5-HTP has been investigated for its role in hot flashes as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been noted to reduce the occurrence of hot flashes and menopausal symptoms.[30][31] In a study in menopausal females given 150mg 5-HTP daily (50mg taken thrice a day) for a period of one week failed to quantitivatively reduce the occurrance of hot flashes[32] as assessed by a Flashmark Pro recording device.[33]
To identify newborn neurons, double immunofluorescent staining for BrdU/NeuN (mature neuronal marker) was performed (Fig.1). TBI alone significantly increased the number of newborn neurons (NeuN/BrdU-colabeled cells) in the DG of injured hemisphere. Tβ4 treatment significantly further increased the number of newborn neurons compared to saline controls. These data suggest that Tβ4 administration initiated 24 hours after TBI promotes neurogenesis in rats.
Froemke's and Tsien's work fits into a broader theory: that one way oxytocin helps social interaction and recognition is by enhancing the brain's response to socially relevant sights, sounds or other stimuli. Young has shown that the hormone helps mice to recognize and pay attention to the smells of other mice7; others found that it promotes people's ability to recognize faces8.
Obviously nobody is suggesting coming off your medication, and for many cases of depression and anxiety, a course of SSRIs and/or CBT can be life-saving. For me, during a period of bad anxiety, when I was torn between the idea of going back on antidepressants or not, I began searching for some sort of alternative aid online and soon came across a video of Jim Carrey. Carrey has struggled with depression for the majority of his adult life; he's a classic case of the sad clown. "I take... supplements," he tells Larry King in the clip I found. "Vitamins?" asks King. Not quite, but not far off either. A natural substance called 5-HTP. "It's a wonderful thing," Carrey smiles. "It's amazing." His description of how 5-HTP worked made it sound like a super-drug, a cure-all. All it would take for me would be an anonymous trip to Holland and Barrett and 15 quid. Like every other young person, I knew it as a quick fix for MDMA comedowns, but never considered buying it as a medication replacement. Obviously for severe depression and anxiety, a serious course of SSRIs or cognitive behavioural therapy would be more appropriate. But at this point, I was ready for something to ease the transition.

To investigate whether the newborn neurons generated in the DG are capable of projecting their axons into the CA3 region of the hippocampus after TBI, we stereotactically injected a fluorescent tracer, 1,1″-dioleyl-3,3,3″,3″-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate (Dil, Delta 9-DiI; AnaSpec, San Jose, CA) into the ipsilateral CA3 region (stereotaxic coordinates AP, -3.6 mm bregma, ML, 3.6 mm, DV, 3.0 mm, Paxinos and Watson, 1994) at day 28 after TBI. BrdU (100mg/kg, ip) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 1 after TBI for 10 days to label newly generated cells. One week after DiI injection (i.e., 35 days after TBI), the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Their brains were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The brain was cut into seven equally spaced 2-mm coronal blocks using a rat brain matrix. The brain blocks containing the hippocampus were processed for vibratome sections (100 μm) followed by BrdU staining. BrdU and DiI labeling in the hippocampus on brain sections was analyzed with a Bio-Rad MRC 1024 (argon and krypton) laser-scanning confocal imaging system mounted onto a Zeiss microscope (Bio-Rad, Cambridge, MA). Co-localization of BrdU-positive nuclei within retrogradely DiI-labeled granule cells was found, indicating that newborn granule neurons extend axons into the CA3 region that are capable of retrogradely transporting DiI from the CA3 to their cell bodies within the DG after TBI (Fig.2). This finding suggests that newborn granule neurons may be incorporated into functional hippocampal circuitry after TBI.
To determine the direct effect of Tβ4 peptide on osteoclastogenesis, mouse BMMs were directly exposed to Tβ4 peptide. Direct treatment with Tβ4 peptide also reduced the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells and TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 7A and 7B). Since Tβ4 downregulated H2O2-induced various cytokines expression, the indirect effect of Tβ4 on osteoclast formation through PDLC cells using co-culture system were investigated. After addition of Tβ4 peptide to the BMMs-PDLCs co-culture, the number of osteoclast and TRAP activity were also significantly decreased (Fig 7C and 7D).
For now, Bartz isn’t sure why oxytocin can have such different effects. Her most educated guess is that the hormone triggers a biased trip down memory lane. Under its influence, people are more likely to remember information about their mother that fits with their current attitudes to relationships. If they are anxious, they’re more likely to remember the negative side of their early life. It’s a reasonable enough idea, and one that Bartz intends to test in the future. It will also be good to repeat the study in a larger group – 31 men make for a relatively small study.
In 1999 researchers in Glasgow University found that an oxidised derivative of thymosin β4 (the sulfoxide, in which an oxygen atom is added to the methionine near the N-terminus) exerted several potentially anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophil leucocytes. It promoted their dispersion from a focus, inhibited their response to a small peptide (F-Met-Leu-Phe) which attracts them to sites of bacterial infection and lowered their adhesion to endothelial cells. (Adhesion to endothelial cells of blood vessel walls is pre-requisite for these cells to leave the bloodstream and invade infected tissue). A possible anti-inflammatory role for the β4 sulfoxide was supported by the group's finding that it counteracted artificially-induced inflammation in mice.
Side effects:  Side effects for Melanotan 2 include nausea, appetite loss, facial flushing and increased libido. Side effects are generally mild and tend to diminish over time. Some research suggests nausea can be reduced by injecting MT-II after dinner or before bed. Athletes and bodybuilders have injected peptides like Melanotan 2 intermittently to prolong their tan since a tan aided by Melanotan can last 2-3 times as long as a normal tan. Like other peptides, Melanotan is a fragile molecule, therefore Melanotan nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptides, pills, oral and loose powder are not often legitimate for research effectiveness.

