nearly painless and have clinically proven effectiveness.
When looking at studies that investigate carbohydrates per se, one study in overweight women given 8mg/kg 5-HTP for 5 weeks noted that while placebo did not reduce carbohydrate ingested (calories were reduced in placebo, but carbohdyrate remained at 38% of voluntary calorie intake) that 5-HTP also retained 38% of intake as carbohydrates despite consuming less calories and carbohydrates in total.[9] A decrease in both carbohydrate and dietary fat has been noted with 750mg 5-HTP daily for 2 weeks in diabetics (with no dietary guidelines given), but appeared to be reduced to a similar degree as calories overall.[10] Only one study supports these anecdotes, where the reduction in calories seemed to be acounted mostly for by carbohydrates (75% of observed reduction) and then fats (25%).[10]
Even if you did look after yourself adequately and monitor the amount of 5-HTP you were taking, it doesn't appear to be a permanent or lasting solution. A couple of the doctors talked about something that comes up time and time again with long-term SSRI use: a dissipating effect, meaning they can feel less and less effective over time. It seems that people may have the same problem with 5-HTP. "If you push on your biochemistry hard enough, it may downregulate," Dr Paddock explained. "If you're taking SSRIs your body may downregulate the amount of serotonin it puts out so you get waning effects over time. It's similar with 5-HTP. There may be a certain level of serotonin your body is keeping you at and if you raise it or push it, your body then may say, 'Okay, we're above the set point, let's then raise that point again.'"
A number of factors can inhibit oxytocin release, among them acute stress. For example, oxytocin neurons are repressed by catecholamines, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to many types of stress, including fright. As a practical endocrine tip - don't wear a gorilla costume into a milking parlor full of cows or set off firecrackers around a mother nursing her baby.
An estimated 1.4 million people sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in the United States, and more than 5 million people are coping with disabilities from TBI at an annual cost of more than $56 billion.1 There are no commercially-available pharmacological treatment options available for TBI because all clinical trial strategies have failed.2,3 The disappointing clinical trial results may be due to variability in treatment approaches and heterogeneity of the population of TBI patients.4-9 Another important aspect is that most clinical trial strategies have used drugs that target a single pathophysiological mechanism, although many mechanisms are involved in secondary injury after TBI.4 Neuroprotection approaches have historically been dominated by targeting neuron-based injury mechanisms as the primary or even exclusive focus of the neuroprotective strategy.3 In the vast majority of preclinical studies, the treatment compounds are administered early and, frequently, even before TBI.10,11 Clinically, the administration of a compound early may be problematic because of the difficulty in obtaining informed consent.12
There are several layers in the skin; the outer epidermis and beneath it the dermis and the subcutaneous layer. Cells in the epidermis include keratinocytes, its major cell type, that move continuously from the lower basal layer where they are formed by cell division. Other cells in the epidermis are the melanocytes that synthesize pigment and transfer it to the keratinocytes, giving our skin its color, and a wide variety of immune cells that maintain immune surveillance and secrete substances called cytokines, like interleukin 1 and 2, which are active in inflammation. The dermis contains connective tissue, mainly collagen, blood vessels, various types of immune white cells and fibroblasts.
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We think that the most important region is the nucleus accumbens, which is kind of up here. The nucleus accumbens is where we can measure a release of the neurotransmitter dopamine when humans or animals take drugs or are exposed to other rewarding stimuli, such as sex. Or gambling, for example, or monetary reward activates the nucleus accumbens as well.
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What is serotonin and what does it do? Serotonin is a chemical that transmits messages between nerve cells. Known as the happy chemical, serotonin plays a major role in the body by contributing to well-being, good mood, appetite, memory, and sleep. This article looks at what happens when a person is deficient in serotonin, and whether it can aid depression. Read now
Evidence accumulated over the past decades has overturned the traditional dogma that the adult mammalian brain cannot generate new neurons. Adult neurogenesis has been identified in all vertebrate species examined thus far including humans.44-49 Newly generated neuronal cells originate from neural stem cells in the adult brain. Neural stem cells are the self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neuronal and glial cells of the nervous system.50 The major function of neurogenesis in adult brain seems to replace the neurons that die regularly in certain brain areas. Granule neurons in the DG continuously die and the progenitors in the subgranular zone of the DG may proliferate at the same rate as mature neuronal death to maintain a constant DG cell number.51 Similarly, the newly proliferated cells from the subventricular zone migrate and replenish the dead olfactory bulb neurons.52 Here, we focus on DG neurogenesis which is important for spatial learning and memory. In normal adult rats, newborn neural cells migrate from the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus into the granule cell layer and eventually become mature granule neurons.53 These new granule neurons extend axonal processes to their postsynaptic targets54-57 and receive synaptic input.58 TBI stimulates widespread cellular proliferation in rats and results in focal neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus.59,60 Some of the newly generated granule neurons integrate into the hippocampus. The integration of the injury-induced neurogenic population into the existing hippocampal circuitry coincides with the time point when cognitive recovery is observed in injured animals.44

