“This is a very ancient molecule,” says Sue Carter, a neuroscientist at Indiana University in Bloomington, whose lab pioneered many of the early studies of oxytocin in voles. “It has been used and reused for many purposes across the evolution of modern animals, and almost everybody who's tried to look at an effect of oxytocin on anything like social behaviour has found something.”
Oxytocin is not only correlated with the preferences of individuals to associate with members of their own group, but it is also evident during conflicts between members of different groups. During conflict, individuals receiving nasally administered oxytocin demonstrate more frequent defense-motivated responses toward in-group members than out-group members. Further, oxytocin was correlated with participant desire to protect vulnerable in-group members, despite that individual's attachment to the conflict.[64] Similarly, it has been demonstrated that when oxytocin is administered, individuals alter their subjective preferences in order to align with in-group ideals over out-group ideals.[65] These studies demonstrate that oxytocin is associated with intergroup dynamics. Further, oxytocin influences the responses of individuals in a particular group to those of another group. The in-group bias is evident in smaller groups; however, it can also be extended to groups as large as one's entire country leading toward a tendency of strong national zeal. A study done in the Netherlands showed that oxytocin increased the in-group favoritism of their nation while decreasing acceptance of members of other ethnicities and foreigners.[66] People also show more affection for their country's flag while remaining indifferent to other cultural objects when exposed to oxytocin.[67] It has thus been hypothesized that this hormone may be a factor in xenophobic tendencies secondary to this effect. Thus, oxytocin appears to affect individuals at an international level where the in-group becomes a specific "home" country and the out-group grows to include all other countries.
It has been noted[25] that isolated supplementation of 5-HTP may deplete or reduce the bioactivity of catecholamines such as dopamine[44][45][46] (which extends to L-Tryptphan[45]) and that this relationship also acts in reverse, with supplemental L-Tyrosine possibly able to deplete 5-HTP[47][48] and Serotonin itself,[48] which extends to supplemental L-DOPA which may reduce all intermediate of serotonin synthesis[49][50][51] although L-DOPA may also deplete L-Tyrosine (as it is merely later in the same metabolic chain).[50] Due to excessive levels of either one depleting the other, some authors have suggested that combination therapy of 5-HTP and L-Tyrosine (the furthest back in the metabolic chain while still passing rate limiting enzymes) is a potentially useful avenue for anti-depressive effects.[52]
Although research has shown that good communication predicts relationship success, successful communication in couples therapy won’t ensure that partners stay together. The goal is to help the two people understand each other’s point of view and come to a mutual decision, even if it’s to break up. “If people are not connected at all, then oxytocin is not going to force that connection,” Guastella says.
TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are not exactly the same, although you’ll often see the two names used interchangeably in the peptide world (AKA broscience bodybuilding forums).  It’s much harder to get your hands on true Thymosin Beta-4, whether for research use, equine enhancement, athletic performance enhancement or bodybuilding. But TB-500’s peptide sequence shares most of the properties of Thymosin Beta-4, and it’s more economical to produce, thus easier to find.
In addition, in the Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled single- and multiple-dose Phase 1 clinical trial, the safety and pharmacokinetics of the intravenous administration of TB-4 was evaluated. From this, intravenous administration of TB-4 appears to be safe and well-tolerated by all subjects with no dose limiting toxicity or serious adverse events reported.
Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of ROS and plays a key role in the progression of periodontal diseases [24]. Damage of tissues in inflammatory periodontal disease can be mediated by ROS resulting from the physiological activity of PMN during the phagocytosis of periodontopathic bacteria [27]. In addition, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as hypoxia induces a NOX4-dependent increase in H2O2 release in PDLCs [28]. Furthermore, ROS such as H2O2 are small, diffusible, and ubiquitous molecules, can affect human PDLCs and gingival fibroblasts cell injury indirectly by enhancing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, NO, PGE2, and ROS [29–31]. This ROS is known to stimulate osteoclast differentiation and participate in early signaling events associated with osteoclast activation for bone resorption [32]. Since LPS from P. gingivalis increases oxidative stress in PDLCs and contributes to periodontitis [28], human PDLCs treated with H2O2 may serve as an in vitro model relevant to periodontitis.
I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. I would say yes though. Just because you dont “know” or “feel” any injury, you might be one functional movement away from a weakened tendon or muscle – snap, crackle and POP! These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever.
Neurovascular units within the central nervous system consist of endothelial cells, pericytes, neurons and glial cells, as well as growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that are close to the endothelium.72,73 Neurovascular units provide niches for neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult brain and, within these units, newly-generated immature neurons are closely associated with the remodeling vasculature. The generation of new vasculature facilitates several coupled neurorestorative processes including neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which improve functional recovery.74-76 The vascular production of stromal-derived factor 1 and angiopoietin 1 is involved in neurogenesis and promotes behavioral recovery after stroke.77 The disruption of this neurovascular coordination has been observed in a variety of brain conditions including infection, stroke and trauma.78 The injured brain promotes angiogenesis and neurogenesis,13,32,69,79-84 that may contribute to spontaneous functional recovery from injuries such as stroke and TBI. Neurorestorative agents that increase angiogenesis and neurogenesis have been shown to improve functional outcome following brain injury.19,33 Vascular endothelial cells within the neurovascular niche affect neurogenesis directly via contact with neural progenitor cells, while soluble factors from the vascular system that are released into the CNS enhance neurogenesis via paracrine signaling.85 Here, we demonstrate that Tβ4 treatment promotes both angiogenesis and neurogenesis in rats after TBI, suggesting that the neurovascular remodeling at least partially contributes to Tβ4-mediated improvement in functional recovery. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms in the neurovascular niches will be important for developing novel angiogenic and neurogenic therapies for brain injuries.
“I didn’t think it would be that bad honestly, but since I weight lift multiple times a weak, this supplement is doing me more harm than good. On a typical weight lifting day my workout is split into 5 sections. After taking 5-htp the night before I barely have enough energy to get through 1 section, and that is a serious problem, because of this I am quitting 5-htp all together.”
Like I said, it’s amazing stuff. And it shouldn’t come as a surprise that it affects that amazing part of your brain so intimately involved in keeping you safe…the amygdala. Remember, trust has a lot to do with survival among social animals who depend on each other for safety and protection. Show someone an untrustworthy face, and the amygdala is one of two areas that become more active than anywhere else in the brain.7 It is apparently programmed for reading trust just as it is for snakes or spiders.
The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (cysteine - tyrosine - phenylalanine - glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - arginine - glycine), also a nonapeptide with a sulfur bridge, whose sequence differs from oxytocin by 2 amino acids. A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article. Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955.