The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan through 5-HTP. In which tryptophan gets converted into 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-HTP gets converted into serotonin via the enzyme L-amino acid decarboxylase.[4] Serotonin is later degraded into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by monoamine oxidase.


Sexual activity: The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of self-stimulated orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured five minutes after self arousal.[103] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[103]

Oxytocin was also correlated with the longevity of a relationship. Couples with the highest levels were the ones still together six months later. They were also more attuned to each other than the low-oxytocin couples when Feldman asked them to talk about a shared positive experience. The high-oxytocin couples finished each other’s sentences, laughed together and touched each other more often. Feldman says it’s still not clear whether oxytocin was responsible for the stability of the couple’s bond six months later or if couples who weren’t as connected failed to trigger the oxytocin system.


I have bee suffering from severe symptoms of post concussion syndrome for several.months after a car accident. The use of TB500 has been the only trratment ease my symptoms and give me my life back. I ceased use last week after 3 weeks and had reoccuring concussion symptoms. As such? I recommenced injections as of last night. Have you read much about the impact of TB500 on brain injury as I’d love to know if more prolonged use would have a permanent impact/remedy for me? Thanks for your time and interest.
Side effects:  Side effects for Melanotan 2 include nausea, appetite loss, facial flushing and increased libido. Side effects are generally mild and tend to diminish over time. Some research suggests nausea can be reduced by injecting MT-II after dinner or before bed. Athletes and bodybuilders have injected peptides like Melanotan 2 intermittently to prolong their tan since a tan aided by Melanotan can last 2-3 times as long as a normal tan. Like other peptides, Melanotan is a fragile molecule, therefore Melanotan nasal sprays, pre-mixed peptides, pills, oral and loose powder are not often legitimate for research effectiveness.
Friedman, J., Roze, E., Abdenur, J. E., Chang, R., Gasperini, S., Saletti, V., Wali, G. M., Eiroa, H., Neville, B., Felice, A., Parascandalo, R., Zafeiriou, D. I., Arrabal-Fernandez, L., Dill, P., Eichler, F. S., Echenne, B., Gutierrez-Solana, L. G., Hoffmann, G. F., Hyland, K., Kusmierska, K., Tijssen, M. A., Lutz, T., Mazzuca, M., Penzien, J., Poll-The BT, Sykut-Cegielska, J., Szymanska, K., Thony, B., and Blau, N. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency: a treatable mimic of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:520-530. View abstract.
"Just that it is completely false that these particular substances and the program wasn't discussed through the highest levels of the club. We have been very firm in terms of our belief in what ASADA, the AFL and Essendon know and for them to remotely suggest that no one knew, to be really blunt, is completely wrong and in some ways offending the process we set up at Essendon Football Club. We were very strict in the protocols we set up."