Nolen, W. A., van de Putte, J. J., Dijken, W. A., Kamp, J. S., Blansjaar, B. A., Kramer, H. J., and Haffmans, J. Treatment strategy in depression. II. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant to cyclic antidepressants: two controlled crossover studies with tranylcypromine versus L-5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatr.Scand 1988;78(6):676-683. View abstract.
“The study is kind of a high-water mark for the field, putting different levels all together: a robust behaviour, a brain region, and a cellular basis for it,” says Richard Tsien, a neuroscientist also at Langone. Tsien has been studying the action of oxytocin on neuronal circuits in detail, by examining slices of the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. In a 2013 study6 of rats, Tsien's team found that oxytocin selectively acts on a type of cell called an inhibitory interneuron in a way that quiets background chatter within the neuronal circuit. “Oxytocin improved signal transmission, almost doubling the ability of information to flow through the system,” Tsien says. In effect, it is producing more signal and less noise.
Injected oxytocin analogues are used to induce labour and support labour in case of non-progression of parturition. It has largely replaced ergotamine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to increase milk production. The tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile®) acts as an antagonist of oxytocin receptors; this drug is registered in many countries to suppress premature labour between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline).
My mother was a mother of 6 born between 1948 and 1961. She was a great advocate for lots of cuddles and physical contact with all of her children (as was my dad). This included baby massage directly on the skin as she emphasised touch as being very important. She passed this knowledge onto me when I became an aunt and then a mother. I am very grateful to have had such a hands on, affectionate and intuitive mother as a role model.

Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a water-soluble, 43-amino acid, and 4.9 kDa protein that was originally isolated from bovine thymus [6]. Since Tβ4 is the major actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells and is found in all cells [7], Tβ4 has multiple diverse cellular functions, including tissue development, migration, angiogenesis, and wound healing [7]. We previously reported that Tβ4-overexpressing transgenic mice, using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, have abnormal tooth development and enhanced stimulation of hair growth [8]. Moreover, exogenous Tβ4 has anti-inflammatory effects in the bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung fibrosis [9], tooth extraction sockets in rats [10], rat model of myocardial ischemia [11], corneal wound healing [12], wound healing of rat palatal mucosa [13], in vitro model of cultured human gingival fibroblasts [14], and cardiac fibroblasts [15]. However, the effects of Tβ4 over expression or inhibition on differentiation are controversial. Exogenous β4 peptide inhibited osteogenic differentiation but facilitated adipogenic differentiation in human bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [16]. In contrast, Tβ4 inhibition by Tβ4 siRNA attenuated odontoblastic differentiation in the odontoblast-like cells, MDPC-23 [17]. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that odontoblastic differentiation was enhanced by activation of Tβ4 by Tβ4 peptide but was decreased by Tβ4 siRNA in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) [18]. However, the effects of Tβ4 on osteoclastic differentiation have not been reported.