To pursue the sexual dysfunction agent, melanotan-II was licensed by Competitive Technologies to Palatin Technologies.[9] Palatin ceased development of melanotan-II in 2000 and synthesized, patented, and began to develop bremelanotide, a likely metabolite of melanotan-II that differs from melanotan-II in that it has a hydroxyl group where melanotan-II has an amide.[6][13] Competitive Technologies sued Palatin for breach of contract and to try to claim ownership of bremelanotide;[13] the parties settled in 2008 with Palatin retaining rights to bremelanotide, returning rights to melanotan-II to Competitive Technologies, and paying $800,000.[14]


In a 2-week long clinical trial involving 25 overweight diabetic subjects given no dietary restrictions, subjects who received 5-HTP had reduced caloric, carbohydrate, and fat intake compared to placebo. Subjects who received 5-HTP also have reduced body weight, blood sugar, insulin and HbA1C levels after 2 weeks, possibly due to changes in the diet (R).
It was also shown recently that delivery of Fgfs by release from peptide nanofibers, a gradual local delivery system, can increase neovascularization and reduce in-farct size in the ischemic rodent heart (Engel et al., 2006). Related to this, zebrafish have a natural ability to synthesize Fgfs after myocardial injury, a signal that appears to recruit Fgf receptor-expressing epicardial-derived cells toward regenerating muscle (Lepilina et al., 2006). Thus, what has been and what will be discovered about zebrafish heart regeneration is quite likely to illuminate possible strategies for enhancing regeneration in the mammalian heart (see Chapter 14.4).
However, as I’ve said elsewhere, depression is kind of like a check engine light on car, it’s a quiet ambiguous sign that something is not working somewhere in your neurobiology. There is literally dozens (perhaps hundreds) of different ways to attempt to treat depression. Amongst the vast number of options for treating depression, there is a couple of low hanging fruits; things you would want to start with before moving onto more radical options, like…

Angiogenesis is an essential step in the repair process that occurs after injury. In this study, we investigated whether the angiogenic thymic peptide thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) enhanced wound healing in a rat full thickness wound model. Addition of Tbeta4 topically or intraperitoneally increased reepithelialization by 42% over saline controls at 4 d and by as much as 61% at 7 d post-wounding. Treated wounds also contracted at least 11% more than controls by day 7. Increased collagen deposition and angiogenesis were observed in the treated wounds. We also found that Tbeta4 stimulated keratinocyte migration in the Boyden chamber assay. After 4-5 h, migration was stimulated 2-3-fold over migration with medium alone when as little as 10 pg of Tbeta4 was added to the assay. These results suggest that Tbeta4 is a potent wound healing factor with multiple activities that may be useful in the clinic.

James Bates* who recently started taking it for panic attacks, said, "A friend who had anxiety recommended 5-HTP to me. I used to take beta-blockers and Valium but the doctors have got funny about giving them to me. I needed an alternative and didn't fancy getting back on Prozac. I've only been taking the supplements for a month but so far, it's helped a lot. I've only had two panic attacks, whereas usually I'd have four or five."


Uterine contraction: important for cervical dilation before birth, oxytocin causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.[48] Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful contractions during the first few weeks of lactation. This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.[49]
Romantic attachment: In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. For example, if a couple is separated for a long period of time, anxiety can increase due to the lack of physical affection. Oxytocin may aid romantically attached couples by decreasing their feelings of anxiety when they are separated.[101]
According to recent research, this hormone “is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug.”4

Research shows that co-administration with carbidopa greatly increases plasma 5-HTP levels.[46] However, several studies have reported that 5-HTP is effective even without a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (e.g. carbidopa).[47][unreliable medical source?] Other studies have indicated the risk of a scleroderma-like condition resulting from the combination of 5-HTP and carbidopa.[48]
×