Oxytocin is not only correlated with the preferences of individuals to associate with members of their own group, but it is also evident during conflicts between members of different groups. During conflict, individuals receiving nasally administered oxytocin demonstrate more frequent defense-motivated responses toward in-group members than out-group members. Further, oxytocin was correlated with participant desire to protect vulnerable in-group members, despite that individual's attachment to the conflict.[64] Similarly, it has been demonstrated that when oxytocin is administered, individuals alter their subjective preferences in order to align with in-group ideals over out-group ideals.[65] These studies demonstrate that oxytocin is associated with intergroup dynamics. Further, oxytocin influences the responses of individuals in a particular group to those of another group. The in-group bias is evident in smaller groups; however, it can also be extended to groups as large as one's entire country leading toward a tendency of strong national zeal. A study done in the Netherlands showed that oxytocin increased the in-group favoritism of their nation while decreasing acceptance of members of other ethnicities and foreigners.[66] People also show more affection for their country's flag while remaining indifferent to other cultural objects when exposed to oxytocin.[67] It has thus been hypothesized that this hormone may be a factor in xenophobic tendencies secondary to this effect. Thus, oxytocin appears to affect individuals at an international level where the in-group becomes a specific "home" country and the out-group grows to include all other countries.
PDGF-BB (Mustoe et al., 1994), FGF-2 (Inadomi et al., 2004), IGF I and II (Zhao et al., 1995), TGF-β (Greenalgh, 1996), and L-arginine (Shi et al., 2003) enhance fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen in chronic wounds. Thymosin β4 accelerates wound repair in both young and old diabetic mice by significantly increasing wound contraction and collagen deposition. A synthetic peptide that duplicated the actin-binding domain of thymosin β4 promoted wound repair in aged mice to a degree comparable to that of the whole molecule (Philp et al., 2003). In rats with wound healing impaired by mitomycin C, the formation of granulation tissue (angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation) was significantly advanced by hydrogel sheets composed of alginate, chitin/chitosan, and fucoidin (Murakami et al., 2010).
The pamphlet, titled "Melanotan-2: Safe enhanced tanning" says although the drug is not approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia's drug watchdog) and that studies into its effects are under way, it "is safe" and and its use "well documented". It says people can be referred to a "suitable doctor who is trained to prescribe MT2" so the pharmacy can dispense it to them.
Hi Ben..my question is this, I have a 9 year old german shepard..his back end is all of a sudden weak, where he will fall over,like he can’t hold himself up, I can see extreme weaknes inhis hide quarter.The vet has taken many x-rays and blood work, but all comes back perfect.Do you think this pepetide would help my dog?..he is 101 pounds, extremely strong, Walking is his issue, he can run like the wind, then he can fall over.Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Studies of oxytocin also have found that it is an important chemical messenger that controls some human behaviors and social interaction. It is oxytocin that triggers the bond between a mother and an infant, and it may also play a role in recognition, sexual arousal, trust, and anxiety. Some research shows that the hormone may affect addiction and stress as well.
This sounds very promising and I have a question I’m sure you haven’t heard before. It’s regarding healing. I’m about 230 and avid lifter as well as running occasionally. But I’ve had severe injuries to my l3-s1 for years a d yes I’ve tried some stuff before as far as lifting. But when I was 2 I had encephalitis. I survived it back in 74 which most didn’t however the treatment had left me with migraines and seizures as a child and was told my adult teeth would be very weak when they grew in. So I’m 44 and most of my teeth have broken and I’ve been looking for alternatives to implants. You said both the products mentioned in this article would improve healing and I’ve heard stem cells are capable of regrowing teeth. Would this work for me and how or where would I inject it or maybe do a oral form and let it sit in my mouth for a bit? Never really thought about this but I’ve tried so many clinical trials and been turned down each time. Any info would be greatly appreciated thank you in advance.
If you were to go on the internet, read the hype, you'd probably think it'll be something like having an ecstasy tablet or having an orgasm or something like that, but the reality is you probably wouldn't be able to distinguish it from placebo. So the effects are extremely subtle. Now, that subtlety isn't necessarily because of oxytocin itself being a subtle hormone, it's just this issue of it penetrating the brain. So when you take it intranasally, we're still trying to work out how much gets into the brain, but probably only a vanishingly small amount.
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
Oxytocin is known to be metabolized by the oxytocinase, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase.[25][26] Other oxytocinases are also known to exist.[25][27] Amastatin, bestatin (ubenimex), leupeptin, and puromycin have been found to inhibit the enzymatic degradation of oxytocin, though they also inhibit the degradation of various other peptides, such as vasopressin, met-enkephalin, and dynorphin A.[27][28][29][30]
Anxiety. Evidence on the effects of 5-HTP for anxiety is unclear. Early research shows that taking 25-150 mg of 5-HTP by mouth daily along with carbidopa seems to reduce anxiety symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. However, other early research shows that taking higher doses of 5-HTP, 225 mg daily or more, seems to make anxiety worse. Also, taking 60 mg of 5-HTP daily through the vein does not reduce anxiety in people with panic disorders.
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