Oxytocin produces antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression,[81] and a deficit of it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in humans.[82] The antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin are not blocked by a selective antagonist of the oxytocin receptor, suggesting that these effects are not mediated by the oxytocin receptor.[17] In accordance, unlike oxytocin, the selective non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY-267,464 does not produce antidepressant-like effects, at least in the tail suspension test.[83] In contrast to WAY-267,464, carbetocin, a close analogue of oxytocin and peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, notably does produce antidepressant-like effects in animals.[83] As such, the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin may be mediated by modulation of a different target, perhaps the vasopressin V1A receptor where oxytocin is known to weakly bind as an agonist.[84][85]


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In women, oxytocin is responsible for signaling contractions of the womb during labor. The hormone stimulates the uterine muscles to contract, so labor begins. It also increases the production of prostaglandins, which move labor along and increases the contractions even more. Because of this effect, synthetic oxytocin (pitocin) is sometimes used to induce a woman to start labor if she cannot start naturally, or it can be given to make contractions stronger if a woman's labor is slowing.
While all of the effects described above certainly occur in response to oxytocin, doubt has recently been cast on its necessity in parturition and maternal behavior. Mice that are unable to secrete oxytocin due to targeted disruptions of the oxytocin gene will mate, deliver their pups without apparent difficulty and display normal maternal behavior. However, they do show deficits in milk ejection and have subtle derangements in social behavior. It may be best to view oxytocin as a major facilitator of parturition and maternal behavior rather than a necessary component of these processes.
Oxytocin is typically remembered for the effect it has on prosocial behaviors, such as its role in facilitating trust and attachment between individuals. Consequently, oxytocin is often referred to as the “love hormone".[73][qualify evidence] However, oxytocin has a more complex role than solely enhancing prosocial behaviors. There is consensus that oxytocin modulates fear and anxiety; that is, it does not directly elicit fear or anxiety.[74] Two dominant theories explain the role of oxytocin in fear and anxiety. One theory states that oxytocin increases approach/avoidance to certain social stimuli and the second theory states that oxytocin increases the salience of certain social stimuli, causing the animal or human to pay closer attention to socially relevant stimuli.[75]
Oxytocin produces antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression,[81] and a deficit of it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in humans.[82] The antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin are not blocked by a selective antagonist of the oxytocin receptor, suggesting that these effects are not mediated by the oxytocin receptor.[17] In accordance, unlike oxytocin, the selective non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY-267,464 does not produce antidepressant-like effects, at least in the tail suspension test.[83] In contrast to WAY-267,464, carbetocin, a close analogue of oxytocin and peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, notably does produce antidepressant-like effects in animals.[83] As such, the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin may be mediated by modulation of a different target, perhaps the vasopressin V1A receptor where oxytocin is known to weakly bind as an agonist.[84][85]

So far, few studies have definitively linked autism to problems in oxytocin signalling. Some of the clearest evidence emerged in February, from a team led by neurogeneticist Daniel Geschwind of the University of California, Los Angeles. The group showed that mice that lacked a working copy of the Cntnap2 gene — which has been implicated in a small subset of human autism cases — had fewer oxytocin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus and socialized less with other mice than did control mice15. After receiving doses of oxytocin every day for two weeks, the mice behaved normally again. “Until this, there was no evidence that there was a subtype of autism that had to do with oxytocin deficits,” Geschwind says.


“I didn’t think it would be that bad honestly, but since I weight lift multiple times a weak, this supplement is doing me more harm than good. On a typical weight lifting day my workout is split into 5 sections. After taking 5-htp the night before I barely have enough energy to get through 1 section, and that is a serious problem, because of this I am quitting 5-htp all together.”
In this study, Tβ4 mRNA down-regulation was detected in in vitro in PDLCs stimulated with the ROS. This down-regulation of Tβ4 was also observed in GCF of periodontitis patient [19] and endotoxin-induced septic shock of rats [39]. ROS were generated predominantly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during an inflammatory response and involved in tissue destruction associated with periodontal diseases [40]. Thus, we chose to use ROS-stimulated PDLCs in this study since ROS, such as superoxide and H2O2, have been proposed as key players in bone resorption [41] and implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis [29].
Froemke's and Tsien's work fits into a broader theory: that one way oxytocin helps social interaction and recognition is by enhancing the brain's response to socially relevant sights, sounds or other stimuli. Young has shown that the hormone helps mice to recognize and pay attention to the smells of other mice7; others found that it promotes people's ability to recognize faces8.
We had previously reported that successful hunters experienced a surge in testosterone that lasted from the moment they made a kill until their return home – a “winner effect,” rewarding them for their work. Testosterone reinforces the hunting activity and simultaneously helps with muscle regeneration afterwards - similar to the elated feeling we might have after doing sports or other exercise.
Guastella and his team just completed an unpublished study that is the first to test the effects of oxytocin on couples in therapy. In one part of the study, couples were asked to discuss a “hot topic,” one that usually led to conflict between the pair, and to then try to solve the issue. Although the data analysis is still in progress, Guastella expects couples that got oxytocin to show less hostile interpretations of the problem and be less critical of their partners. He thinks overall it will increase perspective-taking and reduce blame, leading to smoother communication and better problem-solving.

In a study that hasn’t been published yet, Feldman found that oxytocin receptor genes are also linked to empathy in couples. She looked at variants in the gene that have been linked with an increased risk for autism, a disorder that is marked by major social communication deficits. She found that the more of these “risk variants” a person had, the less empathy they showed toward their partner when that partner shared a distressing experience.
TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
I broke my neck this year at C6-C7 facets. Started taking TB-500 immediately following the accident. I don’t sit still well and was back in the gym almost immediately, simply to not go stir crazy and pump the blood anyway I could. 8 weeks later I was hitting bodyweight overhead squats for reps with the jerk, 0 pain and completely stable spine. I’m in my late 30s. I eat well, sleep well, and drink a lot of water. I doubt I would have been as well off, had I not taken the TB.
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury. This large number of pleiotropic effects results from Tβ4’s many interactions with cellular signaling pathways, particularly indirect regulation of cellular motility and movement via the SRF–MRTF–G-actin transcriptional pathway. Variation in effects and effect sizes in animal models may potentially be due to variable distribution of Tβ4. Preclinical studies of PK/PD relationships and a reliable pharmacodynamic biomarker would facilitate clinical development of Tβ4.
When you get your TB-500, it will come in a powder form. Just like BPC-157, you will need to “reconstitute” it by adding bacteriostatic water. Go back and read my article on BPC-157 to get access to a peptide calculator that will help you with the mixing/dosage math. Once your TB-500 is properly mixed, you then draw the dose into an insulin syringe, and inject it intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously (according to your preference).
The main functionality of TB500 hinges on the ability to upregulate cell building proteins such as actin, which is a protein that forms (together with myosin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells, and is also involved in motion and metabolism in many other types of cells.. Upregulation of actin allows TB500 to promote healing, cell growth, cell migration and cell proliferation. This not only helps build new blood vessel pathways but also upregulates the type of “good” inflammation that is directly correlated with faster wound healing.
In a study measuring oxytocin serum levels in women before and after sexual stimulation, the author suggests it serves an important role in sexual arousal. This study found genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm.[105] Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal could be in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract stimulation as confirmed in other mammals.[106] Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal with no acute increase at orgasm.[107] A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue".[108]
Thymosin β4 was initially perceived as a thymic hormone. However this changed when it was discovered that it forms a 1:1 complex with G (globular) actin, and is present at high concentration in a wide range of mammalian cell types.[11] When appropriate, G-actin monomers polymerize to form F (filamentous) actin, which, together with other proteins that bind to actin, comprise cellular microfilaments. Formation by G-actin of the complex with β-thymosin (= "sequestration") opposes this.
The molecule of this peptide is very big, so it isn’t able to completely fit within a receptor. Each area of the molecule has different functions. For instance, TB 500 is responsible for promoting majority of the useful effects, such as the healing, muscle cells, new blood and repair. In some scenarios, TB 500 could be used rather than the whole Thymosin Beta 4 protein. TB 500’s main ability is to regulate Actin, which is a cell-building protein. There are thousands of proteins found inside of cells, but actin makes up to 10 percent of the total amount of proteins, giving it a major role in the cell’s genetic makeup.
Ok Ben. Thanks. Started the TB 500 for my elbows. Got the 5mg of TB 500 and reconstituted it with 3 cc/ml. of water (3 syringes full) Just about filled the file. Now based on injecting just under .1 cc/ml or just under 10 (8) units for a dose of around 250. How long did that vial last you? Seems like there is a lot left and the amount injected is small. Is my dose and math right?
Hi Ben, I have been using TB-500 for minor injury repair assistance for more than 2 years. I have found it to be extremely effective for minor strains to calves, hamstring, shoulder etc. Luckily I have not had to try it for any major injuries. When I first used it I was blown away by how effectively it worked – even to the point that I began to doubt the seriousness of the original injury. When injured I dose at 5mg per week for four weeks then take at least four weeks break. The only side affect I have noticed is a little light headed feeling which passes pretty quickly. I am in my late 40’s and I train hard. TB-500 allows me to train through minor injuries which is great. Love your work
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It turns out the love hormone oxytocin is two-faced. Oxytocin has long been known as the warm, fuzzy hormone that promotes feelings of love, social bonding and well-being. It's even being tested as an anti-anxiety drug. But new Northwestern Medicine® research shows oxytocin also can cause emotional pain, an entirely new, darker identity for the hormone.
The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.

Disclaimer: The information contained on this site is intended for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for advice, diagnosis or treatment by a licensed physician. It is not meant to cover all possible precautions, drug interactions, circumstance or adverse effects. You should seek prompt medical care for any health issues and consult your doctor before using alternative medicine or making a change to your regimen.
It is highly important to understand that MT2 itself does not protect skin from burning, tan protects your skin. Until some base tan is developed users should still take care not to over-expose skin to uv rays. Starting only with the amount of exposure that the user's skin can handle without burning. It should not take long before the user can handle longer exposures to strong sunlight without adverse effects.

Mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMMs) of 5-week-old female ICR mice (Charles River Laboratories, Seoul, South Korea) were used as previously described [23]. Animals were maintained in accordance with the National Institute of Toxicological Research of the Korea Food and Drug Administration guideline for the humane care and use of laboratory animals Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval was obtained from Kyung Hee University (Seoul, Korea). Briefly, bone marrow of tibiae and femurs of mice were flushed with α-MEM. After removing erythrocytes with hypotonic buffer, cells were cultured in α-MEM containing 10% FBS for 24 h and adherent cells were discarded. Non-adherent bone marrow cells were transferred onto 100-mm non-coated petri dishes at 5×106 cells per dish and cultured in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml) for 3 days. Condition medium (CM) was obtained from HPDLCs treated with 200 μM H2O2 or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) for 2 days. To evaluate the osteoclastogenic activity of CM from HPDLCs, we added the CM mixture (60% CM plus 40% fresh α-MEM without M-CSF or RANKL) or rh-Tβ4 to pre-osteoclast-stage cells and further cultured the cells for up to 5 days to achieve mature osteoclast differentiation BMMs (1.5 × 105 cells/well) and PDLCs (1.5 × 104 cells/well) were co-cultured for 7 days in the presence of M-CSF (30 ng/ml), RANKL (100 ng/mL), H2O2 (200 μM) or Tβ4 (0.5, 1 and 5 μg/mL) in α-MEM, supplemented with10% in 48-well plates under 5% CO2 atmosphere.


Adam Guastella, a clinical psychologist at University of Sydney’s Brain and Mind Research Institute, and a pioneer in studies of how oxytocin can help people with autism, thinks the hormone can also help people in couple therapy by facilitating empathic communication. His research has shown that people who get oxytocin are more focused on positive emotion: they remember happy faces better than angry and neutral ones. Research by others has shown that oxytocin increases trust, generosity and our ability to identify emotion in facial expressions. It is perhaps by these mechanisms that the hormone improves communication.
The reality is that people are always going to self-medicate. Boots, Amazon and H&B all sell 5-HTP, and in theory you could keep buying it and taking it for as long as you like. But it's important to know the facts. It shouldn't be used in conjunction with an SSRI, for example. In that situation, if the body is preventing serotonin breakdown while also getting extra serotonin, which leads to seriously unhealthy levels of serotonin activity.
It has been shown that oxytocin differentially affects males and females. Females who are administered oxytocin are overall faster in responding to socially relevant stimuli than males who received oxytocin.[75][86] Additionally, after the administration of oxytocin, females show increased amygdala activity in response to threatening scenes; however, males do not show increased amygdala activation. This phenomenon can be explained by looking at the role of gonadal hormones, specifically estrogen, which modulate the enhanced threat processing seen in females. Estrogen has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus and promote receptor binding in the amygdala.[86]
Oxytocin produces antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression,[81] and a deficit of it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in humans.[82] The antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin are not blocked by a selective antagonist of the oxytocin receptor, suggesting that these effects are not mediated by the oxytocin receptor.[17] In accordance, unlike oxytocin, the selective non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY-267,464 does not produce antidepressant-like effects, at least in the tail suspension test.[83] In contrast to WAY-267,464, carbetocin, a close analogue of oxytocin and peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, notably does produce antidepressant-like effects in animals.[83] As such, the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin may be mediated by modulation of a different target, perhaps the vasopressin V1A receptor where oxytocin is known to weakly bind as an agonist.[84][85]
100mg works well for mood and getting to sleep. Put 100mg in my Pre Workout Powder (Non Stimulant). Don't know if anyone else has tried this or if it was just a coincidence but it made the weights feel considerably lighter and I was able to use more weight than I have in a decade. I will definitely be trying that again. I also cut the bag open and emptied it into an old pill bottle through a small funnel. No wastage. Easy.
In January 1955, adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was included in the very first Poisons Schedules. It was included in Schedule 4, Part A, which is equivalent to the current Schedule 4 of the Poisons Standard. Provisions for a repeated script must be authorised by an authorised prescriber, including general practitioners, veterinarian or dentist (if required for the purposes of the dental profession or are permitted to be prescribed by a dentist).
The need to balance hunting pride and social obligations, and the necessity to reconnect with a family that depends on their provisioning were likely experienced by men throughout much of human evolutionary history. Oxytocin is found in all mammals and originated in the mother-infant bond, where it helps with childbirth, nursing and bonding. In some species, this existing hormonal mechanism could then be harnessed for novel contexts – for instance, men investing in pair-bonding and family provisioning, which is rare among mammals.
Mental health is so under-funded in the UK that pills can be used as the quick-fix option. In 2014/15, 57.8million prescriptions for antidepressants or SSRIs are filled out in England alone. You can wait months on a waiting list for cognitive behavioural therapy or to see a psychiatrist, and as you wait, medication is a lifeline. In addition to this mess, pharma giants have stopped looking for the 'next Prozac', cutting funding into new treatments by 70 percent in the last decade. The bottom line is clear: SSRIs, with all their pros and cons, are here to stay.

5-HTP works in the brain and central nervous system by increasing the production of the chemical serotonin. Serotonin can affect sleep, appetite, temperature, sexual behavior, and pain sensation. Since 5-HTP increases the synthesis of serotonin, it is used for several diseases where serotonin is believed to play an important role including depression, insomnia, obesity, and many other conditions.

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